Theoretical foundations of calculus: limits, convergence of sequences, construction of the real numbers, least upper bound property, and related analysis topics such as continuity, differentiation, integration through the fundamental theorem of calculus.

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10 views

About fractional iterations and improper integrals

Let $g(x,0) = x$ and $g(x,t+1) = g(x,t) - \dfrac{1}{g(x,t)}$ for every real $t$. From the fact \begin{align} ...
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11 views

Two disjoint connected and bounded open sets in the plane that shares the same boundary

In $\mathbb{R}^2$ with std. topology I want to exhibit two open sets that are connected, bounded and disjoint but that have a common boundary. My attempt: Since both my sets need to be bounded, my ...
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0answers
6 views

Uniqueness of an embedding theorem for Real differential fields

I will follow a preliminary exposition for the problem in question, which will essentially follow the format on http://www4.ncsu.edu/~singer/papers/model_diff_fields.pdf [pg. 87]: Let $K$ be a real ...
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17 views

Anyone knows a Good Textbook in Numerical PDES

I am planning on taking a course on numerical PDEs next semester. The course covers the following topics listed below. I am looking for a good book that covers these topics (or at least most of them). ...
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1answer
48 views

Using $\epsilon$ and $\delta$ to prove that $\lim_{x \to 0}\frac{\tan x}{x}=1$

I tried $$ \left | \frac{\tan x}{x}-1 \right | <1+\left | \frac{\sin x}{x} \right |\left | \frac{1}{\cos x} \right |<1+\frac{\delta^2}{2}\left | \frac{1}{\cos x} \right | $$ and I failed to ...
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19 views

integral with a compact supported function 0 indicates the L^2 function 0 almost everywhere

Suppose we have $f\in L^2([0,1])$,and for every $\varphi\in C_{0}^{\infty}((0,1))$, we have $$\int_0^1 f(x)\varphi(x)dx=0$$ Then how can I show $f=0$ a.e? I know when $f\in C^0([0,1])$ the results ...
2
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1answer
32 views

Finishing a proof: $f$ is injective if and only if it has a left inverse

I've already done a lot of searching (in particular: https://www.proofwiki.org/wiki/Injection_iff_Left_Inverse) to try to prove this statement: $f: A \to B$ is injective if and only if it has a ...
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9 views

Absolute Value Function Ordered Field $\mathbb{F}$ Theorem

I had a question regarding this part of a theorem that describes the inequalities of the absolute value function for order field $\mathbb{F}.$ Here is the theorem: Theorem: Let $\mathbb{F}$ be an ...
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3answers
24 views

proof of chain rule

Is my proof correct? show: $(g\circ f)'(x_0)=g'(y_0)f'(x_0)$ Since $f'(x_0) = \lim_{x\to x_0} \frac{f(x)-f(x_0)}{x-x_0}$ and Since $g'(y_0) = \lim_{y\to y_0} \frac{g(y)-g(y_0)}{y-y_0}$ Multiply ...
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0answers
16 views

Fourier series - Understanding an equality

Why is this equality true: $$\left\langle {f,g} \right\rangle = \sum\limits_{n = - N}^N {\hat{f}(n)\hat{g}(n)}$$ where $$f = \sum_{n=-N}^N c_n e^{int}, g=\sum_{n=-N}^N d_n e^{int} $$ and ...
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1answer
31 views

How do I prove this derivation?

I hope you can help me with this one because I seem to not quiet get a start here :/ Lets say we got a $b\in\mathbb{R}_{\gt 0}$ and a $y\in\mathbb{R}$ and we define $b^y:=\exp\left(\ln b \cdot ...
2
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2answers
17 views

Show that $\lim_{n\to\infty}\sum_{k=1}^n\bigl|k\bigl(f\bigl(\frac{1}{k}\bigr)-f\bigl(-\frac{1}{k}\bigr)\bigr)-2f'(0)\bigr|$ exists

Suppose $f\in C^3[-1,1]$, show that $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\sum_{k=1}^n\left|k\left(f\left(\frac{1}{k}\right)-f\left(-\frac{1}{k}\right)\right)-2f'(0)\right|$$ exists. I realized that ...
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1answer
72 views

Does $\int_{0}^{1}x^nf(x)\, dx=0$ imply that $f=0$ a.e. without assuming $f \in C[0,1]$?

Suppose that $f \in L^{1}[0,1]$ and $\int_{0}^{1}x^nf(x)\, dx=0$ for $n=0,1,2,\dots$ Does that imply that $f=0$ a.e.? I think that there will be a counterexample but it is hard to find out.
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1answer
25 views

differentiabilty implies continuity (analysis)

Is my proof correct? We need to show that if $f$ is differentiable at $x_o$, then it is continuous at $x_o$ i. e. $$\forall \epsilon >0, \exists \delta >0 \text{ s.t. } ...
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2answers
59 views

Probabilistic techniques in (“undergraduate”) real analysis

As the book Probabilistic Techniques in Analysis by R. Bass shows, nowadays techniques drawn from probability are used to tackle problems in analysis. The mentioned book presents a survey of these ...
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1answer
85 views

Find the values of the positive integers $n$ such that: $\frac{(-\sqrt{3}+2)^{n+1}+(\sqrt{3}+2)^{n+1}}{4n+3}$ is positive integer

My question is as follow: Find the values of the positive integers $n$ such that: $$\frac{(-\sqrt{3}+2)^{n+1}+(\sqrt{3}+2)^{n+1}}{4n+3}$$ is positive integer. I can see that for $n=1$ (among some ...
2
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2answers
31 views

Solving the integral equation $y(x) = 3 + 2\int_1^x t y(t) dt $ by reducing it to a differential equation

Solve the integral equation $$y(x) = 3 + 2\int_1^x t \ y(t) \ dt $$ First I solved for the integral equation. Then I'm told to differentiate and I get $${dy \over dx} = 2 x y(x) $$ Then I ...
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32 views

Is the inverse function continuous at a fixed point?

Show that $f:I=(-1,1) \rightarrow \mathbb{R},$ it follows that $$ f(x)=\begin{cases} \quad1-x & \text{ as } -1<x\leq 0, \\ \frac{{x}^{-1}+ \lfloor {x}^{-1}\rfloor}{1+{x}^{-1}+\lfloor ...
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1answer
36 views

Why can't the definition of convergence be alterted to this one?

I am trying to find out of a seqence with the following property is convergent: Let $(r_n)$ be a sequence of real numbers. Suppose there is a number $r\in\mathbb{R}$ such that for any ...
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1answer
35 views

sequence defined by norm

Let $(u_n)_n$ be defined by: $\quad \begin{cases}u_1=1 & \\ \\ u_n=\left( \sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}u_{k}\right)^{\frac{1}{2}} & \end{cases} $ Show that $u_{n}\to +\infty$ and $u_n \simeq ...
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2answers
34 views

Subscript underneath formula in Latex [on hold]

How to type subscript underneath formula $\bigcap$ in Latex? For example, I want to type u $\in$ $\mu$ under it.
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2answers
131 views

Proof of expression with integrals

I have had trouble proving the following expression. Do you have any hints to help me? Let $f:[a,b]$ be an integrable function for which $$\int_a^bf(x)dx=6$$ Prove that there exist $t_1,t_2\in(a,b)$ ...
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1answer
26 views

Limit sup and inf hint

I have problem in finding the Limsup and liminf for the following sequences. Any hint pls? $(s_n) = [1-r^n]\sin \frac{n\pi}{2}$ and $(s_n) = [(-1)^n + 1]n^2$.
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43 views

If a sequence $(f_n)$ converges in $L^2$, then $g'(x)\int_0^x f_n(t)\,dt$ converges in $L^1$

The first: Suppose $g$ is increasing and differentiable on $[0,1]$. For every $f\in L^2(0,1)$ define $f^*(x)$, for $x\in [0,1]$, by: $$f^*(x)=g'(x)\int_0^x f(t)\,dt .$$ If $f_n\to f$ in $L^2(0,1)$, ...
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1answer
32 views

Looking for a special kind of injective function

Does there exist an injective function $f:\mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ such that for every $c \in \mathbb R$ , there is a real sequence $(x_n)$ such that $\lim\big(f(x_n)\big)=c$ but $f$ is neither ...
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2answers
88 views

How can we write this in math?

I am given a function $f: X \times Y \times Z \times \mathbb N \to [0, \infty)$. There exists a $x \in X$ such that for any $y \in Y$ and any $\epsilon > 0$, there exists $n_\epsilon$ such that ...
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28 views

Looking for a partial converse of Rolle's theorem

Let $f: [a,b] \to \mathbb R $ be a continuous function differentiable in $(a,b)$ such that $f(b)=0$ and for some $c \in (a,b) , f'(c)=0$ ; then under what additional conditions can we conclude that ...
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1answer
45 views

Evaluate this infinite product involving $a_k$

Let $a_0 = 5/2$ and $a_k = a_{k-1}^{2} - 2$ for $k \ge 1$ Compute: $$\prod_{k=0}^{\infty} 1 - \frac{1}{a_k}$$ Off the bat, we can seperate $a_0$ $$= -3/2 \cdot \prod_{k=1}^{\infty} 1 - ...
4
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42 views

Seperating single integral into an double integral.

Please refer to : How to prove that $\int_{0}^{\infty}\sin{x}\arctan{\frac{1}{x}}\,\mathrm dx=\frac{\pi }{2} \big(\frac{e-1}e\big)$ The answer by @Venus. What is the procedure in converting that ...
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0answers
26 views

Interpretation of parametrization

Let $f(t)=(x(t),y(t))'$ for $t\in[0,1]$, represents a parametric function. Let us consider a parametric equation (straightline) joining two points $a$ and $b$ in 2-dimension: $$f(t)=a(1-t)+bt.$$ ...
2
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2answers
59 views

Computing the limit of an alternating series,

I am looking at the series $$ \sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{(-1)^n}{n}.$$ This series converges (conditionally) by the alternating series test. How can I compute its limit, which is equal to -log(2)? a) ...
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1answer
39 views

Ordered Field $\mathbb{F}$ Corollary Proof

I wanted to check my proof for a corollary on ordered fields $\mathbb{F}$. Here is the corollary: Corollary: Let $\mathbb{F}$ be an ordered field and $a\in\mathbb{F}.$ If $a>0$, then ...
2
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1answer
43 views

On a $\epsilon$-$n$ proof of a limit of a sequence of functions.

Put $\delta_n = 2^{-n}$. To each positive integer $n$ and each real number $t$ corresponds a unique integer $k = k_n(t)$ that satisfies $k\delta_n \le t< (k+1) \delta_n$. Define $$ \psi_n(t) = ...
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1answer
37 views

Applying the dominated convergence theorem to $\lim_{n\to\infty} x^n$, for $x \in [0,1]$.

$\lim\limits_{n\to\infty} x^n$, for $x \in [0,1]$. I'm using the dominated convergence theorem on a few problems and keep running into this issue. What's the limit of the above function? ...
3
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1answer
84 views

Adding Two Power Series if their bounds are different

I have the following product $$\frac{1}{6}\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\left(\frac{-x}{2}\right)^n\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{a_nx^{n+2}}{n!}$$ Where $a_n$ is an arbitrary coefficient. If I factor out $x^2$ ...
2
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0answers
41 views

Inequality proof critique

I'm trying to prove an inequality. I think I'm correct but it would be helpful if my proof can be critiqued. Given two matrices of same dimension $T$ and $P$ with $P \geq 0$ and scalar $\delta>0$, ...
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43 views

Why $x\in C_k$ implies $x/3\in C_{k+1}$.

If $C_k$ is an approximation of the Cantor set, why $x\in C_k$ implies $x/3\in C_{k+1}$. Thanks!
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1answer
41 views

Determining a radius convergence of a power series

Let $$ \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n}{3n+1} x^{3n+1} $$ Is there an immediate way to determine $R=1$?
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1answer
42 views

Integration problem that may use DCT

I am trying to solve the following problem. Let $f \in L^2(0,1)$ and define $$f_n(x)= n \int\limits_{k/n}^{(k+1)/n} f(y) dy $$ for $x \in [k/n, (k+1)/n)$, $k=0,1, \dots, n-1.$ Show that $f_n ...
2
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1answer
30 views

Proof of the starting part of theorem 1.17 Rudin ( Complex and Reals)

The proof I would like is of the following fact: Put $\delta_n = 2^{-n}$. To each positive integer n and each real number t corresponds a unique integer $ k = k_n(t)$ that satisfies $k \delta_n \le t ...
2
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1answer
46 views

Cantor set's endpoints.

Prove that: If $[a,b]$ is one of the closed intervals that makes up one the approximation $C_k$ of the Cantor set then the endpoints $\{a,b\}\subset C$ where $C$ is the cantor set. I should prove ...
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2answers
30 views

If $f_n$ converges to $f $ in $p$-norm, then $f_n$ converges to $f$ in measure.

I want to prove that if $f_n$ converges to $f $ in $p$-norm, then $f_n$ converges to $f$ in measure. This is the proof: Suppose not. Then there exist $\epsilon>0,\delta> 0$ such that $μ \{x: ...
4
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1answer
43 views

Absolute continuity of the ratio of two absolutely continuous functions

Will the ratio of two absolutely continuous functions, say $f$ and $g$ where $g$ is non-vanishing, remain absolutely continuous?
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95 views

Prove the Schwarz inequality using $ 2xy \leq x^2 + y^2 $

Im really bad at analysis and this problem was recommend to me to help me grasp some basics of $\epsilon $ $\delta $ So im doing a problem ( though its like 12 pieces ) this is i guess the fourth ...
4
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3answers
264 views

Image of open set is not open?

I'm confused by the proof that $\epsilon$-$\delta$ continuity is equivalent to open-set continuity. One can prove that a function is $\epsilon$-$\delta$-continuous if and only if the preimage of any ...
0
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2answers
32 views

Bound on and integral

If $\alpha \in \Bbb R$, how can I show $$\int_{-M}^M \frac{1}{\sqrt{|x-\alpha|}} \, dx \le 4 \sqrt{M}$$ For $M>0$, Rewriting the integral gives $$\int_{-M+\alpha}^{M + \alpha} ...
4
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4answers
67 views

$\{ a + b\sqrt{2} \ : \ a, b \in \mathbb{Z} \}$ dense in $\mathbb{R}$? [duplicate]

I'm guessing $\{ a + b\sqrt{2} \ : \ a, b \in \mathbb{Z} \}$ is dense in $\mathbb{R}$. I'm having a mental block. How do you show that? (This is motivated by a different hypothesis: if $f$ is ...
0
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1answer
36 views

Hint on metric space [on hold]

I want show that $(a_n):=d(x_n,y_n)$ converges, if $(X,d)$ is a metric space, $(a_n)$ and $(b_n)$ are cauchy sequences in $(X,d)$. Here is what i do; From the hypothesis, $(a_n)$ is bounded, because ...
1
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1answer
45 views

Prove that $\frac{\partial^2 f}{\partial x \partial y}=0$

Supose $g:\mathbb{R}\times\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is a function of class $C^2$, and $\frac{\partial^2g}{\partial x^2}=\frac{\partial^2g}{\partial y^2}$. If we define ...
0
votes
1answer
57 views

How to define the 'error'

I have true data $G$ and wrong data $F$. Both are $n$ dimension vector. $G\in \{G_i| 0<G_i<255\}, i = 1:n$. Because the ...