# Tagged Questions

Questions regarding functions defined recursively, such as the Fibonacci sequence.

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### A polynomial sequence

I have a sequence of polynomials $Q_k(x, y)$, $k\geq 1$ defined recursively as follows: $Q_1=x$. There is a sequence of polynomials $p_j(y)$ of degree $j$ such that $Q_{2m}$ is of the form \begin{...
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### What is a good asymptotic for $f_n = f_{n-1}+\ln(f_{n-1})$?

Let $f_0=2$ and $f_n=f_{n-1}+\ln(f_{n-1})$. What is a good asymptotic to the sequence $f_n$? With good I mean much better than $f_n \sim \dfrac{3n \ln(2)\ln(n)}{2}$.
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### How does one prove that $\zeta(3)$ is irrational?

How does one prove that $\zeta(3)$ is irrational ? I would like to know how Apery did it. In particular how a recursion gives rise to irrationality !?
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### Möbius function from random number sequence

Consider some arbitrary number sequence like the decimal expansion of $\pi$ = {3, 1, 4, 1, 5, 9, 2}. Prepend the sequence with the number $1$ so that you get {1, 3, 1, 4, 1, 5, 9, 2}. Then plug it ...
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### Help with a recurrence with even and odd terms [duplicate]

I have the following recurrence that I've been pounding on: $$a(0)=1\\ a(1)=1\\ a(2)=2\\ a(2n)=a(n)+a(n+1)+n\ \ \ (\forall n>1)\\ a(2n+1)=a(n)+a(n-1)+1\ \ \ (\forall n\ge 1)$$ I don't have much ...
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### Recurrence equation similar to a geometric progression

I have the following recurrence relation: $$T(i) = \sqrt{T(i-1) \left(T(i+1) + k\right)},$$ with $k \geq 0$, a fixed constant. I know that when $k=0$, we have: $$T(i) = \sqrt{T(i-1) T(i+1)},$$ which ...
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### How to Find the Recurrence Formula for $\int \frac{dx} {(1+\sin x)^n}$?

$$\int \frac{dx} {(1+\sin x)^n}$$ I know that I should use the following step: $$\int\frac{\sin^2(x)\, dx}{(1+\sin x)^n} +\int\frac{\cos^2(x)\, dx} {(1+\sin x)^n}$$ but here I get stuck. I do ...
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### Prime Concatenation Order

Consider the following procedure. Given an integer $n \geq 2$, obtain the canonical prime factorization of $n$, i.e. $\prod_{i=1}^k p_i^{e_i}$. Take the distinct factors $p_i$ and list them in ...
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### Is this a recurrence for the characteristic sequence of composite numbers?

The characteristic sequence of composite numbers is equal to 1 if $n$ is not a prime number and equal to 0 if $n$ is a prime number, starting: $$1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1,...$$ where the ...
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### How to find the closed form formula for this recurrence relation

$x_{0} = 5$ $x_{n} = 2x_{n-1} + 9(5^{n-1})$ I have computed: $x_{0} = 5, x_{1} = 19, x_{2} = 83, x_{3} = 391, x_{4} = 1907$, but cannot see any pattern for the general $n^{th}$ term.
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### How to get the characteristic equation?

In my book, this succession defined by recurrence is presented: $$U_n=3U_{n-1}-U_{n-3}$$ And it says that the characteristic equation of such is: $$x^3=3x^2-1$$ Honestly, I don't understand how. ...
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### recurrence relation $f(n)=5f(n/2)-6f(n/4) + n$

I've been trying to solve this recurrence relation for a week, but I haven't come up with a solution. $f(n)=5f(n/2)-6f(n/4) + n$ Solve this recurrence relation for $f(1)=2$ and $f(2)=1$ At first ...
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### How can I find the value of $a^n+b^n$, given the value of $a+b$, $ab$, and $n$?
I have been given the value of $a+b$ , $ab$ and $n$. I've to calculate the value of $a^n+b^n$. How can I do it? I would like to find out a general solution. Because the value of $n$ , $a+b$ and $ab$ ...