Questions regarding functions defined recursively, such as the Fibonacci sequence.

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2
votes
1answer
793 views

Solving a recurrence relation with the characteristic equation

I have some trouble solving this due to not seeing the steps to be able to feed it into the characteristic equation. $$T(n) = 4T(n-2) +n + 2^nn^2\ \text{with}\ \ T(0)=0,\ T(1)=1$$ (don't have to ...
3
votes
3answers
2k views

I have a problem understanding the proof of Rencontres numbers (Derangements)

I understand the whole concept of Rencontres numbers but I can't understand how to prove this equation $$D_{n,0}=\left[\frac{n!}{e}\right]$$ where $[\cdot]$ denotes the rounding function (i.e., ...
13
votes
6answers
1k views

How to solve this recurrence relation? $f_n = 3f_{n-1} + 12(-1)^n$

How to solve this particular recurrence relation ? $$f_n = 3f_{n-1} + 12(-1)^n,\quad f_1 = 0$$ such that $f_2 = 12, f_3 = 24$ and so on. I tried out a lot but due to $(-1)^n$ I am not able to ...
1
vote
4answers
374 views

Solving a recurrence of polynomials

I am wondering how to solve a recurrence of this type $$p_1(x) = x$$ $$p_2(x) = 1-x^2$$ and $$p_{n+2}(x) = -xp_{n+1}(x)+p_{n}(x).$$ I am wondering, how could one solve such a recurrence. One way ...
17
votes
5answers
936 views

Find a closed form for this sequence: $a_{n+1} = a_n + a_n^{-1}$

Today, we had a math class, where we had to show, that $a_{100} > 14$ for $$a_0 = 1;\qquad a_{n+1} = a_n + a_n^{-1}$$ Apart from this task, I asked my self: Is there a closed form for this ...
7
votes
4answers
3k views

How to find the closed form formula for this recurrence relation

$ x_{0} = 5 $ $ x_{n} = 2x_{n-1} + 9(5^{n-1})$ I have computed: $x_{0} = 5, x_{1} = 19, x_{2} = 83, x_{3} = 391, x_{4} = 1907$, but cannot see any pattern for the general $n^{th}$ term.
6
votes
2answers
324 views

unorthodox solution of a special case of the master theorem

I am asking for references regarding a special case of the master theorem. This theorem seems to appear quite a lot on this site, prompting me to study it in more detail, e.g. see my posts here and ...
4
votes
2answers
140 views

recurrence relation $f(n)=5f(n/2)-6f(n/4) + n$

I've been trying to solve this recurrence relation for a week, but I haven't come up with a solution. $f(n)=5f(n/2)-6f(n/4) + n$ Solve this recurrence relation for $f(1)=2$ and $f(2)=1$ At first ...
3
votes
3answers
145 views

Recurrence relation by substitution

I have an exercise where I need to prove by using the substitution method the following $$T(n) = 4T(n/3)+n = \Theta(n^{\log_3 4})$$ using as guess like the one below will fail, I cannot see why, ...
2
votes
1answer
616 views

Recurrence relation, Fibonacci numbers

$(a)$ Consider the recurrence relation $a_{n+2}a_n = a^2 _{n+1} + 2$ with $a_1 = a_2 = 1$. $(i)$ Assume that all $a_n$ are integers. Prove that they are all odd and the integers $a_n$ and $a_{n+1}$ ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Fibonacci, tribonacci and other similar sequences

I know the sequence called the Fibonacci sequence; it's defined like: $\begin{align*} F_0&=0\\ F_1&=1\\ F_2&=F_0+F_1\\ &\vdots\\ Fn&=F_{n-1} + F_{n-2}\end{align*}$ And we ...
2
votes
4answers
339 views

can one derive the $n^{th}$ term for the series, $u_{n+1}=2u_{n}+1$,$u_{0}=0$, $n$ is a non-negative integer

derive the $n^{th}$ term for the series $0,1,3,7,15,31,63,127,255,\ldots$ observation gives, $t_{n}=2^n-1$, where $n$ is a non-negative integer $t_{0}=0$
7
votes
3answers
1k views

Solving a Recurrence Relation/Equation, is there more than 1 way to solve this?

1) Solve the recurrence relation $$T(n)=\begin{cases} 2T(n-1)+1,&\text{if }n>1\\ 1,&\text{if }n=1\;. \end{cases}$$ 2) Name a problem that also has such a recurrence relation. The ...
14
votes
2answers
933 views

Explicit formula for Bernoulli numbers by using only the recurrence relation

It is not hard to show, by induction on $m\in\mathbb N$, that there exist a sequence $(B_n)_{n\geq0}$ of rational numbers such that ...
7
votes
5answers
452 views

How does one find a formula for the recurrence relation $a_{1}=1,a_{2}=3, a_{n+2}=a_{n+1}+a_{n}?$

I am self-studying Discrete Mathematics, and I have two exercises to solve. Find a formula for the following recurrence relation: (translated from Portuguese) a) $a_{1}=3,a_{2}=5, ...
2
votes
1answer
230 views
1
vote
1answer
193 views

Establishing formula from recurrence

Can anyone tell me how do we establish a formula from a given recurrence relation? Take the example of $f(n) = 2f(n-1) + 1$, $n \in \mathbb{Z^+}$, $f(1) = 1$ When I write out the first few values, it ...
3
votes
2answers
334 views

We define a sequence of rational numbers {$a_n$} by putting $a_1=3$ and $a_{n+1}=4-\frac{2}{a_n}$ for all natural numbers. Put $\alpha = 2 + \sqrt{2}$

We define a sequence of rational numbers {$a_n$} by putting $a_1=3$ and $a_{n+1}=4-\frac{2}{a_n}$ for all $n \in \mathbb N$. Put $\alpha = 2 + \sqrt{2}$ (a) Prove by induction on n, that $3 \le a_n ...
1
vote
2answers
122 views

Solving the recurrence $T(n) = 2T\left(\frac{n}{2}\right) + \frac{n}{2}\log(n)$

Please help me solve the recurrence $$ T(n) = 2T\left(\frac{n}{2}\right) + \frac{n}{2}\log(n) $$
50
votes
3answers
944 views

How prove this nice limit $\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{a_{n}}{n}=\frac{12}{\log{432}}$

Nice problem: Let $a_{0}=1$ and $$a_{n}=a_{\left\lfloor n/2\right\rfloor}+a_{\left\lfloor n/3 \right\rfloor}+a_{\left\lfloor n/6\right\rfloor}.$$ Show that ...
13
votes
3answers
193 views

For $x_{n+1}=x_n^2-2$, show $\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{x_n}{x_0x_1\cdots x_{n-1}}=2$

Suppose $x_0:=2\sqrt{2}$ and $x_{n+1}=x_n^2-2$ for $n\ge1$. We have to show $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{x_n}{x_0x_1\cdots x_{n-1}}=2$$ Establishing convergence is pretty direct but I'm having trouble ...
13
votes
5answers
402 views

Solve the sequence : $u_n = 1-(\frac{u_1}{n} + \frac{u_2}{n-1} + \ldots + \frac{u_{n-1}}{2})$

For a physical model I am trying to solve this sequence: $$\begin{align*} u_1 &= 1 \\ u_2 &= 1-\left(\frac{u_1}{2}\right) \\ u_3 &= 1-\left(\frac{u_1}{3} + \frac{u_2}{2}\right) \\ u_4 ...
6
votes
2answers
830 views

Proof of clockwise towers of Hanoi variant recursive solution

This is from one of the exercises in "Concrete Mathematics", and is something I'm doing privately, not homework. This is a variant on the classic towers of Hanoi, where all moves must be made ...
1
vote
1answer
172 views

An issue with approximations of a recurrence sequence

By trying to give an approximation to a given recurrence sequence I encountered a problem. To be more precise I have a method but it fails if the right condition is not met and I wonder how I should ...
3
votes
3answers
451 views

expansion of $\cos^k(\theta)$

Does any body know a expansion of : $\cos^k(\theta)$ in function of $\cos$ and/or $\sin$ but without power? For example : $\cos^2(\theta)=\frac{1}{2}(\cos(2\theta)+1)$, but i would want a ...
5
votes
3answers
120 views

How to solve this recurrence $T(n)=2T(n/2)+n/\log n$

How can I solve the recurrence relation $$T(n)=2T\left(\frac n2\right)+\frac{n}{\log n}$$? I am stuck up after few steps.. I arrive till $$T(n) = 2^k T(1) + \sum_{i=0}^{\log(n-1)} ...
3
votes
2answers
413 views

Solving for the closed term solution of a third order recurrence relation with real constant coefficients

How would you solve for the closed term form of $a(n)$ given the general form of the third order linear homogenous recurrence relation with real constant coefficients. ...
2
votes
2answers
248 views

Solving recurrences with boundary conditions

I'm trying to follow CLRS ("Introduction to Algorithms") and I just hit a question in a practice assignment I found online that I just can't make any sense of. Consider this problem: Show that ...
4
votes
1answer
112 views

Recurrence $a_n = \sum_{k=1}^{n-1}a^2_{k}, a_1=1$

This seems like a really straightforward recurrence. I wrote out the first few terms: $1,1,2,6,42,1806$... It seems to grow faster than $n!$ but slower than $n^n$. Any suggestions about the closed ...
4
votes
1answer
349 views

$a_n=20a_{n-1}+12a_{n-2}$ recurrence relation question

Respected Sir, Please solve the below problem. Please... Consider the infinite $\displaystyle\mathbb{S}=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{a_n}{10^{2n}}$, where the sequence $\{a_n\}$ is defined by ...
1
vote
3answers
122 views

Can Master Theorem be applied on any of these?

1) $T(n) = 6T(n/2) + 2^{3 \log(n)}$ 2) $T(n) = 8T(n/2) + \frac{n^3}{(\log(n))^4}$ 3) $T(n) = 9T(n/3) + n(\log(n))^3$ Can the complexity for these be calculated with the Master Theorem? I am not sure ...
1
vote
2answers
922 views

Need some help with this recurrence equation

I'm self studying from a book I bought to learn more about algorithms and I've been trying most of the exercises in that book, so this is not a homework. Anyways, the relation I'm trying to solve is ...
17
votes
1answer
214 views

Show that $\lim\limits_{n\to\infty}\frac{a_1+a_2+\dots+a_n}{n^2}$ exists and is independent of the choice of $a$

Suppose $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ has period 1, and for some $q\in(0,1)$: $$|f(x)-f(y)|\leq q|x-y|\quad \forall x,y$$ Let $g(x)=x+f(x)$, for any $a\in\mathbb{R}$,define the following sequence: ...
9
votes
1answer
254 views

What is a good asymptotic for $f_n = f_{n-1}+\ln(f_{n-1})$?

Let $f_0=2$ and $f_n=f_{n-1}+\ln(f_{n-1})$. What is a good asymptotic to the sequence $f_n$? With good I mean much better than $f_n \sim \dfrac{3n \ln(2)\ln(n)}{2}$.
2
votes
5answers
280 views

Solving the recurrence $t(n)=(t(n-1))^2 + 1$

I am trying to solve the following recurrence relation: \begin{align*} t(1) & = 1, \\ t(n) & =(t(n-1))^2 + 1. \end{align*} I need to prove that $t(n)= k^{2^{n}}$ for some constant $k$. What is ...
19
votes
2answers
883 views

Probability of a random binary string containing a long run of 1s?

For some fixed $n$, let $p_n$ be the probability that a random infinite binary string contains a run of consecutive $1$s, containing $n$ more $1$s than the total number appearing before the run. For ...
3
votes
1answer
88 views

Generating and solving recurrence relations

I am trying to do this question but don't know where to go from here: The question: For $n\ge1$ let $t_n$ be the number of ways to tile the squares of a 2xn checkerboard using 1x2(which can be rotated ...
11
votes
3answers
2k views

Solving recurrence relation in 2 variables

We already know how to solve a homogeneous recurrence relation in one variable using characteristic equation. Does a similar technique exists for solving a homogeneous recurrence relation in 2 ...
7
votes
2answers
593 views

Recursive Integration over Piecewise Polynomials: Closed form?

Is there a closed form to the following recursive integration? $$ f_0(x) = \begin{cases} 1/2 & |x|<1 \\ 0 & |x|\geq1 \end{cases} \\ f_n(x) = ...
7
votes
3answers
2k views

Why is solving non-linear recurrence relations “hopeless”?

I came across a non-linear recurrence relation I want to solve, and most of the places I look for help will say things like "it's hopeless to solve non-linear recurrence relations in general." Is ...
5
votes
1answer
226 views

When is a recurrence relation linear

In http://www.cs.fsu.edu/~lacher/courses/COT5405/spring07/notes2.html, it says that $T(n) = aT(n/b) + f(n) $ is nonlinear recurrence. But I think it is linear because $T(n)$ is linear in $T(n/b)$. ...
4
votes
3answers
934 views

Recurrence relation (linear, second-order, constant coefficients)

Q1. Find the general solution to the difference equation $$ a_{n} - 4a_{n-1} + 3a_{n-2} = 6 $$ Q2. Solve the difference equation $$ a_{n} - a_{n-1} - 2a_{n-2} = 0, a_0 = 2, a_1 = 4 $$ I am ...
7
votes
1answer
217 views

Finding $a_n$ for very large $n$ where $a_n = a_{n-1} + a_{n-2} + a_{n-3} + 2^{n-3} $

I have a recurrence relation, $$ a_n = a_{n-1} + a_{n-2} + a_{n-3} + 2^{n-3} $$ for $n>3$ and $a_1 = 0, a_2 = 0, a_3 = 1$ I have to find the value of $a_n$ for very large values of n. I tried ...
5
votes
3answers
665 views

how to solve $T (n) = T \left(\frac{n}{2} +\sqrt{n}\right) +\sqrt{6046}$

How can I solve the recurrence $$T (n) = T \left(\frac{n}{2} +\sqrt{n}\right) +\sqrt{6046}\ ?$$ Please don't just write the name of the method, as I just started learning this stuff and things are a ...
4
votes
2answers
195 views

Enumerate certain special configurations - combinatorics.

Consider the vertices of a regular n-gon, numbered 1 through n. (Only the vertices, not the sides). A "configuration" means some of these vertices are joined by edges. A "good" configuration is one ...
4
votes
2answers
215 views

Help on a rational recursive relation: $T[n+1]=\frac{E[n+1](D+T[n])}{E[n+1]+D+T[n]}$

I am trying to solve this rational recursive relation: $$T[n+1]=\frac{E[n+1](D+T[n])}{E[n+1]+D+T[n]}$$ where $T[1]=\frac{E[1]*D}{E[1]+D}$ for constant $D>0$ and $E[n]>0$. When $E[n]$ is ...
3
votes
2answers
373 views

Particular solution of recurrence equations

How do we solve recurrence equations of the form: $$ax_{n+1}+bx_n+cx_{n-1}=dn^p+e\;,$$ where $a,b,c,d,e$ are constants and $p\in \mathbb Z$? Perhaps we could first solve the homogeneous equation ...
2
votes
3answers
379 views

Monotone and Bounded Sequences: Proof

Say $s_1=1$ and $s_{n+1}=\frac{1}{5}(s_n+7)$ for $n\geq 1$. Prove that the sequence is monotone and bounded, then find the limit.
2
votes
3answers
271 views

Formula for the summation of this sequence?

$$a(2n)=a(n)+a(n+1), a(2n+1)=2a(n+1),\mbox{ if }n>1$$ Outputs $1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 16, 20, 22,$ etc., but I am trying to find a formula that finds the summation of these terms. For instance, ...
1
vote
1answer
234 views

$ b_{n + 1} = \frac {b_n^2 + 2b_n}{b_n^2 + 2b_n+2}$ and $ b_1 = 1$, show that $ \left|\frac{2}{n}-\frac{2\ln{n}}{n^2}-b_n\right|\leq\frac{1}{n^2}$ [closed]

In the recursion $ b_{n + 1} = \frac {b_n^2 + 2b_n}{b_n^2 + 2b_n+2}$, with $ b_1 = 1,$ how can one prove that $ \left|\frac{2}{n}-\frac{2\ln{n}}{n^2}-b_n\right|\leq\frac{1}{n^2}$?