Theoretical foundations of calculus: limits, convergence of sequences, construction of the real numbers, least upper bound property, and related analysis topics such as continuity, differentiation, and integration through the fundamental theorem of calculus.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

0
votes
0answers
16 views

Inferring Probabilities from relative frequencies

I have an question concerning the converse strong law of large numbers By the Converse Strong Law of large numbers, i mean the general principle (2) which is the converse of the standard strong law ...
-1
votes
2answers
38 views

Give an example of a divergent and a convergent series such that the following holds: [on hold]

I'm having trouble with this: I need to find an example of a divergent series $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_n$ of positive numbers $a_n$ such that $lim_{n \rightarrow \infty }$ $a_{n + 1}/a_n$ = $lim_{n ...
2
votes
2answers
67 views

Lebesgue measure of graph of $\sin{\frac{1}{x}}$ on $[0,1]$

I am working on something and read that measure of graph of a continuous function on compact sets is zero. Now, I tried to do it for non continuous functions but the set of discontinuities have ...
1
vote
0answers
74 views
+50

Equivalence of 2 definitions of Differentiability

Let $X,Y$ be Banach spaces. I would like to prove the equivalence of the following definitions of differentiability. Let $f:X\to Y$ and $a\in X$ There is a map $\Delta : X \to L(X,Y)$ continuous at ...
1
vote
1answer
16 views

Pointwise Limits of functions

So the definition of a pointwise limit of a sequence of functions $f_{n}$ is $\lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} f_{n} = f$ if and only if $\lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} f_{n}(x) = f(x) \forall x$ in the ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

Hypothesis needed for existence of an interval without a function zero

While studying ODE I thought of the following problem: Let $f:A\subset\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ and $x_0\in A$ such that $f(x_0)=0$. What properties should have $f$ so as to allow us to conclude that ...
0
votes
0answers
40 views

If $f_n(x)$ are continuous functions from $[0,1]$ to $[0,1]$, and $f_n(x)\to f(x)$ as $n\to\infty$, then which of the following is true?

If $f_n(x)$ are continuous functions from $[0,1]$ to $[0,1]$, and $f_n(x)\to f(x)$ as $n\to\infty$, then which of the following is true ? (a) $f_n(x)$ converges to f(x) uniformly on $[0,1]$ (b) ...
1
vote
1answer
9 views

Example of a smooth $f$ such that $\sup_{t \in [0,1]}(f(t)/M - t)$ is not attained at $t = 0$

Let $f: [0, 1] \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ be a non-negative smooth function which is not identically zero. Let $M := \sup_{t \in [0, 1]} f(t)$. Is there an example of an $f$ such that $$\sup_{t \in [0, ...
4
votes
2answers
174 views

One of these two operators is not invertible

I have a Hilbert space $H$ and a bounded self-adjoint operator $T$ on it with $||T||=1$. I've been trying to show that at least one of $I+T, I-T$ are not invertible, but I haven't been able to make ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Prove this function is uniformly continuous by verifying the $\epsilon$-$\delta$ property?

$f(x) = \frac{5x}{2x-1}$ on $[1,\infty)$ Here's what I've worked through so far: $$|f(x) - f(y)| = \left|\frac{5x}{2x-1} - \frac{5y}{2y-1}\right| = \left|\frac{5y-5x}{(2x-1)(2y-1)}\right| ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Do there exists continuous functions on compact sets with infinite length?

Is it possible to construct a continuous function from $[0,1] \to \mathbb{R}$ whose length is infinite?
0
votes
1answer
34 views

A characterization of Bessel sequences in a Hilbert space

I've shown that if for a sequence $\{f_{n}\}_{n=1}^{\infty}$ in a Hilbert space $H$ we have $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}|\langle f,f_n\rangle|^{2}< \infty$$ for all $f\in H$ (i.e., it is a Bessel ...
1
vote
3answers
65 views

Compact subset of $\mathbb R$ whose Lebesgue measure is non-zero

Let $\mathbb R$ be the field of real numbers, $\mu$ the Lebesgue measure on it. Let $K$ be a compact subset of $\mathbb R$. Is the following assertion true? If $\mu(K) \gt 0$, then the interior ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

Convergence of $\int_0^1 \frac{\ln(1-x)\sqrt{x-x^2}}{\sin(\pi x)} \, dx$

I have difficulties with convergence of this integral: $$\int_0^1 \frac{\ln(1-x) \sqrt{x-x^2}}{\sin(\pi x)} \, dx$$ I found similar problem here Covergence of integral but I don't get the solution ...
2
votes
1answer
38 views

Some detail in the proof of the mean value formulae for harmonic functions

Let $B_r(x_0)$ and $\overline{B}_r(x_0)$ be the open and closed ball in $\mathbb{R}^n$, respectively $u\in C^2(B_r(x_0))$ and $\rho\in (0,r)$ $\lambda_n$ be the Lebesgue-measure on the ...
1
vote
2answers
62 views

Real Analysis: Continuity

$f(x)=\left\{ x^2+x, x \in \Bbb Q\right\}, f(x)=\left\{ x^3 + 1, x \notin \Bbb Q \right\}$ I want to prove that $f$ is discontinuous at $x \ne 1$. What I have so far is: Fix $\delta > 0$. We ...
2
votes
2answers
26 views

An open and closed ball in the discrete space

let $(X,d)$ be a metric space. I am trying to find what an open and closed ball looks like in the discrete space, i.e. when $d(x,y) = 0$ for $x = y$ and $1$ otherwise. Just considering the open ball ...
4
votes
4answers
90 views

How to evaluate $\lim _{n\to \infty }\:\int _{1/(n+1)}^{1/n}\:\frac{\sin\left(x\right)}{x^3}\:dx$?

We have to evaluate the following limit: $$\lim _{n\to \infty }\:\int _{\frac{1}{n+1}}^{\frac{1}{n}}\:\frac{\sin\left(x\right)}{x^3}\:dx,\:n\in \mathbb{N}$$ First step I wrote that $\int ...
3
votes
1answer
23 views

Fourier series and evaluation of another series

I was given to expand in a Fourier series the function $f(x)=|x|, \; x \in [-\pi, \pi]$. The Fourier series is quite known and I had done the calculations and I ended up to the formula: ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Continuity of integral from x to x+1 of Lp function

For $1 \le p < \infty$ and $f \in L^p({\bf R})$ define $g(x) = \int_x^{x+1} f(t) dt$. How do I shew that $g$ is continuous? In the case $p = 1$, we have $|g(x) - g(y)| \le \int_{y}^{x} |f(t)| dt ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

Fourier transform of Schwartz functions

I am stuck with the following question: Suppose $f \in \mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R})$ satisfies $\widehat{f}(\xi)=0$ for $|\xi|<1.$ Prove that there exists $g \in \mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R})$ such that ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Strong convergence of product of operators on a Banach space

If $\{T_n\},\{S_n\}$ are two sequences of bounded operators on a Banach space $X$, such that $\{T_n\}$ converges weakly to $T$, and $\{S_n\}$ converges strongly to $S$, does it follow that $T_nS_n\to ...
0
votes
1answer
18 views

Convergence in the weak operator topology implies uniform boundedness in the norm topology?

If $\{T_n\}$ is a sequence of bounded operators on the Banach space $X$ which converge in the weak operator topology, could someone help me see why it is uniformly bounded in the norm topology? I ...
1
vote
1answer
18 views

What kind of information is available in a Fourier series expansion of an analytic function that is not (readily) available in a Taylor series?

What kind of information is available in a Fourier series expansion of a real analytic function that is not (readily) available in a power series? When would one know to work with one over the other?
2
votes
1answer
45 views

Show that this path is differentiable but not rectifiable

My path is defined as follows: $\gamma:[1,1]\rightarrow \mathbb R, \space \gamma(t):= \begin{cases} \ (0,0) & \text{if $t$=0} \\[2ex] t,t^2 \cos (\frac{\pi}{t^2}), & \text{if $t$ $\in$ ...
3
votes
1answer
36 views

Two numbers are chosen at random over the interval $ [0,1]$

Two real numbers, $x$ and $y$ are chosen at random over the interval $ [0,1]$. What is the probability that the closest integer to $\frac{x}{y}$ will be even? Floor functions don't place nicely with ...
3
votes
1answer
34 views

Convergence in Fréchet spaces and the topology

actually i have two questions concerning Fréchet spaces (i am not familiar with these spaces so i need some help). I have a vector space $V$ with a distance $$d(x,y) = \sum_{n\in \mathbb{N}} ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Doubt on asymptotics of continous functions (little-o notation and taylor expansion).

Suppose I have $e^{(\frac{1}{n}b + o(\frac{1}{n}))}$ then $\lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} = e^0 = 1$ so $$e^{(\frac{1}{n}b + o(\frac{1}{n}))} = o(1) +1$$ But if I take the Taylor expansion of ...
3
votes
0answers
32 views

Too strong assumption in the Uniqueness Theorem of Rudin's Real and Complex Analysis?

In Rudin's Real and Complex Analysis, there is the following result about Fourier transforms. The Uniqueness Theorem If $f\in L^1(\mathbb{R})$ and $\hat{f}(t)=0$ for all $t\in\mathbb{R}$, then ...
0
votes
2answers
30 views

compute the smallest affine subspace containing $S$, where $S=\{(1,1,1),(2,3,4),(1,2,3),(2,1,0)\}$ is a set of vectors in $\mathbb R^3$

I've started to study convexity to enchance my optimization skills. Given a set $S=\{(1,1,1),(2,3,4),(1,2,3),(2,1,0)\}$ of vectors in $\mathbb R^3$ an exercise asks to compute the smallest affine ...
2
votes
0answers
56 views
+50

Limit of the projection of a matrix when the projection is not continuous

Consider two real matrices: the $n\times n$ matrix $A$ the $n\times m$ matrix $B$ of rank $m$, with $m<n$. Let, for $a\in\mathbb{R}$, $$S_a=A-aI_n,$$ and denote by $P_a$ the orthogonal ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

finding the continuity of a function

I need to find the value of $a$ for which the function $f(x,y)= \frac{x^2-y^2}{x^2+y^2}$ if $(x,y) \neq (0,0) $ and $f(x,y)=a$ when $(x,y)=(0,0)$ when continuous along the path $y=b\sqrt{x}$ where ...
3
votes
4answers
416 views

Why is the Riemann sum less than the value of the integral?

Why is $ \frac{1}{n}\sum_{k=1}^n \frac{1}{1+\frac{k}{n}}\leq\int_0^1 \frac{dx}{1+x}=\log 2 $? Because I think: $$\int _0^1\frac{dx}{1+x}=\frac{1}{n}\sum _{k=1}^n\frac{1}{1+\frac{k}{n}}$$ Why is the ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

Terminology for functions such that $f(x)\ge x$ for all $x$

Is there a common terminology for a real function $f$ such that $$f(x)\ge x$$ for all $x$? same question for the conditions $\forall x,f(x)>x$; $\forall x,f(x)\le x$; $\forall x,f(x)<x$. (I'm ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Need help in understanding proof of continuity of monotone function

I am reading the following proof of a proposition from Royden+Fitzpatrick, 4th edition, and need help in understanding the last half of the proof. (My comments in italics.) Proposition: Let $A$ be ...
7
votes
5answers
469 views

Why the radius of convergence and not “areas of convergence” for power series?

My calculus is quite rusty and I'm trying to rebuild it on an intuitive basis. Currently, I am looking at power series and have trouble understanding the radius of convergence. I am comfortable with ...
4
votes
8answers
738 views

Error in my proof?

What is wrong in this proof. It seems correct to me but still doesn't make proper sense. $$\sqrt{\cdots\sqrt{\sqrt{\sqrt{5}}}}=5^{1/\infty}=5^0=1$$ EDIT So does this mean that $5^{1/\infty} = 1$ ...
2
votes
1answer
56 views

double root and newton method, a problem on solved exercise? [on hold]

$f(x)$ in $x= \alpha$ has double roots and define in $\alpha$ neighbor. if the sequence $\{x_n\}$ for solving $f(x)=0$ calculated by newton methods the following is correct. ($a$ and $b$ is plasced ...
1
vote
2answers
53 views

How we can prove that: $\sum _{k=n}^n f\left(\frac{k}{n}\right)\le n\cdot \log(2)$?

$f:\left[0,1\right]\rightarrow R,\:f(x)=\frac{1}{1+x}$ and we have to show that $\sum_{k=n}^n f\left(\frac{k}{n}\right)\le n\cdot\log(2)$. What I know is just that: $n\cdot \log(2)=\int_0^1 ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Is this sufficient for $f'' \in L^2$?

Let $f \in L^2(0,2\pi)$ be taken such that $f$ and $f'$ are absolutely continuous on $[0,2\pi]$ with $f(0) = f(2\pi)$ and $f'(0)= f'(2\pi).$ Is this sufficient to conclude from this that $f'' \in ...
0
votes
1answer
43 views

a continuous function

Let $C([a,b])$ be the collection of all functions $f:\mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ such that continuous on $[a,b]$. It is known that if $f\in C([a,b])$ then $f$ is continuous on every sub-interval of ...
3
votes
2answers
117 views

maximum area of semi-circle in square

I'm struggling the with the following question: Given is a square with length $a$. Now I want to find a semi-circle with the max. area. Looks like this: ...
1
vote
2answers
67 views

A theoretic question about cosine general solution.

I have to find the extremas of: $f(x)=x-\tan({x\over 2})$ .$(\pi\le x\le\pi)$ Last result is $\cos({x\over 2})=\pm{1\over \sqrt{2}}$. I get that: ${x\over 2}=\pm{\pi\over 4}+2\pi k$ which derives: ...
4
votes
3answers
101 views

Proving $\left(a+\frac{2}{a}\right)^2+\left(b+\frac{2}{b}\right)^2\ge \frac{81}{2}$ for all positive real $a,b$ such that $a+b=1$

I approached this problem in two different ways, but only one was successful. I'll post the latter as an answer, while here follows the first approach: I expanded the squares: ...
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Isn't $\gamma_{n,g}=0$ if $g>n-3$?

Let $\gamma_{n,g}$ the number of ways of putting down x $y's$ on the intervall $[0,n-1]$ with the $y's$ separated by at least two $z's$ and let $\gamma_n=\sum_{g=0}^{n}\gamma_{n,g}$. Maybe a stupid ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

References for a notion related to radially lower semicontinuity

Let $E$ be a real vector space, $C\subset E$ be a nonempty convex set and $z\in C$. Let $f:C\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ such that $$ \textbf{(A)} \quad f(z)\leq\limsup_{t\downarrow 0}f(z+t(w-z))\quad ...
1
vote
1answer
15 views

Extermal curve for specific problems?

I ran into a quiz question last month. how we can find the Extermal curve for following problem. $$ \int_1^2 \frac {\dot {x}^2}{t^3} dt $$ where $x(1)=2, \ x(2)=17$
0
votes
0answers
15 views

Approach on solving limit equation systems and finding some f given assymptotes?

This is a "reverse" question of finding the asymptote of a function Recently, I am interested in doing some sort of modelling which involve equations of the form $$@(t)=1-f(t)$$ where $f(t)$ is ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

A problem on finding the nearest points to the origin on the intersection of two surfaces

Suppose we are to find the points nearest to the origin on the curve of intersection of the two surfaces $g^{-1}_{1}\{ 0 \}$ and $g_{2}^{-1}\{ 0 \}$, where $g_{1}: (x, y, z) \mapsto x^{2} - xy + y^{2} ...
0
votes
2answers
41 views

Use the Mean Value Theorem to prove [on hold]

Use the Mean Value Theorem to prove that $|\sin x - \sin y| \leq |x - y|$ for all $x,y \in \mathbb{R}$.