This tag is for questions seeking external references (books, articles, etc.) about a particular subject. Please do not use this as the only tag for a question.

learn more… | top users | synonyms (3)

55
votes
0answers
2k views

Continuous projections in $\ell_1$ with norm $>1$

I was trying to find papers and articles about non-contractive continuous projections in $\ell_1(S)$ where $S$ is an arbitrary set. If it is not studied yet, I would like to know results for the case ...
41
votes
0answers
1k views

When is an infinite product of natural numbers regularizable?

I only recently heard about the concept of $\zeta$-regularization, which allows the evaluation of things like $$\infty != \prod_{k=1}^\infty k = \sqrt{2\pi}$$ and $$\infty \# = \prod_{k=1}^\infty ...
23
votes
0answers
252 views

References on the theory of $2$-groups.

Many theorems about odd order $p$-groups fail miserably for $2$-groups. These can range from simple $2$-group exceptions (e.g. Frobenius complements can be either cyclic or generalized quaternion) to ...
23
votes
0answers
477 views

Dedekind Sum Congruences

For $a,b,c \in \mathbb{N}$, let $a^{\prime} = \gcd(b,c)$, $b^{\prime} = \gcd(a,c)$, $c^{\prime} = \gcd(a,b)$ and $d = a^{\prime} b^{\prime} c^{\prime}$. Define $\mathfrak{S}(a,b,c) = a^{\prime} ...
21
votes
0answers
3k views

GRE past papers

As it is required for most students who wish to do a Ph.D in maths in the US to sit the GRE subject specific mathematics exam, I hope this question will be of interest to the mathematical community ...
18
votes
0answers
259 views

Is there a proof of Bézout's theorem via residue theory?

Let's define intersection numbers as follows. Consider a collection $f_1,\dots, f_n$ of holomorphic functions on some neighborhood of zero in $\mathbb C^N$ cutting out divisors $D_1$, all of which ...
17
votes
0answers
536 views

Normalizers of automorphism groups

In abstract groups $\Gamma$ the normalizer $N_\Gamma(S)$ of a subset $S\subseteq\Gamma$ is the subgroup of all $x \in \Gamma$ that commute with $S$, i.e. $xS = Sx$, i.e. $x\ y\ x^{-1} \in S $ for all ...
16
votes
0answers
88 views

Analogue of Dirichlet $L$-function for $\mathbb{F}_q[T]$.

We consider an analogue of the Dirichlet $L$-function in $\mathbb{F}_q[T]$. Let $g \in \mathbb{F}_q[T]$, $g \neq 0$, let $\chi: (\mathbb{F}_q[T]/(g))^\times \to \mathbb{C}^\times$ be a homomorphism, ...
15
votes
0answers
292 views

Is there a “ping-pong lemma proof” that $\langle x \mapsto x+1,x \mapsto x^3 \rangle$ is a free group of rank 2?

Let $f,g: \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ be the permutations defined by $f: x \mapsto x+1$ and $g: x \mapsto x^3$, or maybe even have $g:x \mapsto x^p$, $p$ an odd prime. In the book, by Pierre de la ...
15
votes
0answers
211 views

Fundamental domain of $\operatorname{GL}(n,\mathbb R)$ acted on by $\operatorname{GL}(n, \mathbb Z)$

What is a simple description of a fundamental domain of $\operatorname{GL}(n,\mathbb R)$ acted on by $\operatorname{GL}(n,\mathbb Z)$? $\operatorname{GL}(n,\mathbb R)$ is the group of all real ...
12
votes
0answers
293 views

Exercise in Engelking's book regarding a disconnected space.

This is related to 6.3.24 in Engelking's Topology book. The Hilbert space $H$ is the set of sequences $(x_i) \in \mathbb R ^\omega$ such that $\|x\|=\sum _{i=1} ^\infty x_i ^2<\infty$, with ...
12
votes
0answers
129 views

Level sets of solution to Nonlinear PDE

I work on Stochastic Control theory and BSDE's for my research. In my research, I characterized the set I am interested in as the level set of a function which is a viscosity solution to nonlinear PDE ...
12
votes
0answers
280 views

Textbooks on higher category theory

What textbooks on higher category theory are there? What books do you recommend? I am looking for self-contained introductions, no research reports. There are lots of informal summaries and arXiv ...
12
votes
0answers
190 views

References on filter quantifiers

This post is primarily a reference request. In combinatorics and other areas, we use filter quantifiers to simplify the statements of various definitions, theorems and proofs. The general idea is ...
12
votes
0answers
372 views

Analysis of the function $\prod_{n=-\infty}^{ \infty }(1-e^{-a{(x+n)^2} })$

While playing on pruduct series, I noticed interesting function that it has similar behavior to $C\cdot\sin^2(\pi x)$ function . I need help about some results below. ...
12
votes
0answers
145 views

How to name these “ideals”?

Background. Let $\mathcal{C}$ be a symmetric monoidal category with unit $\mathbf{1}$. A subobject of $\mathbf{1}$ is just a monomorphism $I \to \mathbf{1}$. We may also call this an ideal of ...
12
votes
0answers
155 views

Size of connected regions on a randomly-colored infinite chessboard

Consider an infinite chessboard where each square is colored white with probability $p$ and black with probability $1-p$. Suppose without loss of generality that the square at $(0,0)$ is white. We ...
11
votes
0answers
92 views

References about Iterating integration, $\int_{a_0}^{\int_{a_1}^\vdots I_1dx}I_0\,dx$

Are there any references that discuss Iterating integration in general, $\int_{a_0}^{\int_{a_1}^\vdots I_1dx}I_0\,dx$, conditions in which they converge, some special values, some special tricks to ...
11
votes
0answers
127 views

Getting the most general form of Mayer-Vietoris from the axioms of homology

I'd like to derive the most general form of the Mayer-Vietoris sequence from the Eilenberg-Steenrod axioms for homology (in particular: I do not want to use the definition of $H_\ast(X)$ in terms of ...
11
votes
0answers
240 views

If $a^n-1$ divides $b^n-1$ too often, then $b=a^k$

I am looking for references to the following problem, which I saw a long time ago and I think is a well-known problem (maybe from IMO or American Mathematical Monthly), I hope to remember it ...
11
votes
0answers
236 views

Irreducibility of cyclotomic polynomials via schemes

A few months ago, someone told me there existed a scheme theoretic proof of the irreducibility of cyclotomic polynomials. I've tried coming up with a proof, and when that didn't really yield anything ...
11
votes
0answers
204 views

Reference on standard types

This question is about what I presume is a basic construction in type theory. The finite types are defined as follows: 0 is a finite type; if $\sigma, \tau$ are finite types, then so is ...
11
votes
0answers
285 views

Measure-driven differential equations

Background: I need some help to understand the concept behind measure-driven differential equations. The solution of an ordinary differential equation is continuous. In order to describe discontinuous ...
11
votes
0answers
249 views

What are D-branes (in a topological field theory)?

In the past couple years, I've read many words pertaining to D-branes without feeling I have really comprehended them. In broad terms, I think I get what they're about: They're supposed to serve as ...
10
votes
0answers
93 views

Category Theory Zoo

There are a few very useful websites when it comes to either finding a specific object with certain properties (and maybe lacking other properties) or finding out which properties a certain object ...
10
votes
0answers
86 views

Good text to start studying topological games?

Topological games and some similar infinite games seem to be often used used as a tool in some areas of general topology, but also some other areas, such as Ramsey theory, filters, etc. Probably the ...
10
votes
0answers
116 views

Looking for references related to an inequality in order statistics

I was reading the paper "on the minimum of several random variables". In example 10 item (ii) it states: Let $1\leq k\leq n$. Let $g_i,i\leq n$, be independent $N(0,1)$ Gaussian random variables. ...
10
votes
0answers
390 views

Nonabelian global symmetries, $SO(N)$ symmetric theory of $N$ scalar fields.

Consider an $SO(N)$ symmetric theory of $N$ real scalar fields,$$\mathcal{L} = {1\over2} \partial_\mu \Phi^a \partial^\mu \Phi^a - {1\over2} m^2 \Phi^a \Phi^a - {1\over4} \lambda (\Phi^a ...
10
votes
0answers
155 views

To whom is the proof that $A_n$ is simple for $n\geqslant 5$ due, in Rotman's book?

The proof in Rotman's book, Introduction to the Theory of Groups, that $A_n$ is simple consists of the observation that $A_n$ is generated by the $3$-cycles, and hence that if a normal subgroup $H\lhd ...
10
votes
0answers
540 views

Question regarding the Kolmogorov-Riesz theorem on relatively compact subsets of $L^p(\Omega)$.

Usually, the Kolmogorov-Riesz theorem is quoted for $L^p(\mathbb R^n)$, but I am looking for versions considering spaces over subsets in $\mathbb R^n$. The following is from the book "Sobolev spaces" ...
10
votes
0answers
322 views

Maximal ideal space of $C^*$-algebra of Riemann integrable functions

Let $R([0,1])$ be the unital commutative $C^*$-algebra of complex valued Riemann integrable functions on $[0,1]$ with pointwise operations and the supremum norm. In the 1980 paper The Gelfand space ...
9
votes
0answers
149 views

Algebraic methods to compute the cohomology ring of the complex topology of a variety?

Suppose $V$ is an affine (resp. projective) subvariety of the affine (resp. projective) space $\mathbb A_\mathbb C^n$ (resp. $\mathbb P_\mathbb C^n$) with vanishing ideal $I\subseteq\mathbb ...
9
votes
0answers
105 views

Classification of all subrings

Let $R$ be an integral domain whose underlying additive group is finitely generated free and whose field of fractions $K$ is a finite Galois extension of $\mathbb{Q}$. Is there a method of ...
9
votes
0answers
83 views

The least subset of $\mathbb{R}_{>0}$ that includes $1$, and is closed under addition, multiplication, reciprocation, and exponentiation.

Let $S$ denote the least subset of $\mathbb{R}_{>0}$ that includes $1$, and is closed under addition, multiplication, reciprocation, and the function $x,y \in \mathbb{R}_{>0} \mapsto x^y.$ ...
9
votes
0answers
248 views

Representation theory of the general linear group over a finite prime field

The irreducible modules of $\operatorname{GL}_n(\mathbb C)$ over $\mathbb C$ are completely classified and well-understood via Schur-Weyl duality, the algebraic Peter-Weyl theorem and the entire ...
9
votes
0answers
159 views

Recurrence relations with multiple roots of auxiliary equation

Suppose we have a homogeneous linear recurrence relation of the form $$u_{n+r}+a_1u_{n+r-1}+\dots +a_ru_n=0$$ The auxiliary equation is then $$f(x)=x^r+a_1x^{r-1}+\dots +a_r=0$$ It is well known that ...
9
votes
0answers
155 views

Elementary references on Robinson Arithmetic, Prim. Recursive fns etc.

I'm in the middle of revising my freely available and much-downloaded introductory notes Gödel Without (Too Many) Tears. (They are a sort of cut down version of part of my Gödel book, and I'm ...
9
votes
0answers
82 views

What can we learn about a magma by studying these monoids?

Given a magma $(X,*)$, we get three monoids in the following way. First, define a pair of functions $L,R : X \rightarrow (X \rightarrow X).$ $$(Lx)(y) = x*y,\quad (Rx)(y) = y*x$$ Then each of the ...
9
votes
0answers
369 views

Is there an elementary introduction to higher order functions?

I am teaching a pre-calculus course (using the textbook by Michael Sullivan if it helps), and I realized that higher order functions seem to show up in with some frequency in pre-calculus and ...
8
votes
0answers
72 views

Topology: reference for “Great Wheel of Compactness”

This seems to be a very informative diagram showing the relationship between four forms of compactness in a general topological space. Prior to finding this I was trying to make sense of a seemingly ...
8
votes
0answers
122 views

Mean value operator on Riemannian manifold

Let $(M,g)$ a Riemannian manifold. Further $M$ should be a harmonic space, that is $M$ is a symmetric and simply connected space of rank 1. (Example: Spheres $S^n$) Consider the mean value operator, ...
8
votes
0answers
90 views

What's Griffiths' ampleness in modern language?

When reading Griffiths' paper "Hermitian differential geometry, Chern classes and positive vector bundles", I found his definition of ampleness: Let $X$ be a compact complex manifold, $E\to X$ a ...
8
votes
0answers
279 views

A question on popularization of math: inspiring the beauty of mathematics while making New Year's wishes

Many fellow students of mine today shared by various means the following picture: . I was told that this picture is supposed to communicate the beauty of math in a funny way, but I really can't ...
8
votes
0answers
205 views

A More Advanced Version Of Aluffi

Paulo Aluffi's Book, Algebra, Chapter 0 aims to teach basic algebra from a categorical viewpoint. The first chapters of the book, however, introduce groups and rings using very basic categorical ...
8
votes
0answers
179 views

Sampling theorem.

Let us consider \begin{equation} \hat{f}(x)=\sum_{n\in \mathbb Z}\left\langle\hat{f},e^{i n x}\right\rangle_{L^2[-\pi,\pi]} e^{i n x} \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (1) \end{equation} where $\langle g, ...
8
votes
0answers
99 views

Reference request on the occasion of Maria Agnesi's birthday

Today's Google doodle on google.co.uk, google.de, google.it, google.fr, google.ch, google.at and probably several others but not on google.com celebrates Maria Gaetana Agnesi, whose birthday is today. ...
8
votes
0answers
268 views

Matrix diagonalization theorems and counterexamples: reference-request.

I'm looking for exhaustive list of diagonalization theorems and counterexamples in linear algebra. In this question I understand the question of matrix diagonalization very broadly: suppose we have ...
8
votes
0answers
313 views

Proving equivalence of a tree-based version of Countable Choice for families of finite sets.

In this paper by Good and Tree, the following result is mentioned without proof as part of Proposition 6.5: Each of the following statements imply those beneath it. The countable union of ...
8
votes
0answers
172 views

Where to go after _To Mock A Mockingbird_?

So long ago I read Raymond Smullyan's delightful To Mock A Mockingbird, a gentle introduction to combinatory logic (representing combinators as 'birds' singing back and forth to each other). I fell ...
8
votes
0answers
338 views

A few standard results (on metrizability and relative separation strength) without choice?

I've been going back over some results from Munkres's Topology, and I'm curious about some things.... I know that Choice principles have some connection to the separation axioms (in ZF, at ...