Theoretical foundations of calculus: limits, convergence of sequences, construction of the real numbers, least upper bound property, and related analysis topics such as continuity, differentiation, and integration through the fundamental theorem of calculus.

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Non-section representation of an intersection of sets

Let $X,\bar X,Y$ be arbitrary sets and $A\subseteq X\times Y$, $\bar A\subseteq \bar X\times Y$ be arbitrary as well. Denote: $$ A_x :=\{y\in Y:(x,y)\in A\} $$ and similarly for $\bar A$. Consider a ...
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231 views

Fundamental polygon

So, I have seen fundamental polygons quite a few times now and I was always wondering what they are actually good for. Let's take the sphere. It's fundamental polygon can be seen here image. Does ...
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1answer
89 views

Existence of periodic orthogonal basis in $L^2([0,1])$ which is not trigonometric?

Let $$ \psi(x) := \sin(\pi x). $$ It is well-known that system $\{ \psi(n x) \}_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ forms an orthogonal basis in $L^2([0,1])$. My question is the following: Are there other examples ...
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1answer
158 views

Is my proof on showing that the set of monotone functions on $[a,b]$ has cardinality of continum correct?

I was given an exercise problem to show that the cardinality of the set of all monotone functions on $[a,b]$ is $\aleph$. I came out with a proof which I am not sure if it is correct. My proof: Let ...
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2answers
50 views

Fixed points of a certain type of functions with intermediate value property

Let $f: \mathbb R\to \mathbb R$ be a function, having intermediate value property, such that $f(f(x))=x , \forall x \in \mathbb R$, then is it true that either the set of fixed points of $f$ is ...
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1answer
122 views

A continuous function that attains neither its minimum nor its maximum at any open interval is monotone

Let $f: \mathbb R\to \mathbb R$ be a continuous function such that $f$ attains neither its minimum nor its maximum at any open interval $I \subseteq \mathbb R$ , then how to prove that $f$ is ...
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80 views

If $f: A\to\mathbb R$ one-to-one but not monotone, there exist $x,y,z\in A$ with $x<y<z$ such that $f(x) < f(y)$ and $f(y) > f(z)$ (wlog)

The following result is part of the folklore, but I'd like to have a standard reference for something that I am writing: If $A \subseteq \mathbb R$ and $f: A \to \mathbb R$ is one-to-one but not ...
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90 views

Differentiability of polynomials [duplicate]

Trivial question but I am confused with the notation If $p_{n-1}$ is a polynomial of degree $n-1$, is it $\in$ the differentiability class C^n$? Obviously if $p_n$ is a polynomial of degree $n$, ...
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2answers
59 views

$f\in L^2(0,1)$ if and only if $f\in L^1(0,1)$ and some condition.

$f\in L^2(0,1)$ if and only if $f\in L^1(0,1)$ and ere exists an increasing function $g:[0,1]\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that $$\left|\int_a^b f(x) dx \right|^2 \leq (g(b)-g(a))(b-a)\quad\quad (*)$$ ...
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31 views

$|\int_{\mathbb R} e^{-t^{2}} e^{-(t/\lambda -x)^{2}} e^{-2\pi i w\cdot t}| dt \leq G(x,w), G\in L^{1} ? $

Put $\lambda >0,$ and we define, $$F_{\lambda}(x, w)= \int_{\mathbb R} e^{-t^{2}} e^{-(t/\lambda -x)^{2}} e^{-2\pi i w\cdot t} dt;(x,w) \in \mathbb R^{2}$$ we note that, $F_{\lambda} \in ...
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1answer
62 views

Do all series have a closed form representation of their partial sum? If not, can we feasibly prove that this is not the case?

The question was motivated by the way in which we approach the convergence and divergence of some series. During my undergraduate analysis course one of the only times in which the partial sum was ...
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40 views

Show that $\int_{[0,1]^2}g(y_1-y_2) \Bbb{1}_{\{y_1>y_2\}}dy_1dy_2 = \int_{[0,1]}g(m)(1-m)\, dm$

I am trying to prove the following equality $$\int_{[0,1]^2}g(y_1-y_2) \Bbb{1}_{\{y_1>y_2\}}dy_1dy_2 = \int_{[0,1]}g(m)(1-m)\, dm$$ I tried to do the following: ...
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385 views

The definitions of limit infimum and limit supremum

I have begun reading Rosenthal's "A First Look to Rigorous Probability Theory" and in order to reinforce my calculus background I am studying through the appendix section. Here he defined the limit ...
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80 views

a question about sequence and series. prove $ \lim_{n \to \infty}( n\ln n)a_{n}=0$? [closed]

Suppose $a_{n}>0$. $na_{n}$ is monotonic, and it approaches 0 as n approaches infinity. $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} a_{n}$ is convergent. please prove $$ \lim_{n \to \infty} n\ln(n)\,a_{n}=0$$ I totally ...
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63 views

an inequality derived from conformal automorphisms of unit disk

Let $f$ be a holomorphic function on $D(0,1)$ such that $|f(z)|<1$ for all $z\in D(0,1)$. I have obtained $$ \frac{|f(0)|-|z|}{1+|f(0)||z|}\leq |f(z)|\leq \frac{|f(0)|+|z|}{1-|f(0)||z|}. $$ Is it ...
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1answer
240 views

Does every inner product space has an orthogonal basis?

It is proved that every inner product space has a basis $W$, but I am not sure if every inner product space has an orthogonal basis? It is known that every inner space has a maximal orthogonal set ...
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156 views

How do you use R to find the box counting dimension of a two dimensional set of data, or scatter plot?

I'm using the software R to do some analysis on some data sets for a graduate project. R has a package called "fractaldim", in this package is a function for finding the box counting dimension. The ...
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1answer
62 views

Showing that a set is not infinite in measure

Suppose $f_n \geq 0$ for all $n \geq 1$, $f_n \to f$ a.e. on $[0, \infty)$ and there exists a constant $M>0$ such that $$ \sup\limits_{n} \int_{E} f_n(x)dx \leq M \mu(E)$$ for each measurable ...
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1answer
78 views

Differentiability: Partially Defined Functions

Reference These ideas came to my mind while reading Lee's Introduction to Smooth Manifolds (cf. p. 45). Definition Let $E$ and $F$ be two Banach spaces together with a plain subset $A\subseteq E$. ...
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1answer
393 views

Uniformly bounded derivative implies uniform convergence

Let $f_n$ be a sequence of differentiable functions on $[a, b] \subset \mathbb{R}$. Suppose $\lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} f_n(x) = f(x)$ exists for all $x \in [a, b]$, and the derivatives $|f_n'(x)| ...
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67 views

Applying the duality between infimum and supremum

Studying the textbook 'Methods of Modern Mathematical Physics' by Reed & Simon, I encountered the following problem - the details are not important but I did not see how to otherwise introduce my ...
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2answers
67 views

Compute limit of a function

Compute: $$\lim_{x \rightarrow 0^+} \frac{\arctan(e^x+\arctan x)-\arctan(e^{\sin x}+\arctan(\sin x))}{x^3}$$ WolframAlpha tells me it's 1/6. Any nice idea how to rewrite that expression? Thanks!
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1answer
74 views

Find $\lim_{n \rightarrow \infty}$$\int_0^n(1 + \frac{-x}{n})^n\cos(\frac{x}{\sqrt{n}})e^{x/2}dx$

Find $\lim_{n \rightarrow \infty}$$\int_0^n(1 + \frac{-x}{n})^n\cos(\frac{x}{\sqrt{n}})e^{x/2}dx$ I want to use dominated convergence theorem obviously. However, not sure how to dominate it. ...
6
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0answers
66 views

$\int_0^\infty f(x) \; dx < \infty$ implies $\lim_{x \rightarrow \infty} x f(x) = 0$. [duplicate]

Let $f$ be non-negative, monotone decreasing such that $$\int_0^\infty f(x) \; dx < \infty$$ Show that $$\lim_{x \rightarrow \infty} x f(x) = 0.$$ I have the following solution, but wonder if ...
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86 views

Differentiation under the integral if and only if we have an $L^1$ dominator

Let $f(x)\in L^2(\mathbb{R})$ and define $$g(t) = \int_\mathbb{R} f^2(x)\exp(-tx^2)dx$$ for $t\geq0$. We want to show that $g(t)$ is continuously differentiable if and only if $xf(x)\in ...
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1answer
56 views

Proving or disproving continuity of a function

Consider a function $f:\mathbb{R}^{n}\times \mathbb{R}^{+} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, with the property that for a fixed vector $a:=(a_1,a_2,\cdots,a_n) \in \mathbb{R}^{n}$, there exist a finite ...
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1answer
251 views

Relation between Sobolev Space $W^{1,\infty}$ and the Lipschitz class

I have a Sobolev space related question. In the book 'Measure theory and fine properties of functions' by Lawrence Evans. I know the result that states that for $f: \Omega \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$. $f$ ...
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75 views

Bound for this integral

Using the fact that $$\sqrt{(1+y^2)} - \sqrt{(1+x^2)} \geq \frac{x}{\sqrt{1+x^2}}(y-x)$$ for each $x,y\in \mathbb{R}$. We need to show that $$L(k)- L(h) \geq \int_a^b \frac{h'}{\sqrt{1+{h'}^2}} ...
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1answer
60 views

L2 convergence, subsequence

I'm sai. I have a question about $L^{2}$ convergence. Let $U \subset \mathbb{R}^{d}$ be open. Suppose $u_{n} \in C_{0}^{\infty}(U), n\in \mathbb{N} $ satisfies the following assertion: For any $v ...
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1answer
49 views

The functions $\{f_n(x) = n\}$ are analytic and each miss the points $-2, -3$. But, they are not a normal family. So what am I missing. Thanks.

Here is a theorem of Montel: Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a family of analytic functions defined on a domain $\Omega$ . If there are two fixed complex numbers $a$ and $b$ that are omitted from the range of ...
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43 views

fix $b \gt 1$. Prove the following statements : (Rudin page 22, question no 6)

Fix $ b \gt 1$. (a) If $m$, $n$, $p$, and $q$ are integers, $n \gt 0$, $q \gt 0$ and $r=\dfrac{m}{n}=\dfrac{p}{q}$, prove that $\{b^{m}\}^{\dfrac{1}{n}}=\{b^{p}\}^{\dfrac{1}{q}}$. Hence it makes ...
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360 views

norm of a singular integral operator

My question is from Harmonic Analysis, about the study of singular kernels (in the Calderon Zygmund sense.) Suppose that a kernel $K$ is a singular kernel, extending to a bounded operator on $L^p$, ...
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49 views

Prove that $f\ast g$ is defined a.e., integrable, and such that $∥f\ast g∥_1 ≤ ∥f∥_1 · ∥g∥_1$

Let $f,g : \mathbb{R} → \mathbb{R}$ be $L_1$-functions. Set $h(x) = \int_\mathbb{R}f (x − y)g(y) \, dm(y).$ Prove that $h(x)$ is defined a.e., $h ∈ L_1(\mathbb{R})$ and $∥h∥_1 ≤ ∥f∥_1 · ∥g∥_1.$ So I ...
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24 views

Boundedness of a certain function defined on a closed bounded real interval

Let $I:=[a,b]$ be a closed bounded real interval , $f: I \to \mathbb R$ be a function such that for every $x \in I$ , $\exists \delta_x>0$ such that $f(x)$ is bounded $ \forall x \in ...
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1answer
118 views

Let $f(z) = \sum_{n = 0}^\infty a_nz^n$ be the Taylor series around $0$. Prove that lim $a_n/a_{n+1} = z_0.$ [duplicate]

Let $f(z) = \sum_{n = 0}^\infty a_nz^n$ be the Taylor series around $0$ of a function which is analytic in $\mathbb{C}$ \ ${z_0}$, $z_0\neq 0$ and has only a simple pole at $z_0.$ Prove that $lim_{n ...
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1answer
51 views

Does $f$ necessarily have infinte oscillations?

If $f:(a,\infty)\to\mathbb{R}$ is differentiable and $\lim_{x\to \infty} f(x)$ does not exists($\neq \pm \infty$),then is it necessary that $f$ have infinitely many oscillations and therefore ...
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4answers
89 views

How to find a function $\phi(x)$ such that $\sqrt{1+y^2} - \sqrt{1+x^2} \geq \phi(x) (y-x)$ for each $x,y\in \mathbb{R}$

How to find a function $\phi(x)$ such that $\sqrt{1+y^2} - \sqrt{1+x^2} \geq \phi(x) (y-x)$ for each $x,y\in \mathbb{R}$. Here are some of my ideas: Also by applying Mean Value theorem, we know that ...
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26 views

$\int_{\mathbb R^{2}} |\int_{\mathbb R} (f_{r}(t-y)- f_{r}(t)) g(t-x) e^{-2\pi i w\cdot t} dt|dx dw \to 0 $ as $ r\to \infty $?

Let $f\in \mathcal{S}(\mathbb R)$ with $\hat{f}$ has a compact support. For $r>0,$ put $f_{r}(x)= r^{-1}f(x/r), (x\in \mathbb R).$ We note that, $\int_{\mathbb R} |f_{r}(x)| dx = r^{-1} ...
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99 views

Integration by substitution and separation of variables.

Let's say I want to integrate over a sphere $S^2$. Take $f \in (L^1(S^2),dS)$, then we have that $$\int_{S^2} |f| dS = \int_{S^2} |f| \sin^2 (\theta) d \theta d \phi < \infty,$$ right? Now, ...
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68 views

Determined or not?

the function $\dfrac {2x}{3x-\sqrt{x} }$ is not derterined for values of $x$ equale or samller than zero, though when I take the limit $ \lim_{x \to 0^+} \dfrac {2x}{3x-\sqrt{x} }$ the output is zero ...
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1answer
30 views

How can I show that a r.v. with cumulative distribution is continuous?

I want to show that, if $F_X$ is the cumulative distribution function of a random variable $X$, then $X$ is absolutely continuous iff $F_X \in C^1(\mathbb{R})$ ? I know absolutely continuous means ...
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1answer
149 views

Spectral theory

I have absolutely no idea about Spectral theory and want to ask some fundamental questions. 1.) What does it mean that the resolvent of an operator is Hilbert-Schmidt? (Cause I saw a theorem that was ...
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2answers
62 views

Supremum of $f_1(x)=1$ and $f_2(x)=x$

I'm trying to understand the supremem of a sequence of functions so I came up with a trivial case as follows - Let $(f_n(x))$ be a sequence of functions with $n$ having a value of either $1$ or $2$. ...
3
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2answers
159 views

Evaluating $\int^b_a \frac{dx}{x}$ from the definition of the integral

I know that $$\int^b_a \frac{dx}{x}=\ln b-\ln a$$ I'm trying to evaluate this integral using the same method used in this answer: http://math.stackexchange.com/a/873507/42912 My attempt $\int^b_a ...
10
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2answers
305 views

Integral $\int_{0}^{\pi/2} \arctan \left(2\tan^2 x\right) \mathrm{d}x$

The following integral may seem easy to evaluate ... $$ \int_{0}^{\Large\frac{\pi}{2}} \arctan \left(2 \tan^2 x\right) \mathrm{d}x = \pi \arctan \left( \frac{1}{2} \right). $$ Could you prove ...
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1answer
55 views

Space that can not define an inner product

Normally, we can see lots of example of Hilbert space, I am wondering if there is a space we can't define an inner product on it?
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1answer
52 views

Geometric interpretation of parallelogram law determines the inner product

We know that if we have parallelogram law,we can determine an inner product, I want to know what is geometric interpretation behind it since the inner product gives an geometric structure of the ...
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2answers
95 views

Convergence of the series $\sum\limits_{n\geqslant1}(2-x)(2-x^{1/2})(2-x^{1/3})\cdots(2-x^{1/n})$

If $x >0$, consider the series $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty a_n$, where $$a_{n}=(2-x)(2-x^{1/2})(2-x^{1/3})\cdots(2-x^{1/n}).$$ Is it convergent? This question is in my textbook. I don't know how to ...
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1answer
37 views

variation of a function over countable intervals

Let $f$ be a function of bounded variation on $[0,1]$. Let $\{[a_n,b_n]\}_{n=1}^\infty$ such that $(a_n,b_n)$ are pairwise disjoint and $\cup_{n=1}^\infty [a_n,b_n]=[0,1]$. (for example, $[1/2, 1], ...
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2answers
52 views

Intuition for sequences of functions?

A sequence $(a_n)$ of real numbers can be thought of as a function that maps $\mathbb{N}$ to $\mathbb{R}$. The supremum of this sequence, if it exists, will be some $k \in \mathbb{R}$. A regular ...