For questions on quantum mechanics, a branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena at microscopic scales, where the action is on the order of the Planck constant.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

1
vote
1answer
82 views

Inequality from Von Neumann entropy.

I am looking over some old course notes. First, Von Neumann entropy is defined. The Von Neumann entropy of a system described by a density matrix $\rho$ is defined by $S(\rho)\equiv ...
1
vote
1answer
242 views

Why are the coefficients of the base states of a qubit complex numbers?

Why are qubits represented as $$\left|{q}\right\rangle = \alpha\left|{0}\right\rangle+\beta\left|{1}\right\rangle\equiv\alpha\left[{1 \ 0}\right]^T+\beta\left[{0 \ 1}\right]^T; ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Tensor product distributive property?

Is it true that for vectors $a$, $b$, $c$, $d$ we have $$|a\rangle \otimes |b\rangle \langle c| \otimes \langle d|= |a \rangle \langle c| \otimes |b \rangle \langle d|?$$ So does this kind of ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

Double-commutator $[f,[f, - \Delta]] = -2 |\nabla f|^2.$

This book (proof of Theorem 3.2) in chapter 3.1 claims click me that an easy computation shows that $$[f,[f, - \Delta]] = -2 |\nabla f|^2.$$ where $[.,.]$ denotes the commutator. Unfortunately, I ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

How to plot a qubit on the Bloch sphere?

I've been reading pages such as this one: http://comp.uark.edu/~jgeabana/blochapps/bloch.html Which talk about the Bloch sphere, but I've been unable to figure out how to plot states on the sphere ...
1
vote
1answer
101 views

Bloch vector time evolution in magnetic field

I'm wondering if there is a smart way of solving the system of equations $$\frac{d\vec{n}}{dt} = \gamma (\vec{n} \times \vec{B}(t)),$$ where $\vec{n}(t) = \big(x(t),y(t),z(t) \big)$ is the Bloch ...
1
vote
1answer
280 views

Computing a Projection Valued Measure

I've recently begun learning about Projection Valued Measure and I'm a little confused. I understand that a Projection Valued Measure is a family of orthogonal projections $P(\Lambda)$ indexed by the ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Why is $\int_{\mathbb{R}^3} |p\rangle \langle p| d\lambda(p)=id$?

As I have written in the headline, I am curious how the relation $\int_{\mathbb{R}^3} |p \rangle \langle p| d\lambda(p)=id$ that physicists use, where $|p\rangle$ is the eigenfunction to the ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Clarifying understanding of Poisson Brackets in Hamiltonian Dynamics

I'm just reading through my textbook and would like to clarify my understanding of 'Canonically related variables'. In my textbook, it says that if $Q_i$, $P_i$ are related to $q_i$, $p_i$ by a ...
1
vote
1answer
114 views

Reference request for differential geometry/quantum chaos text

I'm looking for a differential-geometry based exposition of chaos theory and quantum chaos. Ideally, it would start with the Hamiltonian formalism (on symplectic manifolds) and discuss as many of the ...
1
vote
1answer
66 views

Commutation of abstract o(3) generators and vectors.

I've been given the following problem, and I'm quite lost with it - any help would be fantastic!! Let $L_1$, $L_2$, and $L_3$ denote the abstract o(3) algebras. You are given that $\vec{A} = (A_1, ...
1
vote
1answer
124 views

pre-quantization on cotangent bundle $T^*M$

Let M be a manifold. Is there any pre-quantization on cotangent bundle $T^*M$?. In which case this pre-quantization is unique?
1
vote
1answer
87 views

Grover Algorithm Orthogonal vectors

I'm study the Grover algorithm. About this picture my lecture say that the expression $|s'\rangle$ in the computational basis is $$|s'\rangle = \dfrac{1}{\sqrt{N-1}}\sum_{x\neq w}|x\rangle ...
1
vote
1answer
84 views

Dense in the special unitary group

I was going through the PhD thesis of Daniel Nagaj. In the last paragraph on page 30, there is this following sentence. A universal gate set must be dense in the group $SU(n)\ldots$ My question ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Find the eigenvectors of a hermitian matrix as a function of angles

I have a problem which seems flawed to me. Consider the hermitian matrix M \begin{pmatrix} a/2 & b^* \\ b & -a/2 \end{pmatrix} with a>0 real and b complex. Let $\theta$,$\phi$ ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

How do outer products differ from tensor products?

From my naive understanding, an outer product appears to be a particular case of a tensor product, but applied to the "simple" case of tensor products of vectors. However, in quantum mechanics there ...
1
vote
1answer
25 views

counter example of sum of closable operators

Let $A$, $B$ and $A+B$ are closable operators. I am not sure the relation $\overline{A+B}\supseteq \overline{A}+\overline{B}$ is true or not(with equality if one operator is bounded. ) And I have a ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Geometric quantization: not understanding the curvature form and Weil's theorem

I am reading a bit about geometric quantization. The texts that I am following are N.M.J. Woodhouse's "Geometric Quantization" and an article from arXiv. I am having troubles understanding the ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

How to construct a complete set in $L^2(\mathbb{R}^3)$ starting with the Spherical Harmonics?

The Spherical Harmonics form a complete set of functions on the sphere $S^2$, so that any function of $f: S^2\to \mathbb{R}$ can be written uniquely as $$f(\theta,\phi)=\sum_{l=0}^\infty ...
1
vote
2answers
45 views

Prove: the density operator of a pure state has exactly one non-zero eigenvalue equal to unity

What is the proper way of proving : the density operator $\hat{\rho}$ of a pure state has exactly one non-zero eigenvalue and it is unity, i.e, the density matrix takes the form (after ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

Solving $\ddot{x} + \omega^2x = 0$: Classical Path for a Simple Harmonic Oscillator

I have posted in Math rather than Physics as the problem is mainly abuse(?) of trig identities rather than physics. This comes from an exercise within some lecture notes on Feynman Path integrals and ...
1
vote
1answer
77 views

Prove $\exp{i\frac{\pi}{2}(-1+\sigma_{i})}=\sigma_{i}$

How do we prove $e^{{i\frac{\pi}{2}(-1+\sigma_{i})}}=\sigma_{i}$ ? where $\sigma_{i}:$Pauli matrix and $1=$ Identity matrix Note: I understand that $i\frac{\pi}{2}(-1+\sigma_{i})$ is anti-hermitian ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Why an unbounded operator defined everywhere fails to be closed?

The Toeplitz theorem says : If a closed operator is defined everywhere, then it is continuous. So if a non continuous operator is defined everywhere, it is not closed. But why is it not closed? What ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Why are projective representations of a group classified by the second cohomology group?

I'm reading about the classification of bosonic SPT's, and I came across this statement: projective representations, where $v(g_1)v(g_2)=\alpha(g_1,g_2)v(g_1g_2)$, $v(g_1)$ being the transformation ...
1
vote
2answers
61 views

Finding the adjoint of a linear operator using Dirac notation.

Trying to answer this question and I am fairly new to Dirac Notation: Let $|\psi\rangle$ and $|\phi\rangle$ be two states in a Hilbert Space and consider the linear operator ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

eigenenergies when Hamiltonian is $\hat{H}^2$ − $\hat{H}$

If the eigenenergies of the Hamiltonian $\hat{H}$ are $E_n$ and the eigenfunctions are $\psi_n(r)$ , what are the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the operator $\hat{H}^2$ − $\hat{H}$ ? Attempted ...
1
vote
2answers
21 views

Approximation to series for quantum harmonic oscillator

For the function $$h(\xi) = C \sum \frac 1 {(j/2)!} \xi^j$$ Griffith's makes the following approximation at large $\xi$: $$h(\xi) = C \sum \frac 1 {(j/2)!} \xi^j \approx C \sum\frac 1 {j!} \xi^{2j} ...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

Projection of a 3D spherical function to a carteasian axis

I have a 3D function defined in a spherical coordinate system $(r,\theta,\phi)$, which is written as a product of a radial function $R_{nl}(r)$ and a spherical harmonic $Y_{lm}(\theta,\phi)$ I.e $$ ...
1
vote
1answer
108 views

Distinct eigenvalues of matrix

While studing Quantum Physics I've came to the conclusion that it would be useful to find an equivalent (or at least a sufficient) condition for a matrix (over $\mathbb{C}$) to have distinct ...
1
vote
1answer
114 views

Example of using the Hadamard's matrix to determine the superposition

I've came across those notes for Quantum computation from John Watrous. I am having troubles understanding the last example. We have those two vectors, or if I understood correctly, from now on ...
1
vote
1answer
77 views

Position operator is self adjoint

Let $H=L^2(\Bbb{R})$ with the linear (unbounded) operator $P(f)(x)=x\cdot f(x)$ for each $x\in\mathbb{R}$. Have a look at the following domain: $$D(P)=\{f\in ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

Prove that $e^{\lambda A}Be^{-\lambda A}=B$

Prove that $$e^{\lambda A}Be^{-\lambda A}=B$$ if $[A,B]=0$. $A$ and $B$ are operators and $\lambda$ is a complex number. Can anyone explain how I should go about this question? How do I calculate ...
1
vote
1answer
307 views

Calculating eigenstates of Pauli matrices

I need to find out the eigenvalues and the eigenstates of the Pauli matrices. I know that the eigenvalues of $\sigma_x$, $\sigma_y$, and $\sigma_z$ are all $\pm 1$. How do I find the eigenstates?
1
vote
2answers
69 views

Can a differential equation with real coefficients have solution with complex coefficients?

Can a differential equation (with constant coefficients, linear or nonlinear) with real coefficients have solution(s) with complex coefficients? If so, are there any examples related to actual ...
1
vote
1answer
67 views

Basis for Clifford algebra $Cl^2 (W)$ and quotient space $Cl^3(W)/Cl^2(W)$

Consider a basis $(c_1 ^ {\dagger}, c_2 ^ {\dagger}, c_1 ^ {\dagger}, c_1, c_2, c_3 )$ of creation and annihilation operators for $W=V \oplus V^*$. I need help to write the basis for Clifford ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

When is the product of a hermitian unitary and another unitary hermitian?

I have a Hermitian unitary Ĥ and I want to know, if Û is some other unitary, when is Ĥ Û a Hermitian unitary? Specifically, what are the conditions on Û such that ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Vectors, columns and representations

When I learned quantum mechanics, my professor frequently emphasized that a matrix is a representation of an operator, not the operator itself, and a column ($1\times M$ matrix) is not a vector, it's ...
1
vote
2answers
44 views

Orthogonal Projector

Let $(H,\langle\,|\,\rangle)$ be a separable Hilbert space on $\mathbb{C}$. $P_{\psi}:=\langle\psi,\,\rangle\psi$, where $\psi\in H$ is such that $\|\psi\|=1$. I have to prove that $P_{\psi}$ is an ...
1
vote
1answer
344 views

Hermitian transformation

I am studying Quantum Mechanics, and the book by Griffths introduces some concepts that I have never come across in my Math courses. I will try to summarize my questions, and hopefully someone will be ...
1
vote
1answer
60 views

Quantum: Toffoli gates

How do I prove that a toffoli gate is a controlled CNOT gate. i.e, $G_{Toffoli} = |0\rangle\langle 0| \otimes I + |1\rangle\langle 1|\otimes G_{CNOT}$. I am not sure how to approach this, thoughts? ...
1
vote
2answers
188 views

Problem with a wavefunction in Quantum Mechanics (math) (Book solution possibly wrong?)

Well there is a problem in my book which lists this problem: Calculate the probability that a particle will be found at $0.49L$ and $0.51L$ in a box of length $L$ when it has (a) $n = 1$. Take the ...
1
vote
1answer
750 views

Integrals involving Hermite Polynomials

Could you please tell me, How to evaluate this integral which involve hermite polynomials, $\int_{-\infty}^\infty e^{-ax^2}x^{2q}H_m(x)H_n(x)\,dx=?$ where $H_n$ is the $n$-th Hermite polynomial ...
1
vote
1answer
266 views

Evaluate an Integral involving Gaussian divided by square root of a quartic polynomial

Could you please tell me, How to evaluate the integral, $\int_{-\infty}^\infty\int_{-\infty}^\infty\dfrac{e^{-a(x^2+y^2)}}{\sqrt{k^2+\beta^2(x^2-y^2)^2}}dx~dy$ I already have obtained a series ...
1
vote
1answer
130 views

Derive an algorithm to determine convex combinations

Problem statement Given is the density matrix of a spin-1/2 system which was set up in a state of superposition $$ \varrho = \begin{pmatrix} \frac{3}{4} & \frac{1}{4} \\ \frac{1}{4} & ...
1
vote
1answer
142 views

Calculate spin wave function given probabilities of its alignment along 2 axes

Problem: An $e^{-}$ exists in such a state that the probability of its spin aligning across the $x_{(+)}$ axis is $P_{x+}=1/2$ and across the $y_{(+)}$ axis is $P_{y+}=1/2$ as well. What is the spin ...
1
vote
1answer
76 views

Quantum Fourier Transform and roots of unity.

I need to find $QFT_{6}$ for the state quantum state $\frac{1}{\sqrt2}(|0\rangle + |3\rangle)$. I received a very sufficient answer recently on simplifying nth roots of unity, but I am having a lot of ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Probability distribution of two party quantum states

I am going through a blog post written by Thomas Vidick. It states following three assumptions by Bell. Measurement independence (“free will”): the state $\lambda$ is independent of ${x,y}$ (since ...
1
vote
1answer
72 views

What is the notation for separable states or independent variables?

Is there any specific notation that two quantum states are separable or that two random variables are independent?
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Expecation for tensor products

We are told that $$Z|0 \rangle = | 0\rangle \\ Z | 1\rangle =-|1\rangle \\ X|0\rangle =|1\rangle \\ X|1\rangle =|0\rangle$$ and we have the state $$|\psi\rangle =|0\rangle |1\rangle +|1\rangle ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Manipulating derivatives after substitution: $\xi=\gamma x$

I am following a quantum mechanics text book which uses a simple looking substitution in a derivative. The substitution is $$\xi=\gamma x\tag1$$ It then says that ...