Theoretical foundations of calculus: limits, convergence of sequences, construction of the real numbers, least upper bound property, and related analysis topics such as continuity, differentiation, and integration through the fundamental theorem of calculus.

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5
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35 views

Importance of compactness in Rudin problem.

Okay the problem goes like this: Suppose X, Y, Z are metric spaces, and Y is compact. Let $f$ map X into Y, let g be a continuous one-to-one mapping of Y into Z, and put $h(x)=g(f(x))$ for $x\in ...
1
vote
1answer
19 views

L^p spaces are separable and complete but not compact?

Where is the mistake in my reasoning?: Let X be a separable metric space, then for every $p\in [1,\infty)$ and for every borel measure $\mu$ on $X$: $L^p_{\mu}(X)$ is separable. Therefore by a ...
-1
votes
1answer
39 views

Why is there a subsequence of $(x_n)$ that converges to some point $y$ in $\mathbb R^p$?

A subset $A\subseteq\mathbb R^p$ is compact iff for every sequence $(x_n)$ in $A$ there is a subsequence $(x_{n_k})$ which converges to a point of $A$. I understand the whole proof of the above ...
1
vote
2answers
27 views

Show every chain has an upperbound?

Sometimes I feel like proofs like this are pointless. I mean, if we have a partially ordered subset, it seems automatically true that you have a max element. 1) Either you have an infinite sequence ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Example for the benefit from monotone convergence

I want to see a (preferably simple) example where I can apply monotone convergence to a sequence of functions $f_n$ but where I cant exchange limitation and integration in terms of the Riemann ...
0
votes
3answers
62 views

Open sets and compact spaces

I am reading through Rudin's Principles of Mathematical Analysis and had a few related questions. First, Rudin defines an open set, $E$, as a set such that every point is an interior point. A point ...
1
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1answer
28 views

does constant convexity assures global minimum

I have the following question: Consider a function $f:R^n \longrightarrow R$, s.t.: there is a point $x_0 \in R^n$ s.t. $\frac{\partial f}{\partial x^k} =0$ $\forall k$. the hessian matrix ...
6
votes
0answers
33 views
+100

Diffeomorphism-invariant spaces of smooth functions

Let's start with an interesting story. In his celebrated Partial Differential Relations (p. 146), the great Misha Gromov gives a nice exercise of which the following is a (strict) part. Exercise. ...
2
votes
1answer
59 views

Find a cut-off function in a ball.

Let $0\le r< R\le 1$. How do we find a function $\eta\in C^1(\mathbb{R})$ such that $\eta=1$ in $B_r$ (the ball center at $0$ and radius $r$) and $\eta=0$ outside $B_R$ and $|D\eta|\le ...
2
votes
3answers
26 views

Boundedness theorem question proof check

Here is an attempt at a solution: Since $f(x)>0$, $f(x)>\delta$ for all x between $1$ and $2$ Is this correct?
1
vote
2answers
51 views

Show that $A$ is open in $\mathbb R$

I got this question in a test earlier today. I know it is a very small question, since it only counted 2 marks, but for some reason I simply could not get it?? Let $f:\mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ be ...
1
vote
3answers
48 views

How many continuous involutions on $\mathbb R$ are there? [duplicate]

An involution is a function that satisfies the following: $f = f^{-1}$ MY question is how many involutions can you find in the set of real functions, and how would you go about solving that problem? ...
2
votes
0answers
35 views

Continuous function on compact subset of $\mathbb R$ to itself has a fixed point.

Let $f:[a,b] \to [a,b]$ be continuous. Then $f$ has at least a fixed point. I read the following proof from Limaye book. Define $F(x)=f(x)-x.$ Since $a \leq f(x) \leq b,\ \quad F(a)\leq 0 \ \quad ...
-3
votes
1answer
16 views

how to construct a monotonic function on a closed interval which is discontinuous at each end points [on hold]

How to construct a monotonic function on a [0,1] which is discontinuous at each end points?
1
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1answer
19 views

modulation-translation operator continuous in $L^{p}$ norm?

We put, $T_{y}f(x):=f(x-y), \ (x, y\in \mathbb R^{n}).$ It is well-known that $\|T_yf-f\|_{L^{p}} \to 0$ as $y\to 0$ for $1\leq p <\infty.$ Next we put, $M_tT_yf(x):= f(x-ty) e^{i t (x\cdot y)}, ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

Prove or disprove regarding continuity of $f$ and $g$

Prove or disprove: Let, $f,g:[a,b]\to \mathbb R$ be continuous in $[a,b]$ and are non-zero at any point. There exists $c\in [a,b]$ such that $$g(c)\int_a^bf(x)\,dx=f(c)\int_a^b g(x)\,dx.$$ ...
-1
votes
1answer
28 views

Find the point-wise limit of this sequence of function $\{f_n(x)\}$.

Consider the sequence of function $\{f_n(x)\}$ in $[0,1]$ where , $$f_n(x)=\begin{cases}0 & \text{ if } x=0\\n^2x & \text{ if } x\in [0,\frac{1}{n}]\\-n^2x+n^2 & \text{ if } x\in ...
0
votes
0answers
64 views

Why Cantor set removes one third?

I found the derivation of Cantor-like set in Understanding Analysis by Abbott. There he removes one fourth, and most properties (length, cardinality, compactness, uncountableness) are preserved ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

convex function with Hessian measure $D^2 f \leqslant \lambda$ $\lambda$-concave?

Let $f:R^n \to R$ be convex (may not $C^1$), $$[D^2f]=[D^2f]_{ac}+[D^2f]_s=[h_{ij}] L^n+[D^2f]_s$$ is the Lebesgue decomposition of the Hessian matrix. Where $[h_{ij}]$ is the density w.r.t the ...
2
votes
1answer
35 views

Proof Norm is Continuous

Someone just asked me why the norm of a normed space is continuous, and the answer I gave them satisfied them, but I'm not sure if it should. Something seems amiss. Let $\rho: X \to \mathbb{R}^+_0$ ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Can a real value function, defined for every real number, have finite (or numerable) points of continuity?

Can a real value function, defined for every real number, have finite (or countable) points of continuity ? As for the not countable case, the answer is trivial: any polynomial has not countable ...
1
vote
1answer
78 views

Find all continuous function $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ such that $(f(x))^2+8=\int\limits_0^xf(t)dt$

Find all continuous function $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ such that $$(f(x))^2+8=\int\limits_0^xf(t)dt$$ If I set $F(x)=\int\limits_0^xf(t)dt$ then $F$ is differentiable and $F'(x)=f(x)$, ...
2
votes
1answer
29 views

How can I find these partial derivatives?

I'm reading a book which gives this function $f(x,y)=x^2y/(x^2+y^2)$ if $(x,y)\neq (0,0)$ and $f(0,0)=0$ as a $C^1$ function in $\mathbb R^2-\{(0,0)\}$, continuous in $(0,0)$ and it has the partial ...
0
votes
1answer
68 views

Differences between real and complex analysis?

To start with, real analysis deals with numbers along the (one dimensional) number line, while complex analysis deals with numbers along two dimensions, real and imaginary, Cartesian style. Could this ...
1
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2answers
47 views

If $\frac{\partial F^i}{\partial x^j}=0$ on a connected open set, is $F$ constant?

Let $U$ be open in $\mathbb{R}^n$ and let $$F:U\to \mathbb{R}^m$$ be a smooth map, i.e. $F\in C^\infty(U)$. It is easy to prove that if $U$ is convex and $$\frac{\partial F^i}{\partial x^j}=0\tag{1}$$ ...
-3
votes
0answers
29 views

Definition of limit point [on hold]

Let $X \subset \mathbb{R}$. What does it mean for $x$ to be a limit point of $X$? (a) Every sequence $x_1, x_2, x_3, \dots$ which converges to $x$ , must lie in $X$. (b) There exists a sequence ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

Is the linear operators must be invertible to from a category?

I am trying to understand the concept of category in mathematics. For example the following link talks about category $Lin$ which is an Abelian category. ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

A real integral (may be requires contour integration)?

The integral I have in mind is $$\int^\infty_0 x^{r}(x + \lambda)^{-1}dx$$ where $r \in (-1, 0)$, and $\lambda$ is a non-negative constant. I apologize if this is really easy and I am missing some ...
-1
votes
1answer
21 views

If $u_k$ converges uniformly on $\partial \Omega$, does it converge uniformly on $\Omega$?

Let $u_k$ be continuous on $\overline \Omega$ and harmonic in $\Omega$. Suppose $u_k$ converges uniformly on $\partial \Omega$. Can we conclude that $u_k$ converges uniformly on $\Omega$?
0
votes
1answer
32 views

$L^1([0, 1]) \subset C([0, 1])^*$

Basically my question is: how can I prove that $L^1([0, 1]) \subset C([0, 1])^*$, where $C([0, 1])$ represents all continuous functions on $[0, 1]$, and the superscript $^*$ means the dual space. ...
1
vote
2answers
58 views

Find functions $f$ and $\alpha$ such that $\int_1^{\infty}|f|d\alpha$ converges, but $\int_1^{\infty}fd\alpha$ does not exist?

Find functions $f$ and $\alpha$ such that the improper Riemann-Stieltjes integral $\int_1^{\infty}|f|d\alpha$ converges, but $\int_1^{\infty}fd\alpha$ does not exist? I'm really not sure how to start ...
3
votes
0answers
39 views

Convergence of the integral of a product of functions.

Let $\phi:\mathbb{R^n}\to\mathbb{R}$ be a Lebesgue-measurable function, with the property that for every $n$-dimensional cube $Q$ in $\mathbb{R^n}$, we have $$ \left|\int_{Q}\phi(x)dx ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

If $f \in L^2 \cap C_c$ then $\sum_{n \in \mathbb{Z}}|\hat{f}(\xi+2\pi n)|^2 = a_0+…a_n \cos(2 \pi n \xi)$

Let $f \in L^2 \cap C_c$ , then I want to show that $$g(\xi):=\sum_{n \in \mathbb{Z}}|\hat{f}(\xi+2\pi n)|^2 = a_0 + 2 \sum_{n=1}^{N}c_n \cos(2\pi n \xi) $$ for some $N \in \mathbb{N}.$ Does ...
6
votes
0answers
90 views

Difficult Fourier transform exercise

I am currently dealing with a problem in functional analysis where I want to show the following. Let $\phi_{k+1}(x):=\sqrt{2} \sum_{n \in \mathbb{Z}} h(n) \phi_k(2x-n)$ and $\phi_0= \chi_{[0,1]},$ if ...
-1
votes
1answer
65 views

Example of projection sequence on Hilbert space with strong limit P

Let $P_n$ be strongly convergent with limit $P$, where $P_n$'s are projections on a Hilbert space $H$.Suppose that $P_n(H)$ is infinite dimensional. Show by example that P(H)$ may be finite ...
-2
votes
4answers
33 views

Proof $log_{r} a = log_r s \cdot log_s a $ [on hold]

Do you know any proof of this logarithms property: $log_{r} a = log_r s \cdot log_s a $
0
votes
2answers
45 views

A probability theory question [on hold]

let X be a rondom variable and coonsider a non-negative function $g: \Bbb R \to \Bbb R^+$ Please help me sshowing this following statement; for $r\in \Bbb R^+ $, $$P(g(X)\gt r) ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

On the rearrangement of an infinite series of real numbers. [duplicate]

A chapter of a text book ended with. If we rearrange infinitely terms of a series that converges only conditionally, we may get results that are far different from the original series ...
3
votes
2answers
61 views

Folland, “Real Analysis”, Chapter 5.3, Exercise 36.

Folland, "Real Analysis", Chapter 5.3, Exercise 36: Let $\mathcal{X}$ be a separable Banach space and let $\mu$ be counting measure on $\mathbf{N}$. Suppose that $\left\{x_n\right\}_1^\infty$ ...
2
votes
1answer
35 views

How to pick decimal expansion in the proof that $(0,1)$ uncountable

Prove $(0,1)$ is uncountable. Suppose $(0,1)$ were countable. List $(0,1)$ as: $x_1=0.a_{11}a_{12}\dots$ $x_2=0.a_{21}a_{22}\dots$ and so on, where $a_{ij}$ are integers from $0$ to $9$. ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

curves and integral

Find the area between these curves. $$y=\dfrac{3}{2x+1},\qquad y=3x-2;\qquad x=2\quad \text{et} \quad y=0 $$ indeed, I calculate the integral of the blue function between $1$ and $2$. Then, I ...
2
votes
0answers
32 views

Prove that disk algebra is isomorphic to the closure of $\mathbb{C}(z)$ in $C(\mathbb{T})$.

Let $D = \{ z \in \mathbb{C} : |z| < 1 \}$ be the open unit disk and $\mathbb{T} = \{ z \in \mathbb{C} : |z| = 1 \}$ its boundary. We will naturally write $\bar{D}$ for its closure $\{ z \in ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Real analysis-proving limit existence for an evaluated function

I don't understand how to define delta for this problem
-2
votes
2answers
59 views

A question related to measura space

Let a real value $X$ be a random variable and consider $\int_{\Omega}|X|dP \lt \infty $. I need to show that \begin{equation*} nP(|X|\gt n)\to_{n\to \infty} 0. \end{equation*} please help me ...
3
votes
1answer
34 views

Hessian-Matrix positive definite $\iff$ $a$ local minimum?

It is commonly known that if $f$ is twice differentiable, $\nabla f(a) = 0$ and $H_f(a)$ positive definite, $a$ is a local minimum. So, in short: $H_f(a)$ positive definite $ \implies $ $a$ local ...
3
votes
1answer
49 views

length of the curve $y=x^n$ in the unit square

Let $l_n$ be the length of the curve $y=x^n$ in $[0,1]\times[0,1]$. Then obviously $\lim_{n\to\infty}l_n = 2$. What about $\lim_{n\to\infty}(n(2-l_n))$ ? The formula $l_n = ...
2
votes
1answer
94 views

Study the following integral: $\int_0^\infty \frac{\mathrm{d} x}{x \cdot \ln x \cdot \ln^{(2)} x \cdot \ln^{(3)} x … (\ln^{(k)} x)^s }$

How do I calculate for which values of $s$ the following integral converges? $$\int\limits_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\mathrm{d} x}{x \cdot \ln x \cdot \ln^{(2)} x \cdot \ln^{(3)} x \cdots (\ln^{(k)} ...
6
votes
2answers
88 views

Limit of $\frac{f\left(x+g\left(x\right)\right)-f\left(g\left(x\right)\right)}{x}$ as $x\to 0$

I'm trying to answer the following question: Let $f$ be continuously differentiable in all of $\mathbb{R}$ and let $g:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ be a function satisfying ...
1
vote
2answers
33 views

Using the same limit for a second derivative

I've been trying to answer the same question answered here: Second derivative "formula derivation" And I'm stuck in a step that is not addressed both in the answer and in the comments of ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Approximating roots

Given $n,r\in\Bbb N$, assume $a=n^\frac{1}r$. Assume that $a_d$ is $a$ truncated to $d$ digits ($d$ is total digits both before and after decimal Eg: truncating $412.243$ to $2$ digits is $410.000$ ...