Theoretical foundations of calculus: limits, convergence of sequences, construction of the real numbers, least upper bound property, and related analysis topics such as continuity, differentiation, and integration through the fundamental theorem of calculus.

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openness in subset is equivalent to openness in the mother space

My question is 25.b from textbook real mathematical analysis, and it says What I am thinking about is that there is a $V$ open in $M$, s.t. $S$ is the intersection of $V$ and $N$ ($V$ is open in ...
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59 views

For every $x \in [a,b] , \exists n_x\in \mathbb Z^+$ such that $f^{(n_x) }(x)=0$ ; then to prove $f$ is a polynomial in $[a,b]$

Let $f:[a,b] \to \mathbb R$ be a continuous function having derivatives of all order such that for every $x \in [a,b] , \exists n_x\in \mathbb Z^+$ such that $f^{(n_x) }(x)=0$ ; then how do I show ...
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46 views

about the closure of by pointwise convergence of sequences.

In the book "Integration Theory" (LNM315, K.Bichteler, p.65) a family $\mathcal{F}$ of real function is called full if it is close by pointwise convergence of dominated (by some element of ...
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120 views

Show that f is periodic if $f(x+a)+f(x+b)=\frac{f(2x)}{2}$?

Suppose $a$ and $b$ are distinct real numbers and $f$ is a continuous real function such that $\frac{f(x)}{x^2}$ goes to 0 when $x$ goes to infinity or minus infinity. Suppose that$ ...
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72 views

Seperating single integral into an double integral.

Please refer to : How to prove that $\int_{0}^{\infty}\sin{x}\arctan{\frac{1}{x}}\,\mathrm dx=\frac{\pi }{2} \big(\frac{e-1}e\big)$ The answer by @Venus. What is the procedure in converting that ...
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45 views

Convergence of $n^{-\gamma}T$ where $T$ a hitting time for uniform rvs, can I use CLT?

Let $X_1,X_2,\dots$ be iid uniform on $\{1,\dots,n\}$ and define $T=\inf\{k:X_k=X_r \text{ for some }r<k\}$. The objective is to figure out when $n^{-\gamma} T$ converges weakly to some ...
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128 views

An a.e.-defined derivative which is not Lebesgue integrable on any interval?

If the derivative $f'$ exists everywhere then it is shown here that there exist intervals on which $f'$ is Lebesgue integrable. But perhaps there is a function $f$ such that $f'$ only exists almost ...
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157 views

Solving $\int\frac{x}{(x^2+x+1)^{\frac{1}{12}}}$

I'm trying to solve $$\int_0^1\frac{x}{(x^2+x+1)^{\frac{1}{12}}}\mathrm dx$$ To calculate it I first tried to calculate the primitive function. So let $$\int\frac{x}{(x^2+x+1)^{\frac{1}{12}}}\mathrm ...
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206 views

Differences among Cauchy, Lagrange, and Schlömilch remainder in Taylor's formula: why is generalization useful?

I would like to know what really are the main differences (in terms of "usefulness") among Cauchy, Lagrange, and Schlömilch's forms of the remainder in Taylor's formula. Could you provide examples ...
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78 views

Infinite products of non-measurable sets

I just proved for a homework problem that the direct product of two non-measurable sets is non-measurable. It seems to me that the finite direct product of finitely many non-measurable sets is also ...
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34 views

Proving a subspace of $C(X\times Y)$ is dense in $C(X\times Y)$

If $X,Y$ are compact, show that the subspace of $C(X\times Y)$, spanned by the functions of the form $f(x,y)=g(x)h(y)$, for $g\in C(X),h\in C(X)$ is dense in $C(X\times Y)$. Not sure where to ...
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176 views

On the Hölder regularity of an integral function

Let $n\geq 3$. Let $\Omega$ be an open and bounded subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$. Let define $X_0$ as the space of functions $f:\bar\Omega\times\partial\Omega\to\mathbb{R}$ such that $f(x,\cdot)$ is ...
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54 views

Proving another digammabinomial series result

This series is related to some extent to the previous question of mine, that is Computing $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\psi\left(\frac{n+1}{2}\right)}{ \binom{2n}{n}}$, where an approach by series only ...
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101 views

Closed form of arctanlog series

What tools would you recommend me for $$\operatorname{arctan}\left( \frac{1}{1}\right)\log\left(1+\frac{1}{1}\right)+\operatorname{arctan}\left( ...
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87 views

How to select good exercises?

I'm studying on Rudin "Principles of of Mathematical Analysis" which I begin to find as a good and complete reference. I wonder how many exercises shall I do at the end of each chapter ? In case of ...
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107 views

Compact family of Lip functions under the sup norm metric, proof verification.

Hi everyone I'd like to know if the following is correct, I'd appreciate your opinion and also any suggestion to improve my argument. Thanks in advance for your time. If $(K,d)$ is a compact ...
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71 views

A Question From Measure Theory

How to show that a basis for the vector space $\mathbb{R}$ over the field $\mathbb{Q}$ is not Lebesgue measurable? Can anyone help me?
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90 views

Equivalence of Lebesgue Measurablity

Hello Mathematics Community. I am having some difficulties with the following problem dealing with Lebesgue Measure and its equivalent interpretation. I will first include the definitions which I am ...
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200 views

Is there a book only about epsilon delta proofs?

I want to know if there is such book, with beautiful epsilon delta proofs of all kind.
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101 views

Is it possible to find $\int \frac{1}{\sqrt[4]{1+x^4}} dx$ by parametrizing the curve $y^4-x^4=1$?

I found this integral in a handbook of integrals: $$\int \frac{1}{\sqrt[4]{1+x^4}} dx$$ I already have evaluated this integral by trigonometric substitutions and my answer agrees with that of the ...
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59 views

Improper multivariable integrals

I'm having trouble with the integral $$\iiint_{1\le x^2+y^2+z^2 }\frac{\mathrm{d}x~\mathrm{d}y~\mathrm{d}z}{xyz}$$ this is what I've done so far: $$\lim_{b\to +\infty}\int_1^b \int_0^{2\pi} ...
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83 views

Definition of $0^z$, $z$ complex

Usually we define the function $a^b$ over the complexes using the exponential function, as $e^{b\log a}$. This function has some issues with multivalued-ness, but it still more or less satisfies ...
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83 views

Distinction between nowhere monotone and nowhere differentiable

It is known that all functions that are continuous and nowhere differentiable are also nowhere monotone but that there is a function that is everywhere differentiable but nowhere monotone. I have ...
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73 views

Two question about how to compute this integral limit

Let $f: (-\pi,\pi]\to \mathbb R$ be continuous and let $p_x (u) = {(f(u+x) - f(x)) \cos ({u \over 2}) \over \sin ({u \over 2}) }$. I want to show that $$ \int_{-\pi}^\pi p_x(u) \sin (Nu) du \to 0$$ ...
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111 views

If $f_n(t):=f(t^n)$ converges uniformly to continuous function then $f$ constant

Let $f \colon [0,1] \to \mathbb R$ be continuous and let $f_n$ be defined by $$ f_n(x):=f(x^n), \qquad x \in [0,1], \,\, n \in \mathbb N. $$ Suppose there exists a continuous function $g$ on ...
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165 views

existence of solution of volterra integral equation of the first kind

$$ \int_0^t k(s,t)f(s)ds=g(t) $$ To know the existence and uniquness of solution of volterra integral equation(VIE) of the first kind, we differentiate it and convert to the VIE of the second kind. ...
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187 views

Existence and uniqueness up to isomorphism of the real numbers from axioms

Pretty much what the title says: how does one prove the existence and uniqueness of the real number system from the ordered field axioms together with the least-upper-bound property (or maybe some ...
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77 views

Jordan decomposition of linear functionals

Let $X$ be a locally compact Hausdorff space. Also, let $C_0(X,\mathbb R)$ denote the vector space of such continuous functions $f:X\to\mathbb R$ that the set $\{x\in X\,|\,|f(x)|\geq\varepsilon\}$ is ...
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59 views

A formula similar to $\int_a^bf(x)dx=\mu\left[a,b \right]$ for $f^p$.

Let $\mu$ be an absolutely continuous measure with respect to the Lebesgue measure on $\mathbb{R}$ , and $f:\mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R^+}$ its Radon-Nikodym derivative . We can write $\int_a^bf(x)dx$ in ...
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146 views

Clarification on tetration

So far when I looked at tetration I noticed it had a recursive relation. It's $t_2=2^{(t_1)}.$ For example if we start at point $(0,1)$, we can take the x-value of $0$, and $2^0=1$, then we take $1$ ...
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309 views

Proving u-substitution the hard way — use only definition of integration with partitions

I am trying to prove integration by substitution, i.e. for $f:[c,d] \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ continuous and $\phi: [c,d] \rightarrow [a,b]$ continuous on $[c,d]$ and $\mathscr{C}^1$ on $(c,d)$. Then ...
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36 views

Weak topology on $L^p,~p> 1$

How looks like the weak topology in the particular case $X=L^p$, I mean, is possible to detail this topology beyond standar form: Arbitrary union of finite intersections open pre-images of opens ...
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72 views

Evaluation of the double integral $\iint_{[0,1] \times [0,1]}{\left(\frac{xy(1-x)(1-y)}{2-xy}\right)^n \frac{dxdy}{2-xy}}$

How to prove that $$\large \lim_{n \to \infty} \left(\iint_{[0,1] \times [0,1]}{\left(\frac{xy(1-x)(1-y)}{2-xy}\right)^n \cdot\frac{1}{2-xy}\; ...
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74 views

Convergence of $\sum_n |\frac{\cos(3^n)}{n}|$

So a recent post asked about convergence of $\sum_n |\frac{\cos(2^n)}{n}|$, and using double-angle formula for $\cos$ it could be shown that for each pair of consecutive terms, at least one term had ...
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148 views

Integral $ \int_0^\infty \frac{x^n\ln x}{(x^2+\alpha^2)^2(e^x-1)}dx$

Hey I am trying to integrate $$ \int_0^\infty \frac{x^n\ln x}{(x^2+\alpha^2)^2(e^x-1)}dx,\quad \alpha,n \in \mathbb{R}^{0+}. $$ This integral is old. I am also looking for literature on these ...
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251 views

The Monster PolyLog Integral $\int_0^\infty \frac{Li_n(-\sigma x)Li_m(-\omega x^2)}{x^3}dx$

I am trying to solve this integral $$ \int_{0}^{\infty} {{\rm Li}_{n}\left(-\sigma x\right){\rm Li}_m\left(-\omega x^{2}\right) \over x^{3}}\,{\rm d}x $$ which is from some high school training ...
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61 views

Prove that $\lim\limits_{t \rightarrow 0} \int\limits_{0}^{\infty} e^{-tx} f(x) dx = 1$ for $t>0$.

Suppose $f \in \mathcal{R}$ on $[0,A]$ for all $A < \infty$, and $f(x) \rightarrow 1$ as $x \rightarrow + \infty$. Prove that $\lim\limits_{t \rightarrow 0} \int\limits_{0}^{\infty} e^{-tx} f(x) ...
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105 views

Rudin's Principle of Mathematical Analysis Problem

If ${(s_n)}$ is a complex sequence, define its arithmetic means $\sigma_n$ by $$\sigma_n = \frac{s_0 +s_1 + ... + s_n}{n+1}$$ Assume that $M < \infty, |na_n| \leq M$ for all n and lim ...
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71 views

Is there a measure on $\mathbb{R^3}$ other than volume?

Of course there is the trivial measure where each subset of $\mathbb{R^3}$ have measure zero. But I am asking for a measure $\mu$ for which $\mu(E)=1$ where $E=[0,1]^3$. I thought about the radius, ...
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118 views

Lebesgue density theorem for compact metric spaces.

Let $X$ be a compact metric space (with balls $B_{\varepsilon }(x)$), $\mu $ a Borel probability measure, and $A$ a Borel set with positive probability. Do we have that $\lim_{\varepsilon ...
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370 views

Show that the iterated $\ln^{[n]}$ of tetration(x,n) is nowhere analytic

$$f(x) = \lim_{n\to \infty} \ln^{[n]} x \uparrow\uparrow n$$ The conjecture is that $f(x)$ is monotonic and infinitely differentiable at the real axis, but nowhere analytic; because at each point on ...
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123 views

Could $4+2+4+2+4+2+\cdots = -1 $?

In physics classes, on this StackExchange and even in blogs the sum $1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + \cdots = - \frac{1}{12} $ has been under the microscope. Why does $1+2+3+\dots = {-1\over 12}$? The ...
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45 views

Cone is a submanifold iff it is a vector subspace

Could you tell me how to prove the following? Let $\emptyset \neq M \subset \mathbb{R}^n $ be a cone ($\forall x \in M, t \in \mathbb{R} : tx \in M $ ), $0 \le d \le n.$ Prove that $M$ is a $d$ ...
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572 views

Fubini's Theorem for Infinite series

In the book what I've read, there is one point where the author suggest to begin the proof of the Fubini's Theorem for infinite sum in the case when is non-negative after this try to generalize. But ...
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202 views

$x^x = y$, given $y$ solve for $x$ analytically

This question has been bugging me since high school where I was told "not to be concerned with such matters", but years later I still haven't found a satisfying answer. The question is really simple: ...
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63 views

What is known about functions with alternating signs of partial deriavites?

Lately I have come accross a class of functions with alternating signs of their partial derivatives, in detail the class looks as follows $$\Big\{f:\mathbb{R}^n\longrightarrow\mathbb{R}: (-1)^k ...
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73 views

How much larger is the $\sigma$-algebra than the algebra in Caratheodory extension?

Given a 'measure' $\lambda$ on an algebra $\mathcal{A}$ of sets, Caratheodory gives a way to extend this $\lambda$ to a $\sigma$-algebra. The idea is we define an outer measure (on all subsets) ...
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111 views

Is the range of the Fourier transform $L^1(\mathbb{R}) \to C_0(\mathbb{R})$ closed under “quasi-inversion”?

Definitions: A function $f \in C_0(\mathbb{R})$ is quasi-invertible if $1 \notin \operatorname{ran}(f)$. The quasi-inverse of such an $f$ is $\frac{f}{f-1}$. Some discussion: Let $C_1(\mathbb{R})$ ...
4
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58 views

Zero arithmetic mean: bound on Abel sum?

Let $(a_0, a_1, a_2, \ldots)$ be a bounded sequence in $\mathbb{R}$ with arithmetic means \begin{equation} \frac{a_0 + a_1 + \cdots + a_{n-1}}{n} \end{equation} converging to zero as $n \to \infty$. ...
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66 views

Doubt about computability of integrals over open sets.

In Spivak's Calculus on Manifolds after showing that partitions of unity exists, Spivak defines integrals of functions over open sets as follows. He says: "An open cover $\mathcal{O}$ of an open ...