Theoretical foundations of calculus: limits, convergence of sequences, construction of the real numbers, least upper bound property, and related analysis topics such as continuity, differentiation, and integration through the fundamental theorem of calculus.

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13
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1answer
154 views
+50

if $\left | x_{n+1}-\frac{x_{n}^2}{x_{n-1}} \right |\leq 1$, show that $(\frac{x_{n+1}}{x_{n}}) $ convergent

Let a real positive number sequence $(x_{n})$ such that $\left | x_{n+1}-\frac{x_{n}^2}{x_{n-1}} \right |\leq 1$ and $\sqrt{x_{1}}\geq \sqrt{x_0+1}$. Show that $(\frac{x_{n+1}}{x_{n}}) $ convergent. ...
5
votes
0answers
57 views
+100

Optimization of approximate functions using varying objective function

Let $g(\theta;x)$ and $f(\theta;x)$ be two convex functions such that $g$ asymptotically approximates $f$: $g(\theta;x)\approx f(\theta;x)$, specifically: $$ |g(\theta;x)-f(\theta;x)| \leq ...
2
votes
0answers
55 views
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Regularity, Dirichlet form

I have a question about Dirichlet form. Let $\Omega$ be an Euclidean domain of $\mathbb{R}^{N}$ and $X=\bar{\Omega}$. The measure $m$ on the Borel $\sigma$ algebra $\mathcal{B}(X)$ is given by ...
5
votes
0answers
123 views
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Which properties characterize $\sin, \cos$?

I know a few properties of $\sin$ and $\cos$, for example: $\sin^2+\cos^2=1$ $\sin (a+b) = \sin a\cos b+\cos a\sin b$. $\cos (a+b) = \cos a\cos b-\sin a\sin b$. $\sin (x+\delta) = \sin x$ for some ...
7
votes
3answers
152 views
+100

(Elegant) proof of an inequality: $h(x) \geq 1- (1-\frac{x}{1-x})^2$, where $h$ is the binary entropy function

I am looking for the most concise and elegant proof of the following inequality: $$ h(x) \geq 1- \left(1-\frac{x}{1-x}\right)^2, \qquad \forall x\in(0,1) $$ where $h(x) = x \log_2\frac{1}{x}+(1-x) ...
5
votes
1answer
71 views
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Why this set is dense in $C_0(\mathbb{R})$

Let $C_0=\{f~|~ f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R},f~is~continous,\lim\limits_{\vert x\vert \to\infty}f(x)=0\}$ $A=\{f~|~f(x)=p(x)e^{-x^2},p(x)~is~polynomials\}$ Why $A$ is dense in $C_0$. The topology ...