Theoretical foundations of calculus: limits, convergence of sequences, construction of the real numbers, least upper bound property, and related analysis topics such as continuity, differentiation, integration through the fundamental theorem of calculus.

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19
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4answers
411 views

Prove that $\int_0^1 \frac{{\rm{Li}}_2(x)\ln(1-x)\ln^2(x)}{x} \,dx=-\frac{\zeta(6)}{3}$

I have spent my holiday on Sunday to crack several integral & series problems and I am having trouble to prove the following integral \begin{equation} \int_0^1 ...
19
votes
2answers
2k views

Olympiad calculus problem

This problem is from a qualifying round in a Colombian math Olympiad, I thought some time about it but didn't make any progress. It is as follows. Given a continuous function $f : [0,1] \to ...
19
votes
5answers
484 views

$f^2+(1+f')^2\leq 1 \implies f=0$

Find all $f\in C^1(\mathbb R,\mathbb R)$ such that $f^2+(1+f')^2\leq 1$ It's quite likely the answer is $f=0$. Note that $|f|\leq 1$ and $-2\leq f'\leq 0$. Therefore $f$ is decreasing and ...
19
votes
2answers
856 views

mystery regarding power series of $\frac{1}{\sqrt{1+x^{x}}}$

In the course of playing around with $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{\sqrt{1+n^{n}}}$, I used w|α to obtain the power series for $f(x)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{1+x^{x}}}$ which is \begin{align*} ...
19
votes
4answers
8k views

max and min versus sup and inf

What is the difference between max, min and sup, inf?
19
votes
4answers
624 views

Limit of series involving ratio of two factorials

$$ \sum^{\infty}_{j=0} \frac{(j!)^2}{(2j)!} = \frac{2 \pi \sqrt{3}}{27}+\frac{4}{3} $$ The above series is in a homework sheet. We're not expected to find the limit, just prove its convergence. ...
19
votes
2answers
410 views

Closed-form of $\displaystyle\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{(-1)^{n+1}}{n}\Psi_3(n+1)=-\int_0^1\frac{\ln(1+x)\ln^3 x}{1-x}\,dx$

Does the following series or integral have a closed-form \begin{equation} \sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{(-1)^{n+1}}{n}\Psi_3(n+1)=-\int_0^1\frac{\ln(1+x)\ln^3 x}{1-x}\,dx \end{equation} where ...
19
votes
2answers
585 views

Function $f(x)=\int_0^\infty\left|\sin(t)\cdot\sin(x\,t)\cdot e^{-t}\right|\,dt$

Let $$f(x)=\int_0^\infty\Big|\sin(t)\cdot\sin(x\,t)\cdot e^{-t}\Big|\,dt,$$ where $|\dots|$ denotes the absolute value. We are concerned only with positive values of $x$ (i.e. let the domain of the ...
19
votes
4answers
335 views

Continuous $f\colon [0,1]\to \mathbb{R}$ all of whose nonempty fibers are countably infinite?

I have been told it is possible to construct a continuous function $f\colon [0,1]\to \mathbb{R}$ such that $f^{-1}(x)$ is either empty or has cardinality $\aleph_0$ for every $x\in \mathbb{R}$. I've ...
19
votes
2answers
2k views

Two definitions of Lebesgue integration

Normally, Lebesgue integral, for positive measures, is defined in the following way. First, one defines the integral for indicator functions, and linearly extend to simple functions. Then, for a ...
19
votes
2answers
442 views

Inequality in a bounded real sequence

Prove or disprove that for any bounded real sequence $\{x_n\}_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$ there exist two distinct natural numbers $u,v$ such that: $$|x_u-x_v|\cdot|u-v|\leq 1.$$
19
votes
2answers
402 views

Proving that $f(n)=n$ if $f(n+1)>f(f(n))$

How can we prove that if $f:\mathbb{N}\rightarrow\mathbb{N}$ is a function so that $f(n+1)>f(f(n))$ for all $n\in\mathbb{N}$ then $f(n)=n$ for all $n\in\mathbb{N}$?
19
votes
1answer
387 views

Existence of two real numbers satisfying $f(x-f(y))>yf(x)+x$

Let $f:\mathbb{R} \longrightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be a function. Is it always the case that for some $x,y \in \mathbb R$, the inequality $f(x-f(y))>yf(x)+x$ holds? Thanks in advance.
19
votes
1answer
283 views

Does the series $\sum\frac{a_n}{a_{n+1}}\frac{1}{n}$ always diverge if $0<a_n<1$?

Does the series $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{a_n}{a_{n+1}}\frac{1}{n}$$ diverge for any $a_n$, satisfying $0<a_n<1$, $n=1, 2, 3\dots$ ?
19
votes
1answer
553 views

real analysis function takes on each value twice?

I want to find a function $f:[0,1] \to [0,1]$ such that $f$ takes on each value in $[0,1]$ exactly twice. I think this means there are an infinite number of discontinuities. Can anyone help me figure ...
18
votes
8answers
2k views

How I can prove that the sequence $\sqrt{2} , \sqrt{2\sqrt{2}}, \sqrt{2\sqrt{2\sqrt{2}}}$ converges to 2?

Prove that the sequence $\sqrt{2} , \sqrt{2\sqrt{2}}, \sqrt{2\sqrt{2\sqrt{2}}}$ converges to 2 My attempt I proved that the sequence is increasing and bounded by 2, can anyone help me show that the ...
18
votes
5answers
2k views

Why doesn't induction extend to infinity? (re: Fourier series)

While reading some things about analytic functions earlier tonight it came to my attention that Fourier series are not necessarily analytic. I used to think one could prove that they are analytic ...
18
votes
5answers
2k views

Perfect set without rationals

Give an example of a perfect set in $\mathbb R^n$ that does not contain any of the rationals. (Or prove that it does not exist).
18
votes
2answers
999 views

Is indefinite integration non-linear?

Let us consider this small problem: $$ \int0\;dx = 0\cdot\int1\;dx = 0\cdot(x+c) = 0 \tag1 $$ $$ \frac{dc}{dx} = 0 \qquad\iff\qquad \int 0\;dx = c, \qquad\forall c\in\mathbb{R} \tag2 $$ These are two ...
18
votes
7answers
7k views

Why does “convex function” mean “concave *up*”?

A function $f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ is convex (or "concave up") provided that for all $x,y \in \mathbb{R}$ and $t \in [0,1]$, $$f(tx + (1-t)y) \le tf(x) + (1-t)f(y).$$ Equivalently, a line ...
18
votes
2answers
923 views

“Pseudo-Cauchy” sequences: are they also Cauchy?

I tried to prove something but I could not, I don't know if it's true or not, but I did not found a counterexample. Let $(a_n)$ be a sequence in a general metric space such that for any fixed $k ...
18
votes
7answers
426 views

Integral $I:=\int_0^1 \frac{\log^2 x}{x^2-x+1}\mathrm dx=\frac{10\pi^3}{81 \sqrt 3}$

Hi how can we prove this integral below? $$ I:=\int_0^1 \frac{\log^2 x}{x^2-x+1}\mathrm dx=\frac{10\pi^3}{81 \sqrt 3} $$ I tried to use $$ I=\int_0^1 \frac{\log^2x}{1-x(1-x)}\mathrm dx $$ and now ...
18
votes
1answer
727 views

Compute $ I_{n}=\int_{-\infty}^\infty \frac{1-\cos x \cos 2x \cdots \cos nx}{x^2}\,dx$

I'm very curious about the ways I may compute the following integral. I'd be very glad to know your approaching ways for this integral: $$ I_{n} \equiv \int_{-\infty}^\infty ...
18
votes
3answers
554 views

How to find PV $\int_0^\infty \frac{\log \cos^2 \alpha x}{\beta^2-x^2} \, \mathrm dx=\alpha \pi$

$$ I:=PV\int_0^\infty \frac{\log\left(\cos^2\left(\alpha x\right)\right)}{\beta^2-x^2} \, \mathrm dx=\alpha \pi,\qquad \alpha>0,\ \beta\in \mathbb{R}.$$ I am trying to solve this integral, I ...
18
votes
2answers
926 views

Tough contest problem

I found this problem in a collection of contest problems of a Russian competition in 1995 and wasn't able to solve it. Solve for real $x$: $$ \cos (\cos (\cos (\cos(x))))=\sin (\sin (\sin (\sin ...
18
votes
3answers
554 views

If $\int_{\mathbb R^2} \frac{\vert f(x)-f(y)\vert}{\vert x-y\vert^2}dxdy<+\infty$ then $f$ is a.e. constant

Let $f \in L^1(\mathbb R)$. If $$ \int_\mathbb R \int_\mathbb R \frac{\vert f(x)-f(y)\vert}{\vert x-y\vert^2}dxdy<+\infty $$ then $f$ is a.e. constant. I do not know how to begin. I ...
18
votes
1answer
2k views

Lebesgue measure of the graph of a function

Let $f:R^n \rightarrow R^m$ be any function. Will the graph of f always have Lebesgue measure zero? 1) I could prove that this is true if $f$ is continuous. 2) I suspect it is true if $f$ is ...
18
votes
1answer
1k views

A smooth function's domain of being non-analytic

I am wondering how much a smooth function may be non-analytic, because in proofs, whilst there non-analytic smooth functions, it would suffice if a smooth function were analytic on only a "small set". ...
18
votes
4answers
891 views

Evaluating $\int_0^1 \frac{\log x \log \left(1-x^4 \right)}{1+x^2}dx$

I am trying to prove that $$\int_0^1 \frac{\log x \log \left(1-x^4 \right)}{1+x^2}dx = \frac{\pi^3}{16}-3G\log 2 \tag{1}$$ where $G$ is Catalan's Constant. I was able to express it in terms of ...
18
votes
2answers
2k views

Comparing the Lebesgue measure of an open set and its closure

Let $E$ be an open set in $[0,1]^n$ and $m$ be the Lebesgue measure. Is it possible that $m(E)\neq m(\bar{E})$, where $\bar{E}$ stands for the closure of $E$?
18
votes
3answers
505 views

Compute $\int_0^\pi\frac{\cos nx}{a^2-2ab\cos x+b^2}\, dx$

How to compute the following integral \begin{equation} \int_0^\pi\frac{\cos nx}{a^2-2ab\cos x+b^2}\, dx \end{equation} I have been given two integral questions by my teacher. I cannot answer ...
18
votes
1answer
395 views

about addition and multiplications of real number

We all know that for every two real number $x,y$, the operation of addition $x+y$ satisfies the following conditions: \begin{gather} x+y=y+x;\\ x+0=x;\\ (x+y)+z=x+(y+z);\\ x+(-x)=0. \end{gather} ...
18
votes
1answer
718 views

Interesting integral formula

I looked around and found that integrals of the form $$\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{x^{m-1}}{a+x^n}, a,m,n \in \mathbb{R}, 0<m<n, 0<a$$ seem to occur very often: Just to give a few examples ...
18
votes
3answers
303 views

Intuition for the Universal Chord Theorem

So the Universal Chord theorem is a statement and proof that; The numbers of the form $r = \displaystyle \frac{1}{n} \ \ n \ge 1$ are the only numbers such that for any continuous function ...
18
votes
5answers
838 views

Show that $\mathbb{Q}$ is dense in the real numbers. (Using Supremum)

I am stuck on a homework the teacher gave us to hand in. It is stated as following: The set of rational numbers $\mathbb{Q}$ given by all $q = \frac{m}{n}$ for some $m, n \in \mathbb{Z}$ with $n ...
18
votes
3answers
734 views

Why do people interchange between $\int$ and $\sum$ so easily?

One of the things I found curious in many texts is how in certain cases interchange the $\sum$ operator with $\int$. What are the "terms" for such a swap? I understand that integration in the early ...
18
votes
2answers
690 views

Prove that there exists $n\in\mathbb{N}$ such that $f^{(n)}$ has at least n+1 zeros on $(-1,1)$

Let $f\in C^{\infty}(\mathbb{R},\mathbb{R})$ such that $f(x)=0$ on $\mathbb{R}$\ $(-1,1)$. Prove that there exists $n\in\mathbb{N}$ such that $f^{(n)}$ has at least n+1 zeros on $(-1,1)$ My attempt : ...
18
votes
2answers
5k views

Self-study Real analysis Tao or Rudin?

The reference requests for analysis books have become so numerous as to blot out any usefulness they could conceivably have had. So here come another one. Recently I've began to learn real analysis ...
18
votes
2answers
3k views

How to show that a set of discontinuous points of an increasing function is at most countable

I would like to prove the following: Let $g$ be a monotone increasing function on $[0,1]$. Then the set of points where $g$ is not continuous is at most countable. My attempt: Let ...
18
votes
3answers
466 views

A continuous map that fixes the boundary of a domain pointwise is surjective

Let $\Omega$ be an open, bounded from $\mathbb{R}^n$ and $f: \overline{\Omega} \rightarrow \overline{\Omega}$ a contiuous function such that $f(x)=x, \forall x \in \partial \Omega$. Prove that ...
18
votes
2answers
302 views

Covering $\mathbb R^2$ with function graphs

Suppose we have a countable family of function graphs (each function is $\mathbb R\to\mathbb R$, not necessary continuous). Obviously, they cannot cover the whole plane $\mathbb R^2$, because they ...
18
votes
1answer
275 views

Measure of the Cantor set multiplied by the Cantor set

It is a quite famous fact that $C+C=[0,2]$, what about $ C \cdot C $ ? Is it measurable? Yes It's clearly measurable because it's compact, being a continuous image of the compact set C×C. Is ...
18
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3answers
646 views

Closing up the elementary functions under integration

The elementary real-valued functions are not closed under integration. (Elementary function has a precise definition -- see Risch algorithm in Wikipedia). This means there are elementary functions ...
18
votes
1answer
337 views

Learning Aid for Basic Theorems of Topological Vector Spaces in Functional Analysis

I am self-teaching myself the basics of functional analysis (e.g. topological vector spaces), and frankly I am starting to get a migraine sorting out/organizing in my head all of the ...
18
votes
1answer
663 views

Do inequalities that hold for infinite sums hold for integrals too?

Let $\mathbb{R}_{\geq0}$ denote the set of non-negative reals and $+\infty$, and $\mathbb{Z}^+$ denote the set of positive integers. I will also let $\lambda$ denote the Lebesgue measure on ...
18
votes
1answer
194 views

How to prove $\frac{\pi^2}{6}\le \int_0^{\infty} \sin(x^{\log x}) \ \mathrm dx $?

I want to prove the inequality $$\frac{\pi^2}{6}\le \int_0^{\infty} \sin(x^{\log x}) \ \mathrm dx $$ There are some obstacles I face: the indefinite integral cannot be expressed in terms of ...
17
votes
4answers
2k views

Finding Value of the Infinite Product $\prod \Bigl(1-\frac{1}{n^{2}}\Bigr)$

While trying some problems along with my friends we had difficulty in this question. True or False: The value of the infinite product $$\prod\limits_{n=2}^{\infty} \biggl(1-\frac{1}{n^{2}}\biggr)$$ ...
17
votes
6answers
841 views

If $f$ is continuous at $a$, is it continuous in some open interval around $a$?

If $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ is continuous at $a$, is it continuous in some open interval around $a$?
17
votes
3answers
2k views

No maximum(minimum) of rationals whose square is lesser(greater) than $2$.

Suppose $A$ is the set of all rational numbers $p$ such that $p^2 <2$ and $B$ is the set of all rational numbers $p$ such that $p^2 > 2$. We want to show that $A$ contains no largest element and ...
17
votes
3answers
668 views

How to show $\lim_{n \to \infty} a_n = \frac{ [x] + [2x] + [3x] + \dotsb + [nx] }{n^2} = x/2$?

This question came from the prelim exam I took last month. I have a proof that seems a bit unwieldy to me (posted as an answer), so I'm opening it up to ask if there are other ways of showing this. ...