Theoretical foundations of calculus: limits, convergence of sequences, construction of the real numbers, least upper bound property, and related analysis topics such as continuity, differentiation, and integration through the fundamental theorem of calculus.

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9
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3answers
880 views

Must all Lebesgue integrable functions really be invertible?

I am studying Lebesgue integration after a course on Riemann integration, and the definition of measurable function is given as follows: $f:{\mathbb R}\rightarrow {\mathbb R}$ is measurable if the ...
1
vote
2answers
56 views

Predicate logic inference in a simple proof of uniform continuity.

For a function $f$ from a metric space $X$ into a metric space $Y$, uniform continuity can defined in this way: $\forall ε>0:\existsδ > 0:\forall p,q\in X:d_{X}(p,q)<δ \rightarrow d_{Y}(f(p),...
1
vote
2answers
46 views

Riemann Stieltjes and Riemann sum

This is not a question rather I am asking for a clarification. Ok, what are the difference between these two formulas to find $U(P,f)$ and $L(P,f)$: $U(P,f) = \sum_{i = 1}^{n} M_j\cdot \Delta x$ and ...
2
votes
2answers
178 views

Evaluating a limit?

Suppose that $f$ is differentiable at $x$. Evaluate $\lim_{h\rightarrow 0}\frac{f(x+2015h)-f(x+2014h)}{h}$. So, I was thinking of making the substitution $y=x+2014h$. So then it becomes $\lim_{h\...
5
votes
2answers
102 views

What does Dini continuity mean?

What does Dini continuity (the integral condition) mean visually? Description of Dini contuity: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dini_continuity
1
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2answers
41 views

Show that the series converges ($l^2$)

I know that $\sum_{k=1}^\infty|y_n|^2=S<\infty$. I also have that $\lambda >1$. I need to show that $$ \sum_{k=1}^\infty \left| \frac{y_1}{\lambda^k} + \frac{y_2}{\...
0
votes
2answers
37 views

Proving that a sequence converges?

Let $q$, $x$, $y$ be real numbers and $0$$\leq$$q$$<$$1$. Define a sequence ($a_{n}$) by $a_{1}$:=$y$ and $a_{n+1}$:=$q$($a_{n}$+$x$) for all $n$$\geq$$1$. Does ($a_{n}$) converge? So if $q$ is ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Example of equicontinuous sequence of functions which is not convergent

I need to prove there exits an equicontinuous sequence which is not pointwise convergent. I have been working on it but unfortunately , I am not even near to find such sequence of functions. Does ...
3
votes
0answers
106 views

Calculating in closed form $\int_0^{\infty} \frac{\text{PolyLog}^{(1,0)}(1,-x)}{1+x^2} \, dx$

Can you confirm the following result? Mathematica and other computational stuff I used seem unable to do anything about this result. Maybe to confirm it numerically? $$\int_0^{\infty} \frac{\text{...
1
vote
1answer
68 views

Evaluation of Real Integral

Given the following definition:$$I=\int\limits_{0}^{2\pi}e^{-i\theta n}\left(\frac{1}{n}\right)^{\rho e^{i\theta}}d\theta$$ Is there an analytic method for evaluating this integral? Best Regards
0
votes
0answers
13 views

Lipschitz method writing the unique solution.

So the problem gives $f(t,y) = y \cos t$ with $t$ between or equal to $0$ and $2$. I already know the lipschitz method holds with $L=1$. But I'm not sure how to find the unique solution which turned ...
2
votes
2answers
47 views

Measure space and measurable function

Let $f :\mathbb R\rightarrow \mathbb R$ is a continuous function then the set $\{x \in \mathbb R : \mu ((f^{-1}(x)) >0 \}$ has a zero measure. I think in the case, if f is a step function this ...
1
vote
0answers
120 views

Conjecturing the closed form $\frac{\pi ^2}{8}-\frac{\pi ^2}{8 \sqrt{2}}+\frac{\pi \log (2)}{4 \sqrt{2}}$

I conjecture that $$\small \int_0^{\pi/2} \frac{\cos ^2(x) \left(-2 \log \left(4^{-\sin ^2(x)} \sin ^{-4 \sin ^2(x)}(x)\right)-4 \log (\cos (x))+\cos (2 x) (4 \log (\cos (x))+\pi +\log (4))\right)}{\...
2
votes
1answer
93 views

Identity of $\coth $ using Fourier series

The exercise wants me to prove the identity $$\pi \coth \pi a= \frac{1}{a}+ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{2a}{n^2+a^2}$$ using the Fourier series of $\cosh ax, \; x \in [-\pi, \pi], \; a \neq 0$. ...
10
votes
2answers
132 views

Are convex functions enough to determine a measure?

Suppose we are talking about $\mathbb{R}^n$. We know that if $\mu$, $\nu$ are two finite Borel measures such that $$\int_{\mathbb{R}^n}f(x) \, d\mu(x)=\int_{\mathbb{R}^n}f(x) \, d\nu(x),$$ for all ...
2
votes
2answers
52 views

Function on half plane, continuity

let $\mu$ be a finite positive borel measure on $\mathbb{R}$ and let $\mathbb{H}$ denote the upper half plane $\{(x,y) \in \mathbb{R}^2: y > 0\}$. consider the functions $$f(x,y,t)=\frac{1+t^2}{(t-...
0
votes
3answers
58 views

Find bounded function satisfying f(0)=0, f'(0)=0, and bounded first and second derivatives

I am looking for a bounded funtion $f$ on $\mathbb{R}_+$ satisfying $f(0)=0$, $f'(0)=0$ and with bounded first and second derivatives. My intitial idea has been to consider trigonometric functions or ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Numerical differentiation (approximation with three supporting points )

Given the supporting points $x-2h,x-h,x+2h$. Determine the difference quotient Du(x) in the form $$Du(x)=au(x-2h)+bu(x-h)+cu(x+2h)$$ for the numerical approximation of $u'(x)$ of order $2$. What ...
0
votes
2answers
73 views

Use Fourier Transform to Show that $f=0$ a.e.

I was working through an old qualifier on my own when I ran across this following question that I was unable to crack. Here it is verbatim: "Let $f\in L^2(\mathbb{R}, \mathcal{L}, m)$ and suppose ...
0
votes
2answers
80 views

I need help to show that some function is nonnegative

This is a function of $x\in(0,1]$ $$(a_0+v_0 )\left(a_1+\frac{1}{K}\right)\left(a_0+(1-x) \frac{1}{K}\right)-(a_1+v_1 ) \left(a_0+\frac{1}{K}\right)(a_0+(1-x) v_0 )$$ The conditions are: $a_0,a_1,K&...
3
votes
4answers
96 views

$f(x) = \frac{2}{x}$ is not uniformly continuous on $(0,1]$

Show that $f(x) = \frac{2}{x}$ is not uniformly continuous on $(0,1]$ WLOG Suppose, $0< \delta \leq 1.$ Let, $\epsilon = 1$ and $x = \frac{\delta}{2}, y = x + \frac{\delta}{3}, x,y \in (0,1]$ ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Rudin 8.16 $\int_X \phi \circ f d\mu = \int_0^\infty \mu\{f > t \} \phi'(t)dt$ hypotheses

Theorem 8.16 in Rudin's Real and Complex analysis states $$\int_X \phi \circ f d\mu = \int_0^\infty \mu\{f > t \} \phi'(t)dt$$ under the conditions that $\mu$ is $\sigma$-finite, $f,\phi \geq 0$ ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

How to prove this “local invertibility” theorem for bounded linear operators?

The theorem states that, suppose $X,Y$ are complete normed vector spaces, if $\mathscr A_0\in \mathscr L(X;Y)$ is invertible (i.e., $\exists \mathscr A_0^{-1}\in\mathscr L(Y;X)$ s.t. $(\mathscr A_0\...
1
vote
2answers
54 views

Sum over values of auxiliary function gets arbitrary big, justification

Let $f : \mathbb N_{>0} \to \mathbb R_{\ge 0}$ be a function satisfying $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} 2^{-f(n)} = \infty$ (like $f(n) = \log n$). Define $$ F(n) = \left\lfloor \log_2\left( \sum_{i=1}^n 2^{-...
3
votes
0answers
79 views

Reference request: The compactness and compact embedding in Besov Space?

This post has been on MathOverflow for couple of days but receive no response. So I put it here hoping for more attentions. Thank you guys! Let $\Omega\subset \mathbb R^N$ be open bounded with ...
0
votes
2answers
135 views

Proving that a function is Riemann Integrable

The usual definition to the Riemann integral is: for every $ε>0$, there exists $\delta$ such that if $P$ is a partition of $[a,b]$, and $\|P\|<\delta$, then $|S(f;P)-s|<\epsilon$. Then $f$ is ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

Specific problem on Radon measures from Folland's real analysis on $ C_0(X) $

Hello all I am trying to understand the concept of $ C_0(X) $ within the concept of Radon measures as presented in Folland's real analysis chapter 7, so far so good right until I came across problem ...
3
votes
1answer
82 views

A question on the Banach fixed point theorem.

Suppose $f:(X,\tilde{d})\rightarrow(X,d)$ be a continuous function satisfying \begin{eqnarray}d(f(x),f(y))\leq \lambda d(x,y),\end{eqnarray} $\lambda > 1$. Let $\tilde{d}(x,y)=\lambda d(x,y)$. I ...
0
votes
1answer
85 views

How to prove the following inequality? (or a counter example)

We know that we have $[\int |f(x)|^{p} \mu(dx)]^{1/p}\leq [\int |f(x)|^{q} \mu(dx)]^{1/q}$ when $p\leq q$, where $\mu$ is a probability measure and $f$ is a smooth function. Do we in general have the ...
0
votes
1answer
65 views

Given a real $x$ and an integer $N \gt 1$, prove that there exist integers $h$ and $k$ with $0 \lt k \le N$ such that $|kx-h|\lt 1/N$. [duplicate]

Given a real $x$ and an integer $N \gt 1$, prove that there exist integers $h$ and $k$ with $0 \lt k \le N$ such that $|kx-h|\lt 1/N$. Hint. Consider the $N+1$ numbers $tx-[tx]$ for $t=0,1,2,\dots, N$ ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Boundedness of an operator with kernel

Let $K(x,y)$ be measurable in $\mathbb{R}^2.$ Suppose there is a positive, measurable (w.r.t Lebesgue measure on $\mathbb{R}$) $w(x)$ and $A\geq 0$ such that $$\int_{-\infty}^\infty \vert K(x,y) \...
4
votes
3answers
77 views

Determine the value of $ p $ for which the following infinite series converges and for which it diverges.

Determine the value of $ p $ for which the following infinite series converges and for which it diverges: $$ \sum_{n = 2}^{\infty} \frac{\sqrt{n + 2} - \sqrt{n - 2}}{n^{p}}. $$ I don’t know how to ...
1
vote
6answers
164 views

Is this:$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{(-1)}^{\frac{n(n-1)}{2}}\frac{1}{n}$ a convergent series?

Is there someone who can show me how do I evaluate this sum :$$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{(-1)}^{\frac{n(n-1)}{2}}\frac{1}{n}$$ Note : In wolfram alpha show this result and in the same time by ratio test it'...
1
vote
2answers
132 views

Why do the integers, rationals and any countable set have zero measure?

There is an exercise in my text that tells me to prove the "obvious and easy to see" fact that $\mathbb{Z}$ and $\mathbb{Q}$ have measure zero. Er...here is what I know so far. If I have an interval, ...
3
votes
3answers
117 views

Determine if this series $ \sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{n^6+13n^5+n+1}{n^7+13n^4+9n+2}$ converges

Determine if the following series converges: $$ \sum_{n=0}^\infty\frac{n^6+13n^5+n+1}{n^7+13n^4+9n+2}. $$ (http://i.stack.imgur.com/qWiuy.png) I don't know how to start.
0
votes
2answers
91 views

Does this function achieve a maximum or minimum?

Suppose that $u$: $\mathbb{R}$ $\rightarrow$ $\mathbb{R}$ is continuous and $\lim_{x\to\infty}$ $u(x)$=$\lim_{x\to-\infty}$ $u(x)$=0. Does $u$ achieve a maximum or a minimum value on $\mathbb{R}$? I ...
1
vote
2answers
51 views

Determine if $ \sum_{n \geq 2} \frac{1}{\sqrt[n]{\ln n}}$ congerges

Determine if the following series converges: $$ \sum_{n \geq 2} \frac{1}{\sqrt[n]{\ln n}}.$$ I'm supposed to use here the limit comparison test, but I don't know how to choose the second series.
9
votes
3answers
388 views

What is wrong with this proof of $0=1$?

I am trying to understand what is wrong with the proof posted here that $0=1$ (source): Given any $x$, we have (by using the substitution $u=x^2/y$) $$\large\int_0^1\frac{x^3}{y^2}e^{-x^2/y}\,dy=...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Implict Function Theorem Application

Let $f(x,y)= x^3+y^2-3xy-7=0$ 1)For which points we can find $x=g(y)$ that solves the above 2)Find $g'(y)$ at $x=3,y=4$ 1) By implicit function theorem, for points $(x,y)$ satisfies that x$^2$$\...
6
votes
5answers
230 views

How can I prove the integral $ \int_{1}^{x} \frac{1}{t} \, dt $ is $\ln x $ with this approach?

I have been trying to find a proof for the integral of $ \int_1^x \dfrac{1}{t} \,dt $ being equal to $ \ln \left|x \right| $ from an approach similar to that of the squeeze theorem. Is it possible to ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

The Riesz transform kernel satisfies Hörmander's condition

Define the kernel $$K_i(x) = \frac{x_i}{\lvert x\rvert^{d+1}}$$ as a function $\mathbb{R}^d \setminus \{ 0 \} \to \mathbb{C}$ for $d \geq 3$ (say). I want to prove that this kernel satisfies Hörmander'...
0
votes
2answers
34 views

Prove that orthonormalsystem is an orthonormalbasis [duplicate]

We have an orthonormalsystem in $L^2(0, 2\pi)$: $\{e^{ikx} : k \in \mathbb{Z}\}$. Now I want to show that it's also an orthonormalbasis. I thought the easiest way to do that would be to show that ...
0
votes
2answers
74 views

Proof that |x-a| is continuous at x=a (epsilon delta), and nondifferentiable at x=a.

I need help justifying that $|x-a|$ is continuous and non-differentiable at $x=a$. I would also like to prove that it achieves a minimum at $x=a$, but I do not know if that is already clear enough.
0
votes
2answers
46 views

Totally ordered $\sigma$-algebras

I know that every $\sigma$-algebra is partially ordered with respect to the inclusion operator $\subset$. However, it seems as though every $\sigma$-algebra should be totally ordered with respect to $...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Composition of analytic function with arithmetic function

Consider an arithmetic function $g$ with codomain $\{a,b\}$ and a function $f$ which is analytic on some domain including $\{a,b\}$. We therefore have $$f(g(n))=\sum_{k=0}^\infty c_k (g(n)-a)^k$$ and ...
0
votes
2answers
43 views

I need help proving the base case for a mathematical induction proof

I know how mathematical induction works and the generic algorithm of proving a statement by the Principle of Mathematical Induction, but I'm having trouble proving the base case for a particular ...
0
votes
3answers
87 views

why $\frac{t + t^2}{(1 + t)^2} \sim t + t^2$?

While doing my physics homework where answer is given I found that correct answer could be obtained with simplification $\frac{t + t^2}{(1 + t)^2} \sim t + t^2,$ when $t\ll 1$. My attempt was: $\...
2
votes
1answer
36 views

Compact $K\subset A$ such that $\lambda(K) = \lambda(A) / 2$

Let $A\subset \mathbb{R}$ be a (Lebesgue) measurable set of finite measure. Using the fact that the function $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, $$f(x)=\lambda(A\cap [-x,x]) $$ is continuous, we ...
0
votes
0answers
64 views

Prob. 10, Sec. 4.5 in Kreyszig's Functional Analysis: How to relate this result to solution of equations?

Let $T \colon X \to Y$ be a bounded linear operator, where $X$ and $Y$ are normed spaces, both real or both complex; let $B$ be a subset of the dual space $X^\prime$ (i.e. the normed space of all the ...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

Asymptotic expansion of integral with hyperbolic functions

Consider the integral given by $$f(r)=\int_{0}^{\tanh(r)} \arccos\left(\frac{\sigma}{\sinh(r)\sqrt{1-\sigma^2}}\right)\cdot \frac{1}{\sqrt{\sigma^2+a^2}}d\sigma,$$ where $a>0$. I am wondering ...