Regular languages are formal languages which are recognized by a finite automaton. It is equivalently the languages which are expressible as a regular expression. In addition to these two, there are several other equivalent definitions.

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Concatenation of Finite Languages and Regular Languages

I know that the following statements regarding Concatenation are false. However, I'm having difficulty explaining why they are false with simple counter-examples. I'm able to find simple ...
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Is the intersection of a finite language and an infinite language always a regular language?

Is the intersection of a finite language $L_1$ and an infinite language $L_2$ always a regular language? I've tried a few examples and the result always seems regular. $\{\} \cap a^nb^n = \{\}$ ...
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If $L$ is context-free, then $L$ is regular

Let $L \subset \{a\}^*$ and assume that $L$ is context-free. Prove that $L$ is regular. Please hint me.
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Showing that language $L^{'}$ is regular given $L$ is regular [duplicate]

Say $L \subseteq \{a,b\}^*$ is a regular language with words whose length is divisible by 3. Each word $w \in L$ has the form $w=xyz$ with $|x|=|y|=|z|$, where $y$ is then called the middle third of ...
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Pumping Lemma for Regular Language (Is my answer correct)?

I've been working on understanding the Pumping Lemma for 2 days now and I feel like I may have finally got somewhere. I was hoping to show you guys a question and my working out and if you think i'm ...
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On the existence of a non-regular language $L$ such that $L^2\in \text{Reg}$?

Is there a non-regular language $L$ such that the language $L^2$ is regular? Nothing comes to my mind. What's your proposition ?
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Check if language and complement is context free

$L=\{u\$w^R|u,w\in \{a,b\}^+ \text{$w$ is prefix and suffix of $u$ }\}$ Check if language $L$ and $L^C$ is context free. L $a^*b^*\$a^*b^*\cap L = \{a^ib^j\$a^ib^j|i, j\ge 0\}\notin CFG$ So, $L$ is ...
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How many states (minimally) for an automaton recognizing the set of words without palindromic subwords on a $k$-letter alphabet?

Let $\Sigma_k = \{0,1,...,k\}$ and let $NPA_{k}$ be the set of words that do not contain a palindrom (of length $\ge 2$) as a subword. How many states (minimally) must have an automaton that ...
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Check if $L$ is regular then $L'$ is regular (and and vice versa)

let's define $w\leftrightarrow v$. It does mean that we may "create" $w$ using word $v$ in following way: every single letter $x\in \Sigma$ in word $v$ may be replaced by $xx$, and every double ...
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Are all finite languages regular?

I've been thinking about this for a while and still cannot come up with a way to show that all finite languages are regular. I know that all finite languages consist of finite number of strings that ...
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Is my LL(1) parse table correct?

I have the following Grammar: ...
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Prove the following language is not regular using pumping lemma.

Prove the following language is not regular using the pummping lemma $L = \{a^{n!} \mid n\geq0, n\in\ \mathbb{N} \}$. What I have done so far is: Assume $L$ is regular. So, there is a $DFA$ for $L$ ...
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Why are every finite language decidable?

I don't understand why every finite language is decidable. For example, if I have an infinite set of strings L over an alphabet E, why is there a Turing Machine M that decides L? I understand the ...
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Check if language $L^2$ is regular

$L=\{w|w\in\{0,1\}^*\wedge \#_1(w)=\#_2(w)\}$, where $\#_a(w)$ denotes number of symbol $a$ in word $w$. Check if $L^2$ is regular. So idea is: $L^2 \cap 0^*1^*0^*=\{0^n1^{2n}0^n|n\ge 0 \}\notin ...
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Constructing regular expressions for languages

I'm new to regular expressions and I'm currently working on some exercises to get familiar in constructing regular expressions for languages. I have the following languages, for which I already tried ...
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28 views

Graph and language/automaton equivalence

I'm looking for a reference rather than an answer. I think I'm just not Googling the right combination of terms. I imagine that there is a class of graphs which is equivalent to some class of ...
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Languages and their Regular Expressions - Automata

I am working on some Automata practice problems. I am working a 2 part question. Here it is: Let $\Sigma = \{a,b\}$ be an alphabet. Let $L = \left\{w \in \Sigma^* \mid n_a(w) \le 4\right\}$ ...
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Pumping Lemma proof and the union/intersection of regular and non-regular languages

I am still learning the pumping lemma. I have a problem for which I used it. I used it on the first part (a) but I am unsure if it is correct. Parts b-d, I am not sure how to do it. I created a dfa ...
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Using the Pumping Lemma To Prove A Language Is Not Regular

I am taking a Automata class and we just went over the Pumping Lemma. Initially, it did not make sense. I am still not fully comfortable but I have started trying to use it to prove that a language is ...
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17 views

Context Free Grammer (CFG) for a language

Consider the language above $\Sigma = \{a,b,\$\}$: $$L = \left\{ x$y : x,y\in\{a,b\}^* \land \left|x\right| \ne \left|y\right| \right\}$$ I need define a CFG for this language. I've tried couple of ...
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Prove that regular languages are closed under operation

Operation $random$ is defined on two words with equal length in the following way: $\forall w_1,w_2 \in \Sigma^* s.t. |w_1|=|w_2|=n, w_1=a_1a_2...a_n, w_2=b_1b_2...b_n:$ $Random(w_1,w_2) = ...
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49 views

Context-free languages closure property

Trying to rove that the set of all context-free languages over a language Σ is closed under TRIPLE where TRIPLE (L1, L2, L3) = L1L2L3. Pretty much, TRIPLE, applied to three languages yield the ...
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Pumping lemma and $L \subset \{a\}^*$

Let $L \subset \{a\}^*$ and $L$ satisfies pump lemma. Prove that $L$ is regular. Please help me. My an attempt: Definition. A language $L$ of $A^∗$ is recognized by a monoid $M$ if there is a ...
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What is $h^{-1}(L)$, for $L$ a regular language and $h$ a homomorphism?

Let $L = L((00 + 1)∗)$ and $h : \{a, b\}^* \to \{0, 1\}^*$ be defined by $h(a) = 01$ and $h(b) = 10$. What is $h^{−1}(L)$? In this context "$+$" means "$\cup$". So the language $L$ is all the ...
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$L$ is regular. Prove that $D(L)$ is also regular

I ask you for look at my solution: $L$ is regular. Prove that $D(L)=\{w|ww^R\in L, w\in\Sigma^*\}$ is also regular. Idea I go through states from two places (two fingers). When fingers meet in the ...
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Is this language context-free or not?

I have a problem to solve, the problem is: Is the language of strings $$L=\{0^x1^y:x\nmid y\}$$ context free? I suspect it isn't, I spent some time trying to make a grammar that could ...
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Proving regular languages

I am given the language L = {a,b}* and a/L = { w ∈ {a,b}* | aw ∈ L }. I am trying to prove that that if L is regular so is a/L. My approach so far is the prove that L is regular (using pumping lemma) ...
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Repeated rules in Chomsky normal form

My question is simple, when you're converting a grammar to CNF, what happens when a rule begins to repeat multiple times? ¿It's good to end with rules like $U_1 \rightarrow SB, U_2 \rightarrow SB, ...
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Prove a language isn't regular using Myhill-Nerode thm.

Let $L$, a language above $\Sigma = \{x,y, (,),+,* \}$. $L$ can be defined recursively as follows: Basis Clause: $x$ and $y$ are in $L$. Inductive Clause: If $\alpha$ and $\beta$ are in $L$, then ...
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Explaining Ultimate Periodicity.

I'm revising for an exam and I've stumbled by Ultimate Periodicity. The exercise is: Prove that $A = \left\{ a^{n^2} \mid n \in \Bbb{N} \right\}$ isn't regular. Can someone explain how we get ...
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Proving that $L^*$ is regular if $L$ is

I know that if $L\in REG$ then you can build an automata that accepts $L^*$, but I was wondering if my approach is also good. I thought about showing that $$L^*=\{\epsilon\} \cup \bigcup_{n\in ...
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Creating a language

I am given a list languages, say $L$, over alphabet $\{a,b\}$. A function $f$ is defined such that $f(i) = L$ for $i ∈ N$. I am trying to a construct a language $D$ which is not in the list (aka. $D ...
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Proving with pumping lemma

I am trying to prove that the follow language is not regular L = {w ∈ {0, 1}∗ | the number of 1s in w is one more than the number of 0s} My approach was to prove that it is regular and prove by ...
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proof with using pumping lemma

$L=\{0^n\#0^{2n}\mid n\ge 0\}$ Show that this language is iiregular. And now: Let $p$ will be length of pumping lemma. Given $w=0^p\#0^{2p}=xyz\in L$ such that. Becaues of the fact that $|xy|\le p$ ...
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A Regular Expression for all strings that…

I got a problem I have to solve, the problem says that given an alphabet $\Sigma = \{a, b, c\}$ I have to build a regular expression that describes the string with: An even number of a's. A 4k + 1 ...
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Is it possible to write an Unambiguous Grammar for Two Hard Language ?!?

I came across a very hard interview exam. It was asked wrote an unambiguous grammar for two following language, Who can hint it to solve it? 1) $L = \{a^n b^{2n} c: n\geq 0\} \cup \{a^{2n} b^n d: ...
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Regular expression. Proof.

Let $A = \{a,b,c\} $ be an alphabet. Let $\alpha $ be a regular expression. And: $$ 1) \epsilon \in \alpha \\ 2) a\alpha \subset \alpha \\ 3) b\alpha \subset \alpha $$ Prove, that: $$(a+b)^* \subset ...
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How to prove the language of all binary numbers that are prime is nonregular using pumping lemma?

How to prove the language of all binary numbers that are prime is not regular using pumping lemma? I have seen Can an infinite set of primes be a regular language or CFG? We have not studied the ...
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Non regular language that satisfies pumping lemma

Let $$L = \{ ww^rx \mid w,x \in \{a,b \}^+\} $$ where $\{a,b\}^+$ means the set of words over $\{a,b \}$ that has at least length 1, and $w^r$ is the reverse of $w$. I'm trying to prove that this ...
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Show that language $L'$ is regular given $L$ is regular

I show you some solution and I ask you for looking at it. $L'=\{y|\exists_{z,x} xyz\in L\wedge |x|=|y|=|z|\}$ Automaton for language $L$: $M=(Q,\Sigma, \delta, q_0, F)$ For language $L':$ $M'=(Q', ...
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Understanding pumping lemma - length $p$ - in connection with other thread

I create this thread in connection with Is the following language $L$ regular? I would like to show you why I dont understand where I am wrong. I would like to ask question: $p$ - length of pumping ...
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Trouble with induction on the length of a word

In the accepted solution of the question If L is regular, prove that $\sqrt{L}=\{w:ww\in L\}$ is regular the answerer made the claim that "What's left is to show that $δ ′ (q_{0}' ,w)=h$ , which can ...
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Language with error.

Let $L \subset \{0, 1\}^∗$ be regular language. $$L_e = \{ w | w = uxv, x \in \{0, 1\}, u\overline{x}v \in L\}$$, where $\overline{x} = 1 − x$ Prove $L_e$ is regular language. For example: If $10 ...
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construction for proof of regularity of language

$L$ is regular. $L'=\{vw:v\in L, w\notin L\}$ Show that $L'$ is regular. I ask you for controlling my construction: $M=(Q,\Sigma,\delta, q_0,F)$ for $L$ $M'=(Q,\Sigma,\delta', (q_0, F') $ ...
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1answer
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$L$ is regular. Show that $Root(L) $ is also regular

Let $Root(L)=\{w \mid \exists {n\in \mathbb{N}} \text{ such that } w^n\in L\}$. How to deal with it ? I tried think about modifications connected with automat for $L$, but it failed. Help me, please.
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show that language $L'$ is regular (given $L$ regular)

Let $L$ be a regular language. Show that $L'=\{x \mid\exists_{y,z} xyz\in L \text{ and }|x|=|y|=|z|\}$ is also regular. Firstly I show my idea. When you accept it I will try to formalize it. Every ...
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Regular language. Proof

Let $L$ be regular language over $\{0,1\}$. Prove that $L'$ is also regular: $$L' = \{ w | w \in L \mbox{ and among words of length |w|, w is the least in lexicographic order.} \}$$ To explain, for ...
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Is it true that if $Cycle(L)=\{uv:vu\in L\}$ is regular then $L$ is regular [closed]

Is it true that if $Cycle(L)=\{uv:vu\in L\}$ is regular then $L$ is regular ? Any clues ?
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Difference between regular and not regular languages

I don't understand the difference, in classes I've seen the pumping lemma for regular languages and I know how to apply it to demonstrate whether a language is regular or not, but I feel that I don't ...
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construct automat for language $Cycle(L)$

We have automat $A$ for language $L$. Construct automat for $Cycle(L)$ where $Cycle(L)=\{uv:vu\in L\}$. I have a problem with this exercise. Help me, please. Edit $A = (Q_A, \Sigma, \delta, q_0, ...