For questions about the quaternions: a noncommutative four dimensional division algebra over the real numbers.

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Why are the solutions of polynomial equations so unconstrained over the quaternions?

An $n$th-degree polynomial has at most $n$ distinct zeroes in the complex numbers. But it may have an uncountable set of zeroes in the quaternions. For example, $x^2+1$ has two zeroes in $\mathbb ...
32
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2answers
1k views

Why are the only division algebras over the real numbers the real numbers, the complex numbers, and the quaternions?

Why are the only (associative) division algebras over the real numbers the real numbers, the complex numbers, and the quaternions? Here a division algebra is an associative algebra where every ...
23
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2answers
2k views

What lies beyond the Sedenions

In the construction of types of numbers, we have the following sequence: $$\mathbb{R} \subset \mathbb{C} \subset \mathbb{H} \subset \mathbb{O} \subset \mathbb{S}$$ or: $$2^0 \mathrm{-ions} \subset ...
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8answers
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Why is the complex number $z=a+bi$ equivalent to the matrix form $\left(\begin{smallmatrix}a &-b\\b&a\end{smallmatrix}\right)$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Relation of this antisymmetric matrix $r = \left(\begin{smallmatrix}0 &1\\-1&0\end{smallmatrix}\right)$ to $i$ On Wikipedia, it says that: Matrix ...
5
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3answers
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Euler angles and gimbal lock

Can someone show mathematically how gimbal lock happens when doing matrix rotation with Euler angles for yaw, pitch, roll? I'm having a hard time understanding what is going on even after reading ...
15
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6answers
5k views

Real world uses of Quaternions?

I've recently started reading about Quaternions, and I keep reading that for example they're used in computer graphics and mechanics calculations to calculate movement and rotation, but without real ...
11
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2answers
819 views

Why are properties lost in the Cayley–Dickson construction?

Motivating question: What lies beyond the Sedenions? I'm aware that one can construct a hierarchy of number systems via the Cayley–Dickson process: $$\mathbb{R} \subset \mathbb{C} \subset ...
5
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2answers
708 views

Does anyone know any resources for Quaternions for truly understanding them?

I've been studying Quaternions for a week, on my own. I've learned various facts about them but I still don't understand them. My goal is to understand rotation quaternions specifically. I don't want ...
10
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2answers
823 views

How do quaternions represent rotations?

I wonder how $qvq^{-1}$ gives the rotated vector of $v$. Is there any easy-to-understand proof for it? I was on Wikipedia, but I could not understand the proof there because of the conversions. Why ...
17
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7answers
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How can one intuitively think about quaternions?

Quaternions came up while I was interning not too long ago and it seemed like no one really know how they worked. While eventually certain people were tracked down and were able to help with the ...
8
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2answers
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How do you rotate a vector by a unit quaternion?

Given a 3-variable right-handed vector v that is a translation measured in local space and a unit quaternion representing an orientation from local to world space, how do you use the quaternion to ...
3
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1answer
478 views

The Join of Two Copies of $S^1$

So I know the fact that the join of $S^1$ and $S^1$ is homeomorphic to the 3-sphere, but I'm having trouble "seeing" this. I'd prefer something that appeals to geometric intuition, but more formal ...
6
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3answers
274 views

4 dimensional numbers

I've tought using split complex and complex numbers toghether for building a 3 dimensional space (related to my previous question). I then found out using both together, we can have trouble on the ...
4
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2answers
4k views

Combining rotation quaternions

If I combine 2 rotation quaternions by multiplying them, lets say one represents some rotation around x axis and other represents some rotation around some arbitrary axis. The the order of rotation ...
4
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2answers
328 views

Square roots of $-1$ in quaternion ring

In this Wikipedia page it is said that the square roots of -1 in the quaternion ring are the elements of the imaginary sphere. I don't understand why this is so. I don't understand the system that's ...
2
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3answers
204 views

Math beyond Quaternions

Quaternions remove the commutative property and octonions eliminate the associative property can we go any higher and eliminate more properties?
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2answers
279 views

Examples of a non commutative division ring

What are some examples of a non commutative division ring other than quaternions?
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1answer
492 views

Quaternions and Rotations

Two of the interesting achievements in Mathematics are Classification of platonic solids, and also classification of finite groups acting on the unit sphere in $\mathbb{R}^3$, and they are very nicely ...
21
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2answers
677 views

Is the set of quaternions $\mathbb{H}$ algebraically closed?

A skew field $K$ is said to be algebraically closed if it contains a root for every non-constant polynomial in $K[x]$. I know that this is true for $\mathbb{C}$, which is the algebraic closure of ...
19
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6answers
2k views

What is the motivation for quaternions?

I know imaginary numbers solve $x^2 +1=0$, but what is the motivation for quaternions?
13
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1answer
274 views

How to raise a number to a quaternion power

Now, I know that it's (relatively) easy to calculate, say, $r^{a+bi}$ (using the fact that, for $z_1, z_2\in \mathbb{C}, {z_1}^{z_2}=e^{z_2\ln(z_1)}$ and $\ln(z_1$) can just be found using: ...
9
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1answer
5k views

Quaternion distance

I am using quaternions to represent orientation as a rotational offset from a global coordinate frame. Is it correct in thinking that quaternion distance gives a metric that defines the closeness of ...
11
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1answer
353 views

The Quaternions and $SO(4)$

I am interested in the map $\phi:S^3 \times S^3 \to GL_4(\mathbb{R})$ given as follows: Let $(p,q) \in S^3 \times S^3$. We identify $p$ and $q$ as real quaternions with unit norms and define ...
8
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1answer
347 views

Why should I consider the components $j^2$ and $k^2$ to be $=-1$ in the search for quaternions?

I'm reading a paper about Hamilton's discovery of quaternions and it explains why he failed in his 'theory of triplets' where he tried to make a vector with $3$ dimensions, as an analogy to the ...
4
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1answer
383 views

Uniform distributions on the space of rotations in 3D

I believe on moral grounds that the following three definitions are equivalent, and determine "the" uniform distribution on rotations in three dimensions. The Haar measure on $SO(3)$. The uniform ...
23
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2answers
795 views

What do we lose passing from the reals to the complex numbers?

As normed division algebras, when we go from the complex numbers to the quaternions, we lose commutativity. Moving on to the octonions, we lose associativity. Is there some analogous property that we ...
8
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1answer
223 views

What specific algebraic properties are broken at each Cayley-Dickson stage beyond octonions?

I'm starting to come around to an understanding of hypercomplex numbers, and I'm particularly fascinated by the fact that certain algebraic properties are broken as we move through each of the $2^n$ ...
5
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2answers
196 views

One more question about mapping quaternionic matrices into real matrices

Real matrices that lie in the image of the inclusion homomorphism $\rho_n: M_n(\mathbb C) \to M_{2n}(\mathbb R)$ are called complex linear real matrices. It is easy to see that a real matrix is ...
0
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1answer
66 views

Is there infinitely many “complex units”

As we know, $i$ = $\sqrt{-1}$, a simple complex unit. In complex space of two dimensions, you graph an axis of $a+bi$ where $i$ is your second dimension axis. Now, you also know, in three and four ...
4
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2answers
381 views

What is a good geometric interpretation of quaternion multiplication?

I understand that the formula for quaternion multiplication of $q_1=(s_1,\vec{v_1})$ by $q_2=(s_2,\vec{v_2})$ $q_1q_2=(s_1s_2-\vec{v_1}\cdot\vec{v_2}, \vec{v_1} \times\vec{v_2} + \vec{v_1}s_2 + ...
4
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3answers
391 views

How do you construct the quaternion and the multiplication rules, like Hamilton did?

So, I understand complex number multiplication, and how it represents $2D$ rotations. What I don't understand is, how you add two more imaginary numbers $j$ and $k$, and get $3D$ rotations. I believe ...
3
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2answers
107 views

Do Lipschitz/Hurwitz quaternions satisfy the Ore condition?

The Lipschitz quaternions $L$ are the quaternions with integer coefficients and the Hurwitz quaternions $H$ are the quaternions with coefficients from $\Bbb Z\cup(\Bbb Z+1/2).$ A ring satisfies the ...
3
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2answers
242 views

what is the tensor product $\mathbb{H\otimes_{R}H}$

I'm looking for a simpler way of thinking about the tensor product: $\mathbb{H\otimes_{R}H}$, i.e a more known algbera which is isomorphic to it. I have built the algebra and played with it for a ...
2
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1answer
92 views

How can I break down a rotation of known amount around a known axis into two rotations of unknown amounts around known axes?

I have a vector that's been rotated a known amount about a known axis. I would like to break this rotation down into two separate rotations around known, linearly independent axes where the amounts I ...
2
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1answer
258 views

Octonionic Hopf fibration and $\mathbb HP^3$

Real, complex and quaternionic versions of Hopf fibration ($S^0\to S^n\to\mathbb RP^n$, $S^1\to S^{2n+1}\to\mathbb CP^n$ and $S^3\to S^{4n+3}\to\mathbb HP^n$) give rise to spherical fibrations ...
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1answer
203 views

Isomorphism of quaternions with a matrix ring over real numbers

Let $\mathcal A$ be the algebra over the real numbers consisting of matrices of the form $$\begin{pmatrix} z&w\\ - \bar{w}& \bar{z} \end{pmatrix} \ (z, w \in \mathbb C). $$ $\mathcal A$ is in ...
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2answers
2k views

How would I create a rotation matrix that rotates X by a, Y by b, and Z by c?

How would I create a rotation matrix that rotates X by a, Y by b, and Z by c? I need to formulas, unless you're using the ardor3d api's functions/methods. Matrix is set up like this ...
4
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1answer
150 views

Relationship between two maps from $SU(2)$ to $SO(3)$

I have two maps from $SU(2) \to SO(3)$. For the first map, think of $SU(2)$ as the group of unit quaternions. Under this identification, we can give a map $f: SU(2) \to SO(3)$ given by $SU(2)$ ...
4
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3answers
697 views

How to get a part of a quaternion? e.g. get half of the rotation of a quaternion?

if I have a quaternion which describes an arbitrary rotation, how can I get for example only the half rotation or something like 30% of this rotation? Thanks in advance!
4
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2answers
264 views

Quaternions as roots

So, I StumbledUpon this really cool site and the last picture looked almost as if it had 3D structure. This reminded me of another website where I saw pictures of the order-8 Mandelbulb. I got to ...
3
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2answers
99 views

Quaternion–Spinor relationship?

I've known for some time about the rotation group action of the ('pure') quaternions on $ \mathbf{R}^3 $ by conjugation. I've recently encountered spinors and notice similarities in their definitions ...
3
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2answers
63 views

What type of division is possible in 1, 2, 4, and 8 but not the 3rd dimension?

In this article that talks about some history of hamilton http://plus.maths.org/content/curious-quaternions There is a snippet that says this: Multiplication is very sneaky. You can only set up ...
3
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1answer
4k views

Compute Angle Between Quaternions (in Matlab)

I am working on a project where I have many quaternion attitude vectors, and I want to find the 'precision' of these quaternions with respect to each-other. Without being an expert in this type of ...
3
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1answer
442 views

Why is quaternion algebra 4d and not 3d?

Why is quaternion algebra 4D and not 3D? Complex algebra is 2D and what is known as quaternion algebra jumps to 4D. $ i^2 = j^2 = k^2 = ijk = -1 $ Using $1, i, j,$ and $k$ as the base (where ...
2
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1answer
237 views

Unit elements in Hurwitz quaternions

Hurwitz quaternions are defined as: $$H_u = \left\{a+bi+cj+dk\mid (a,b,c,d) \in\mathbb{Z}\mbox{ or }(a,b,c,d) \in\mathbb{Z}+\frac{1}{2}\right\}$$ (that is, all integer or half integer quaternions). ...
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1answer
47 views

Solution of $ax+xb=c$ in a division ring

The equation $ax+xb=c$ in the quaternions skew field ($a,b,c,x \in \mathbb{H}$) has solution: $$ x= \left(|b|^2+2b_0a +a^2\right)^{-1} \left( ac +c \bar b\right) $$ Where $|b|,b_0,\bar b$ are ...
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0answers
108 views

Quaternions: Rotation Matrix Derivative

Given Data and Specifications in Question If $q(t)$ represents the position vector as result of rotation with an angular velocity $\omega(t)$ in quaternions, then you can make the relationship ...
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1answer
63 views

Why do $\mathbb{C}$ and $\mathbb{H}$ generate all of $M_2(\mathbb{C})$?

For this question, I'm identifying the quaternions $\mathbb{H}$ as a subring of $M_2(\mathbb{C})$, so I view them as the set of matrices of form $$ \begin{pmatrix} a & b \\ -\bar{b} & \bar{a} ...
0
votes
2answers
54 views

Rotation Equivalence using Quaternions

I'm given a statement to prove: A rotation of π/2 around the z-axis, followed by a rotation of π/2 around the x-axis = A rotation of 2π/3 around (1,1,1) Where z-axis is the unit vector (0,0,1) ...
0
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1answer
71 views

Simple Vector Space Rotation

Given Data in the problem & notation convenstions We have 3 rotation vectors called $\vec{\theta_1},\vec{\theta_2},\vec{\theta_3}$, magnitude of these vectors will give you angle of rotation We ...