Questions about numbers expressible as the quotient of two integers. For questions on determining whether a number is rational, use the (rationality-testing) tag instead.

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18
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398 views

If $\beta=0.{a_1}^{k}{a_2}^{k}{a_3}^{k}\cdots\in\mathbb Q$, then $\alpha=0.a_1a_2a_3\cdots\in\mathbb Q$?

Question : For every even $k\ge 4$, is the following $(\star)$ true? $$\begin{align}\text{If $\beta=0.{a_1}^{k}{a_2}^{k}{a_3}^{k}\cdots\in\mathbb Q$, then $\alpha=0.a_1a_2a_3\cdots\in\mathbb ...
9
votes
0answers
259 views

To how many decimals is $\sum_ {k=1}^\infty \frac{k}{\sqrt{k!}} = \frac{49850839\,\pi}{29567947}$ correct?

Consider: $$\sum_ {k=1}^\infty \frac{k}{\sqrt{k!}} = \frac{49850839\,\pi}{29567947}$$ This is, as far as I'm able to check with my software, correct to at least 167 decimals. If anyone has the ...
6
votes
0answers
200 views

Rational multiples of $\pi/2$ whose sines are also rational

Let $f(x)=\sin(x\frac{\pi}{2})$. Let $R$ the set of $x$ such that : $0\le x\le 1$ $x \in \mathbb Q$ $f(x) \in \mathbb Q$ Hence, $0\in R$ as $f(0)=0$. $1\in R$ as f(1)=1. And $\frac{1}{3}\in R$ as ...
5
votes
0answers
78 views

Prove that the square root of any irrational number is irrational.

The problem I'm having with this proof is that I'm not sure if my proof actually proves the theorem correct or if I'm using circular reasoning. Theorem: Prove that the square root of any irrational ...
5
votes
0answers
48 views

Is there any elegant formalization of fractional numbers?

The question is just what is on the title, but I'll describe the context for completion: Natural numbers can be encoded quite elegantly on the Lambda Calculus as church numbers, that is, a function ...
5
votes
0answers
120 views

Is there always a telescopic series associated with a rational number?

Here is something I thought up while I was bored and my, erm, fish were busy: Given a rational number $p\in(0,1)$, are there always positive integers $n$, $c_m$, and $w_m$ such that ...
4
votes
0answers
166 views

Find all $\theta$ such that sin$\theta$ and cos$\theta$ are both rational number.

Find all $\theta$ such that sin$\theta$ and cos$\theta$ are both rational number. I thought this question might have been asked by someone else, but I couldn't find any. Currently I'm studying ...
3
votes
0answers
40 views

How to estimate the number of decimal places required for a division?

Given two decimal numbers, is it possible to estimate the number of decimal places required to fit the result of their division? Provided that the division yields a finite number of decimals, of ...
3
votes
0answers
28 views

Properties of digit functions for numbers in $[0,1]$

Consider a function $g(n): \mathbb N \to \{0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9\}$, ie. $g$ maps the natural numbers to natural numbers between $0$ and $9$. Then, no matter what $g(n), \ n\in \mathbb N$ is, the sum ...
3
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0answers
148 views

Rational analysis

I found myself thinking about how much of real analysis that can also be developed within the rational numbers. Of course, $\Bbb Q$ is lacking what is perhaps the most important property of the real ...
3
votes
0answers
66 views

All those unit fractions add to 1?

Consider $$S(n)=\{x \mid x=(a_1 ,a_2,a_3 \cdots a_n) \text{ where } \sum_{r=1}^{n}\frac{1}{a_r} =1 \}$$ Now let $|S(n)|$ denote the cardinaly (order) of set $S(n)$. Thus: $S(1)= \{(1)\} \implies ...
3
votes
0answers
186 views

Irrational numbers to the power of other irrational numbers: A beautiful proof question

The following theorem has a very beautiful proof. Theorem: There exist two irrational numbers $x$ and $y$ such that $x^y$ is rational. Proof: If $\sqrt{2}^{\sqrt{2}}$ is rational then we ...
3
votes
0answers
153 views

Must be rational number

Let $a$, $b$ positive rational number. Suppose that there exist two odd positive integers $p$, $q$ such that $\sqrt[p]{a}+\sqrt[q]{b}$ is rational. Prove that both $\sqrt[p]{a}$ and $\sqrt[q]{b}$ are ...
3
votes
0answers
618 views

Four candle problem: Using candles as timers

The candles each take one hour to burn completely. Cutting off bits of the candles is forbidden, but the candles are placed on a raft of fork handles so they may be burnt at both ends (e.g. to time ...
2
votes
0answers
47 views

Fixed Points of Function from Rationals to Reals

Consider a function $f$ from the positive rationals to the reals such that $f(x)f(y)\ge f(xy)$ and $f(x+y)\ge f(x)+f(y)$. Further assume this function has a fixed point greater than $1$. Prove this ...
2
votes
0answers
52 views

Does the equation $\tan(x)=y$ have any non-zero rational solution?

Trivially $\tan(0)=0$ but it seems this is the "unique" solution of the equation $\tan(x)=y$ on rational numbers. In fact if we try to make $y$ rational we usually use irrational (transcendental) ...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

Digamma equation identification

I was messing around with the digamma function the other day, and I discovered this identity: $$\psi\left(\frac ...
2
votes
0answers
54 views

Approximating real vectors in the unit hypercube by rational vectors in the unit hypercube

I am currently looking for an error bound for an problem where I have to approximate a real vector in the unit hypercube using a rational vector in the unit hypercube. Specifically: given a ...
2
votes
0answers
420 views

Proof by contradiction problem on rational numbers

Using proofs by contradiction, show that there is no smallest negative rational number and no largest positive rational number. Assume that there is a smallest negative rational number. Therefore, ...
2
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0answers
43 views

Experimental calculation and $\mathbb{Q}$

I have been reading this article and have a question about the first line of the second paragraph on the first page. It says: The basis for this suggestion is the simple fact that all experimental ...
2
votes
0answers
101 views

Lower bound for the length of continued fraction

Define $\mathscr L: \mathbb Q \mapsto \mathbb N$ as the minimal number of terms in the continued fraction of a rational number. Example: the continued fraction of $\frac{5}{8}$ is ...
2
votes
0answers
100 views

Trigonometric functions of rational fractions of pi

Consider rational numbers $\frac{m}{n}$ and $\frac{m'}{n'}$, where $0<\frac{m}{n}, \frac{m'}{n'} <1$. Then $$\sin^2 (\tfrac{m}{n} \pi) = 2 \sin^2 (\tfrac{m'}{n'} \pi)$$ When $\frac{m}{n} = ...
2
votes
0answers
81 views

Two quartic polynomials to be made a square?

Given two generally non-square quartic polynomials that are to be simultaneously made squares for particular values of $x$, $$c_1x^4+c_2x^3+c_3x^2+c_4x+c_5 = y_1^2$$ ...
1
vote
0answers
55 views

Natural bijection between $\mathbb{N}$ and algebraic numbers?

Q. Is there a canonical, explicit bijection between the natural numbers $\mathbb{N}$ and the algebraic numbers? The earlier MSE question, "Bijection for algebraic numbers," does not quite ...
1
vote
0answers
42 views

How many elements are in the following set?

The set is $$\{ x \in Q:x^2 =64/25 \} $$ I thought the answer was $\{ \frac{8}{5}, -\frac{8}{5} \}$ but I am told there are in fact 4 distinct elements: $$\{ \frac{8}{5}, \frac{8}{-5}, \frac{-8}{5}, ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Rational number in form $(a^x+b^y)/(c^z+d^w)$

Find all positive integers $(x,y,z,w)$ such that for any positive rational number $r=p/q$, there exist positive integers $(a,b,c,d)$ for which $$r=\frac{a^x+b^y}{c^z+d^w}.$$ For instance, for ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Extracting a function of a variable from an expression

I have this expression: $\frac{d+2wd}{2w+3wd-3d-w^2-1}$ Is there anyway I can write it just as a function of f(d)? [To me this looks like it is already a function of d, but I want to confirm if ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Rationals in an interval $[a,b] \in \Bbb R$

(i) For which real values $a$ and $b$, ($a < b$), is the set $[a,b] \cap \Bbb Q$ open in $(\Bbb Q, d)$, (where $d(x,y)= \lvert x-y \rvert$)? (ii)For which real values $a,b$ is the set $[a,b] \cap ...
1
vote
0answers
59 views

exponential integration with fractional powers

I am trying to solve the following integral $$\int_{-\infty}^a \frac{\beta_1 \beta_2}{y^2(c-y)^2} e^{-\beta_1/(c-y)} e^{-\beta_2/y} \, dy$$ where $a<0$, $c>0$, $\beta_1>0$, $\beta_2>0$ I ...
1
vote
0answers
50 views

Why rational numbers in stopping times for continuous time processes

Let $(\Omega, \mathcal{F}, (\mathcal{F}_t)_{\ge 0},P)$ be a filtered probability space. Let $X_t \in \mathbb{R}^n$ be a continuous stochastic process adapted to $\mathcal{F}_t$. Let $A \subset ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

How many rationals for a given $n \in \Bbb N \;\backslash \{1\}$?

Fix $n \in \Bbb N, n> 1$. Now choose a two digit base-$n$ number $ab $ say. There's $n^2$ choices for this. Consider the number $0.c_1 c_2 c_3 \ldots$ where the $c_i$ are defined recursively: ...
1
vote
0answers
218 views

The topology generated by open intervals of rational numbers

Let $B = \{ \mathbb{R} \} \cup \{ (a,b) \cap\mathbb {Q} \ ,\ a\lt b \ ,\ a,b \in\mathbb{Q}\}$ Thus, a set $V \in B$ if it is either equal to $\mathbb{R}$ or if it is in the intersection of ...
1
vote
0answers
78 views

Rational numbers imply reals?

I was solving an inequality today and I proved it for rational numbers (it was easier because I was able to "strengthen" by doing things like "$\frac{p}{q}>\frac{r}{s}\implies ps\ge qr+1$ since ...
1
vote
0answers
67 views

Rational approximation bound for real numbers in (0,1)

I am working on a problem that related to rational approximation of real numbers. I am looking for a bound of the form: Given a positive real number, $\alpha \in (0,1)$, there exist positive ...
1
vote
0answers
24 views

MultiEquations (with fractions)

Can you please help me solve these equations i don't understand how to solve them with fractions. 1=n-2/15 151/20 =2a+1 3/4 -3/5 -2 1/5k = - 26/25
1
vote
0answers
64 views

Prove that there exists a subset with sum >=1 such that the remaining integer sum reduces by 1

let $ n \in \mathbb{N} $ and $ \frac{1}{w_1},\ldots, \frac{1}{w_n} $ for some (not necessarily distinct) $ w_1,\ldots,w_n \in \mathbb{N} $ and $ w_1,\ldots,w_n \ge 2 $ be given. Assume that $ ...
1
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0answers
26 views

Rational exponentiation?

Consider the following operation: $\left(\frac{a}{b}\right)^\frac{n}{m}$ where $a, n\in\mathbb{Z}$ and $b, m\in\mathbb{N^*}$. My question is: when the result is a rational number, how (formula or ...
1
vote
0answers
58 views

Does there exist an operation which partitions any fraction into the sum of the minimum number of unit fractions?

Motivation : I've been interested in finding an operation which partitions a fraction into unit fractions. The following is one of the operations which I've found. Let's start a rational number $q_0$ ...
1
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0answers
85 views

Turn a number $x$ into a fraction with a denominator with no more than $k$ digits

Is there a function for turning any number $x$ into a fraction with a denominator that has a maximum of $k$ digits? (I'm sure there is, since Excel has one built in, I just can't figure out what it ...
1
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0answers
37 views

Computability of division of large numbers

What is the largest computable mathematical division in terms of the number of digits that can be handled by a typical desktop computer using the best available big number libraries, assuming input is ...
1
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0answers
80 views

“Rational grids” on manifolds.

Here is something which is bothering me a bit. You have rationals on a line. You can define a rational grid on R^n by taking points with all coordinates having rational values. Is there a ...
1
vote
0answers
824 views

Contribution (weighted average) of change in rate over time

I'm trying to determine the weighted average impact of one customer's change in rate on the total change in effective rate. Let's say I have two customers and two time periods: ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

Differential equation - fractions, circular answer?

Hi this might seem like a really stupid question but then hopefully someone can asnswer it quite easily :) I have function $P{_t}$$=(E{_t}$ $(P{_t}{_+}{_1}+$ $δ{_t}{_+}{_1}$$ )-γΩx$${^*})/$$(1+rf+ψ_t ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

For which values of $\theta $ does this claim true?

According to the conjecture of , L. J. Lander, T. R. Parkin, and John Selfridge (1967):I suppose this claim : claim :let : $$\sum_{i=1}^n a^{\cos\theta}_i =\sum_{j=1}^m b^{\cos\theta}_j ,$$ for ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

Calculating enrichment

My question concerns how enriched something is as im trying to combine several lists of uneven group size and the answer is escaping me. So basically, I have 6 groups and I want to compare them with ...
0
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0answers
28 views

Long division for multipolynomial expression, little o notation

I have this expression: $$\mathrm{Exp}=\frac{d^3(-12a^4)+d^2(4a^4-16a^3)+d(4a^3-6a^2-a)}{d^3(-12a^4+12a^3)+d^2(4a^4-20a^3+16a^2)+d(4a^3-11a+7a)+(1-2a+a^2)}$$ Is there any way I can take the second ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

How to calculate the Integer portion of a fraction using only +, -, $\div$ and *?

I made something in excel that calculates the days left until a given date, and from that how many weeks were left. I had it so that 9 days displayed as 1.2 using this formula: ...
0
votes
0answers
54 views

Irrational numbers to irrational powers being rational?

So some of you may be familiar with the proof that some irrational numbers to irrational powers are rational, that is: if $A = \sqrt2^\sqrt{2}$ then it follows that $A^\sqrt{2} = 2$. So, I've found a ...
0
votes
0answers
40 views

Not including rational number in inequality

If you have a linear inequality like $x < 7$ where $x$ belongs to rational numbers. Then on graphing it on a number line, a unfilled circle is used to denote that $7$ is not included. But that ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

How do you calculate certain variables of two or more events that occur simultaneously compared to the same events happening subsequently.

Say you have two hoses, A and B, that fill up a pool of equal size at different rates. Hose A fills up a pool in 10 mins, hose B in 20 mins. Thus A = 1p/10m, B = 1p/20m. Lets say that Hose A filling ...