# Tagged Questions

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### How to use this book?

I have downloaded this book : "An introduction to the theory of numbers" by G. H. Hardy. Its only theorems without any problem. If you know other self study math books tell me.
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### Equidistribution of lattice points on spheres in dimensions $d \ge 4$ (Pommerenke's theorem)

I am looking for either an English translation of: Pommerenke, C.: Über die Gleichverteilung von Gitterpunkten auf m-dimensionalen Ellipsoiden. Acta Arith. 5, 227-257 (1959) Or a reference in ...
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### Where can i find resourses to study this algebraic number theory?

Where can i find material to study depper the farey fractions (continued fractions)? I triying to solve problems like these: 1.- Show that two consecutive convergent at least one of them satisfy: ...
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### Textbook for graduate number theory

I am attending a graduate number theory, the professor did not assign any textbook. The materials are somewhere along the advanced/algebraic level such as Ring of Gaussian Integers, Quadratic Number ...
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### Asymptotics for Mertens function

It seems that the cumulative mean of the Mertens function is very similar in behaviour to $x$ raised to the power of the first zeta zero. I tentatively notate it as: ...
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### On prime factors of $n^2+1$

It is a well-known conjecture that there are infinitely many primes of the form $n^2+1$. However, there are weaker results that one can prove. For example, There are infinitely many positive ...
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### More contemporary resource for Greenberg

Is there a more modern textbook than Greenberg's forms in many variables, or a set of notes, that summarizes the developments about $C_i$ fields? Is there such a thing as $C_i$ field where $i$ is not ...
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### Goldbach's conjecture

Just wanted to know if anybody has come close to solving the Goldbach's conjecture problem ? I have seen some videos on youtube where interesting geometric patterns have been found. Anybody here ...
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### collatz conjecture $\mod 2^n$ stopping distance

an interesting book Old and new unsolved problems in plane geometry and number theory by Klee/Wagon (1991) includes the Collatz conjecture. on p225 they consider iterates $\mod 2^n$ and state that ...
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### software for rational points on quartic plane curves

Faltings' theorem tells us the number of rational points on a smooth quartic plane curve is finite. Question: Is there any software for computing all the rational points over $\mathbb{Q}$ on a given ...
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I'm in Grade 11. I'm interested in elementary number theory and would like properly study it. I'm not intending to enter any competitions.
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### Are most numbers of the form $a\cdot b^n+c$ composite?

It seems evident that for $a,b,c$ with $a>0$ and $b>1$ that there are only $o(x)$ primes of the form $a\cdot b^n+c$ with $n\le x.$ Has this been proven? Hooley (Applications of Sieves to the ...
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### Are differences between powers of 2 equal to differences between powers of 3 infinitely often?

Consider the equation $2^a-2^b=3^c-3^d$ where $a>b>0$, $c>d>0$, and $a,b,c,d$ are all integers. A computer search for solutions with $a,c\le20$ only finds 8-2=9-3, 32-8=27-3, and ...
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### Totient summatory function

Let $\Phi(n) = \sum_{k=1}^n \phi(k)$ be the totient summatory function. Here is an interesting conjecture I've made: The ratio $\Phi(n^2)/\Phi(n)$ is an integer only for $n=1,2,3,5$ and $6$. I made a ...
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I am a high school student and would like to pursue a career in mathematics and I am hoping to find a serious explanatory book on math (geometry, algebra, calculus, functions and trigonometry) for ...
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### What should be taught about the reciprocity law for high school gifted student

This autumn I have to teach a mini course for a small group of high school student (mathematical gifted class) on Quadratic Reciprocity Law (3 lectures in ten hours). This is the requirement of the ...
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### percentage of numbers starting with $2$ in $\{2^n\}$

I have once heard a professor telling (during a course on Fourier theory) that there is a way to determine the numbers starting with a $2$ in the sequence $\{2^n\colon n\in\mathbb{N}\}$. I asked him ...
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### Does there exist a branch of mathematics that specifically study the number of lattices enclosed by a region?

I have seen that sometimes, in particular in number theory and combinatorial commutative algebra, our questions are somehow related to finding the number of points with integer components in a ...
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### What is the well-known result used to prove primality of $n=2pq+1$ under certain conditions?

On Henri Lifchitz's website, we find: If $n=2pq+1$, $p$ and $q$ primes and $q>2p$, if there is an integer $a$ such $a^{n-1} \equiv 1 \pmod n$ and $\gcd(a^{2p}-1,n)=1$ then $n$ is prime. It is ...
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### The book “Opera De Cribro” by John Friedlander and Henryk Iwaniec

John Friedlander and Henryk Iwaniec wrote a book Opera De Cribro. How about this book? What's the meaning of its title? A number theory book with such a title seems odd. p.s. I have no way to ...
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### On Bachet's Duplication Formula and the number $-432$

While reading "Rational Points on Elliptic Curves" by Silverman and Tate, I came across this interesting passage about Bachet's duplication formula: I know how to derive Bachet's duplication ...
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### (Reference Request) Canonical forms for Real and Complex binary forms of low degree.

I am asking for a reference for Canonical forms for Real (and Complex) binary forms of low degree with respect to the natural action of the Real (and Complex) special linear group $SL_{n}(\mathbb{R})$ ...
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### Linear independence of the numbers $\{1,\pi,{\pi}^2\}$

Does someone know a proof that $\{1,\pi,{\pi}^2\}$ is linearly independent over $\mathbb{Q}$ ? The proof should not use that $\pi$ is transcendental. $\{1,e,e^2,e^3\}$ is linearly independent over ...
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### Linear independence of the numbers $\{1,e,e^2,e^3\}$

Does someone know a proof that $\{1,e,e^2,e^3\}$ is linearly independent over $\mathbb{Q}$? The proof should not use that $e$ is transcendental. $e:$ Euler's number $\{1,e,e^2\}$ is linearly ...
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### Expressing integers as a sum of squares

There have been many results about the number of squares needed to represent a positive integer. Lagrange's four-square theorem tells us that $4$ squares suffice for any integer and there have been ...
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### Characterization of integers which has a $2$-adic square root

Does anyone know an "elementary" proof of the following theorem? Let $k \neq 0$ be a rational integer. Then $k$ admits a square root in $\mathbb{Z}_2$ if $k = 4^a (8b+1)$ for some $a \in \mathbb{N}$, ...
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### Proof of $\pi$ not being a quadratic irrational number.

Does someone know a proof (books , articles) that $\pi$ is not a quadratic irrational? The proof should not use that $\pi$ is transcendental. Any hints would be appreciated.
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### The structure of $(\mathbb Z/525\mathbb Z)^\times$

I am working on the following problem. Find the number of the elements of order 4 in $(\mathbb Z/525\mathbb Z)^\times$. I tried to solve it in the following way: since $525=3\cdot5^2\cdot7$, we ...
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### Gelfond-Schneider Constant $2^{\sqrt{2}}$

Someone knows a proof (books , articles) that $2^{\sqrt{2}}$ is irrational ? Without using that $2^{\sqrt{2}}$ is transcendent. Any hints would be appreciated.
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### Ramification in the ring of all algebraic integers

If $F$ is a finite extension of $\mathbb{Q}$ then its of integers $R$ is a Dedekind domain, and has unique factorization of ideals into powers of prime ideals. For each prime number $\ell$, you can ...
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### Twist of elliptic curve

It is continuation of this question: explict form of the equation of elliptic curve Let $p$ is prime and $p = 3 ($mod $4)$. $q = p^n$. It is easy to see that $E: y^2 = x^3 + x$ has $1 \pm 2q + q^2$ ...
A lattice in $\mathbb{R}^n$ is a discrete subgroup that spans $\mathbb{R}^n$. Recently I've been running into a similar sort of object consisting of more than $n$ vectors in $\mathbb{R}^n$ and their ...
### To generalize of Fermat's Last theorem, to find the solution of $a^n+b^n+c^n = d^n$
The Fermat's Last Theorem was proved by Andrew Wiles in 1995. It states that no three positive integers $x$, $y$, and $z$ can satisfy the equation $x^n+y^n= z^n$ for any integer value of $n$ greater ...