Questions about numbers expressible as the quotient of two integers. For questions on determining whether a number is rational, use the (rationality-testing) tag instead.

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3
votes
1answer
69 views

How to find out the number of repeating digits of a rational number in decimal form?

Upon dividing two integers, I would like to programmatically predict the number of decimal places that repeat after the decimal point. For example in $\frac{1}{3}=0.\overline{3}$, I want to know that ...
4
votes
1answer
37 views

Proving that the Calkin-Wilf tree enumerates the rationals.

The Calkin-Wilf tree is an infinite undirected graph (tree) which is constructed as follows: starting from the root at $\frac{1}{1}$, each node $\frac{a}{b}$ has two children: a left child ...
4
votes
2answers
77 views

Is it true that $\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{2}) \cap \mathbb{Q}(i) = \mathbb{Q}$?

Is it true that $\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{2}) \cap \mathbb{Q}(i) = \mathbb{Q}$? I know that \begin{align*} \mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{2}) &= \{a+b\sqrt{2} \mid a,b \in \mathbb{Q}\}, \\ \mathbb{Q}(i) &= ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

prove that $\Bbb{Q}$ is a ordered field [on hold]

I would like prove this theorem but I don't have idea of as prove an axiom The teacher gave us the following order axioms Axiom 1 trichotomy Axiom 2 $\forall a,b,c \in F$ $a < b$ $\land$ $b < ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Rational solutions for $\sin(n)$ in radians

This is completely for my own curiosity. Does $y = \sin(n)$ have rational solutions for $n$, an integer number of radians. I know that this is strange because usually integers are only used in ...
22
votes
10answers
653 views

What are the Laws of Rational Exponents?

On Math SE, I've seen several questions which relate to the following. By abusing the laws of exponents for rational exponents, one can come up with any number of apparent paradoxes, in which a number ...
4
votes
1answer
37 views

if $r,s$ are rational numbers, then $r+s\sqrt2$ is irrational unless $s=0$?

if $r,s$ are rational numbers, Prove $r+s\sqrt2$ is irrational unless $s=0$? I need to prove this simple question, but not sure if my method is acceptable I'm trying to prove it by ...
2
votes
1answer
817 views

Proof by contradiction problem on rational numbers

Using proofs by contradiction, show that there is no smallest negative rational number and no largest positive rational number. Assume that there is a smallest negative rational number. Therefore, ...
5
votes
2answers
80 views

Is there a first order formula $\varphi[x]$ in $(\mathbb Q, +, \cdot, 0)$ such that $x≥0$ iff $\varphi[x]$?

In the first-order language $\mathscr L$ having $(+, \cdot, 0)$ as signature, it is easy to define a formula $\phi[x]$, namely $\exists y \; x = y^2$, satisfying : $$\text{for all } x \in \Bbb R, ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Why is it that for any rational numbers $a < b$, the interval $[a, b]$ in $\mathbb{Q}$ is not compact with respect to this metric?

Suppose $q$ is any nonzero rational number and $p$ is a fixed prime. If $q = p^k\frac{n}{m}$ for integers $n$ and $m$, neither of which has $p$ as a factor, then we define $|q|_p := p^{−k}$. We can ...
2
votes
1answer
31 views

$\sup$ and $\inf$ of $E=\{p/q\in\mathbb{Q}:p^2<5q^2 \text{ and } p, q > 0\}$

I'd appreciate if you could please check to see if my proof is valid. Find $\sup$ and $\inf$ of $E=\{p/q\in\mathbb{Q}:p^2<5q^2 \text{ and } p, q > 0\}$. Solution: $q^2 > p^2/5 \iff q > ...
60
votes
2answers
2k views

Representing every positive rational number in the form of $(a^n+b^n)/(c^n+d^n)$

About a month ago, I got the following : For every positive rational number $r$, there exists a set of four positive integers $(a,b,c,d)$ such that ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

How can all of them be irrational ??

Assume that $\{x,y,x^2,y^2,xy\}$ are all irrational. Can it be true that all of $\{x-y,x+y,x^2-y^2,x^2+y^2\}$ are irrational? Details: $|x|\ne|y|$ and $x,y\in\mathbb R$. In the ...
1
vote
0answers
28 views

Is a value that tends to infinity considered rational?

This really confused me. I know a rational number is any number that can be written in the form of ${a\over b} \space \space \forall a,b\in Z$. We also know all Integers are clearly Rational. But ...
0
votes
1answer
106 views

Relation on rational numbers that defines a total order

Define the relation on $\mathbb{Q}$ by $$[m,n]<[j,k]$$ if and only if $jn-mk$ belongs to $\mathbb{N}$, $j$ and $m$ belong to $\mathbb{Z}$, $n$ and $k$ belong to $\mathbb{N}$. (a) Show that ...
3
votes
2answers
46 views

For a.e. $x \in [0, 1]$, there are finitely many $p/q$ such that $\left| x - p/q \right| < 1 / \left( q \log q \right)^2$

I am stuck on a qualifying exam problem and was hoping to get some help. Show for a.e. $x \in [0, 1]$ that there are finitely many $p/q \in \mathbf{Q}$ in reduced form such that $q \geq 2$ and ...
0
votes
2answers
38 views

Rational mean of irrational numbers?

My teacher tells me that in the vicinity of any rational number, an irrational exists. To elucidate, I presume, he further went on to say, if a function, if defined to give 1 for every rational number ...
0
votes
3answers
60 views

Proving that there is no continuous function $f:\Bbb R\to\Bbb R$ satisfying $f(\Bbb Q)\subset\Bbb R-\Bbb Q$ and $f(\Bbb R-\Bbb Q) \subset\Bbb Q$. [duplicate]

How can I prove that there is no continuous function $f:\mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R}$ satisfying $f(\mathbb{Q}) \subset \mathbb{R}\backslash \mathbb{Q}$ and $f(\mathbb{R}\backslash \mathbb{Q} ) \subset ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

Rational points on a line

This question is quite unique. Does there exist some point in the coordinate system such that any line passing through it has at most 2 rational points lying on it?
2
votes
0answers
38 views

How to generate primitive solutions to the equation $a^3 + b^3 = c^2$

The solution for this is that we are supposed to pick numbers x and y, then we can substitute them in the equation and obtain some z, which we then multiply the left side of the equation with to ...
6
votes
3answers
139 views

Is there a rational surjection $\Bbb N\to\Bbb Q$?

The question is in the title. Is there a one-dimensional rational function $f\in\Bbb R(X)$ which restricts to $\Bbb N\to\Bbb Q$, which is a surjection onto $\Bbb Q$? My guess is no. Expanding the ...
-5
votes
1answer
136 views

Can I belive that : $e^{e^{e^{e^{\cdots}}}}$ is $\infty$? [closed]

Definetly this number : $e^{e^{e^{e^{\cdots}}}}$ is not an integer this implies that is not prime number or perfect number , now i would like to know really what is the nature of this number ...
3
votes
1answer
79 views

Is there a choice homomorphism?

Let $\pi : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}/ \mathbb{Q}$ be the canonical projection. With the axiom of choice we "know" that there are choice functions $\alpha : \mathbb{R}/ \mathbb{Q} \to \mathbb{R}$ with ...
0
votes
1answer
151 views

Cluster points of the sequence $a_n(x):=nx-\lfloor nx \rfloor$

I have $a_n(x):=nx-\lfloor nx \rfloor$ where $x$ is real. I want to show that if $x$ is rational, then $a_n(x)$ has finitely many cluster points, if $x$ is irrational, then every real $a$ with $0\leq ...
7
votes
1answer
157 views

Are $\frac{\pi}{e}$ or $\frac{e}{\pi}$ irrational?

Is it clear whether $\displaystyle \frac{\pi}{e}$ or $\displaystyle \frac{e}{\pi}$ are irrational or not? If not, then there would exist $q,p\in \mathbb{Z}$ such that $$p\cdot \pi = q\cdot e$$
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Is there an irrational number arbitrarily close to another irrational number?

I know that there is a rational number arbitrarily close to an irrational, due to the density of real number. But what about an irrational number? Thanks!
11
votes
0answers
94 views

Do all rational numbers repeat in Fibonacci coding?

In a regular, positional number system (like our decimal numbers), every rational number ends in a repeating sequence (even if it's just 0). For example, 1/3 in base 10 is 0.33333..., in base 5 it's ...
0
votes
2answers
65 views

Let a,b be rationals and x irrational. Show that if $\frac{x+a}{x+b}$ is rational, then $a=b$.

I'm trying to solve the following problems: Let $a$,$b$ be rationals and $x$ irrational. Show that if $\frac{x+a}{x+b}$ is rational, then $a=b$ Let $x$,$y$ be rationals such that ...
4
votes
1answer
100 views

A rational orbit that's provably dense in the reals?

Iterating the map $\ \ x\ \mapsto\ x-\frac{1}{x},\ \ $ the orbit of initial point $2$ is "probably" dense in $\mathbb{R}$. Is there an explicit rational mapping together with an initial rational ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

How to prove that $\bar{\mathbb{Q}}=\mathbb{R}$?

How to proof that $\bar{\mathbb{Q}}=\mathbb{R}$, where $\bar{\mathbb{Q}}=\mathbb{Q}\cup\mathbb{Q}^{\prime}$ and $\mathbb{Q}^{\prime}$ are the limit points of $\mathbb{Q}$?
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Continuity - approximating an irrational number via rationals [duplicate]

If $x=p/q$, where $(p,q)=1$ are integers, then $f(x)=1/q$. If x is irrational then f(x)=0. Prove that a) f is continuous for all irrationals b) f is not continuous for all rationals. I think I ...
6
votes
1answer
276 views

What's an example of a number that is neither rational nor irrational?

Of course in regular logic, the answer is there aren't any. But in intuitionistic logic, there might be, as seen by this answer: http://math.stackexchange.com/a/1437130/49592. My question is, as per ...
5
votes
2answers
362 views

What exactly are those “two irrational numbers” x and y such that x^y is rational? [duplicate]

It's possible to prove nonconstructively that there exists irrational numbers $x$ and $y$ such that $x^y$ is rational, but that proof only proves that such numbers exist and does not specify what they ...
1
vote
1answer
50 views

Determine all positive rational numbers $r \neq 1$ such that $r^{\frac{1}{r-1}}$ is rational?

Here's what I've got so far: Let $r = \frac{a}{b}$, where $a$ and $b$ are integers. We then have $$r^{\frac{1}{r-1}} = \frac{a^{\frac{b}{a-b}}}{b^{\frac{b}{a-b}}}$$ Clearly, $a-b=1$ and $a-b=-1$ ...
17
votes
7answers
1k views

How many sequences of rational numbers converging to 1 are there?

I have a problem with this exercise: How many sequences of rational numbers converging to 1 are there? I know that the number of all sequences of rational numbers is $\mathfrak{c}$. But here ...
3
votes
1answer
76 views

Find the maximum number of rational points on the circle with center $(0,\sqrt3)$

Find the maximum number of rational points on the circle with center $(0,\sqrt3)$ Let the equation of the circle be $x^2+(y-\sqrt3)^2=r^2$ Let $(a,b)$ be any rational point on the circle ...
2
votes
2answers
35 views

Proving $\mathbb{Q}[\sqrt{2}] = \{f(\sqrt{2}): f(x) \in \mathbb{Q}[x]\} = \{x+y\sqrt{2}:x,y\in\mathbb{Q}\}$

I need to prove that: $$\mathbb{Q}[\sqrt{2}] = \{f(\sqrt{2}): f(x) \in \mathbb{Q}[x]\} = \{x+y\sqrt{2}:x,y\in\mathbb{Q}\}$$ Well, $ \{f(\sqrt{2}): f(x) \in \mathbb{Q}[x]\} $ is the set of ...
1
vote
0answers
35 views

How do I know if this will be rational or irrational? ($a^b$)

Usually, when I have $a^b$ when $a$ and $b$ are both irrational, I assume that it will be irrational. But that is not always true, I assume, so when is the result irrational? How will I know? Take ...
5
votes
3answers
471 views

Why is epsilon not a rational number?

I was wondering why epsilon, the smallest positive number, isn't a rational number. I was watching a video a few days ago about surreal numbers, and I've learned that, in the field of surreal numbers, ...
0
votes
4answers
400 views

How can I explain $0.999\ldots=1$? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Does .99999… = 1? I have to explain $0.999\ldots=1$ to people who don't know limit. How can I explain $0.999\ldots=1$? The common procedure is as follows ...
1
vote
1answer
19 views

What is known about rational points on the ideal of relations / syzygy ideal?

What is known about rational points on the ideal of relations / syzygy ideal? Let $G$ be a finite group, with $|G|=n$. Then $G$ acts on $\mathbb{Q}[x_1,\cdots,x_n]$ through the regular representation ...
2
votes
2answers
55 views

Why is $\{p \in \mathbb{Q},:p<1\} | \{p \in \mathbb{Q}: p \geq 1\}$ a real number?

A basic example of a Dedekind cut is: $A|B$ = $\{p \in \mathbb{Q}:p<1\} | \{p \in \mathbb{Q}: p \geq 1\}$ This is very confusing because what we have here is a pair of subsets of $\mathbb{Q}$ ...
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Given any two real numbers $x<y$, there is a rational $q$ with $x<q<y$

I am trying to prove the following statement: Given any two real numbers $x,y$ with $x<y$, there exists a rational number $q$ that satisfies $x<q<y$. I got stuck at one point of the proof, ...
13
votes
5answers
365 views

Irreducibility of $f(x)=x^4+3x^3-9x^2+7x+27$

Question at hand is: Is $x^4+3x^3-9x^2+7x+27$ irreducible in $\Bbb Q$ and/or $\Bbb Z$. This is for an exam, reasoning is trivial, but no calculators in hand. Clearly, if there is a rational ...
2
votes
2answers
93 views

show the existence of a real number

Let $a_n > 0$ be any sequence. I want to show that there is a real number $r \in \mathbb R$ such that $ 0 < | r - m/n | < a_n $ for infinitely many points $(m,n ) \in \mathbb N ^2$. I ...
0
votes
2answers
67 views

$({\mathbb{Q}},+)$ is not finitely generated

I'm trying to prove that $G = ({\mathbb{Q}},+)$ is not finitely generated. I have come up with the following, and would like to check it is correct: $G$ is generated by $\{1/n | n \in ...
3
votes
3answers
141 views

Can a $\mathbf{Q}$-basis of $\mathbf{R}$ be explicitly defined?

Could someone give me an explicit basis of $\mathbf{R}$ as a vector space over $\mathbf{Q}$? I know some linearly independent subset, namely $1,e,e^2,\dots$ but this seems to be a deep result ...
-1
votes
1answer
41 views

How to proof that a field is complete order field?

I know what an ordered field is but how to actually proof that a field, for example $Q$ (rational numbers), is an ordered field?
1
vote
1answer
56 views

Prove $x \in \mathbb{Q}$ and $y \notin \mathbb{Q} \implies (x + y) \notin \mathbb{Q}$

Looking for tips to prove the homework $\forall x,y \in \mathbb{R}, x \in \mathbb{Q} \land y \notin \mathbb{Q} \implies (x + y) \notin \mathbb{Q}$ Can I assume the hypothesis and to yield a ...
6
votes
2answers
91 views

Solve for Rationals $p,q,r$ Satisfying $\frac{2p}{1+2p-p^2}+\frac{2q}{1+2q-q^2}+\frac{2r}{1+2r-r^2}=1$.

Find all rational solutions $(p,q,r)$ to the Diophantine equation $$\frac{2p}{1+2p-p^2}+\frac{2q}{1+2q-q^2}+\frac{2r}{1+2r-r^2}=1\,.$$ At least, determine an infinite family of ...