Questions about quadratic forms in many variables, for example $4x_1^2 + 3x_1x_2 + 5x_1x_3 - 8x_3^2$.

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9
votes
4answers
383 views

Representing a number as a sum of at most $k$ squares

Fix an integer $k >0 $ and would like to know the maximum number of different ways that a number $n$ can be expressed as a sum of $k$ squares, i.e. the number of integer solutions to $$ n = x_1^2 + ...
2
votes
0answers
117 views

Quadratic transformations of vector spaces

Much is known about transformations of the following form $$y_i = L_{ij}x_j \;\;: \;\; x\in\mathcal{R}^n, L\in\mathcal{R}^{n\times n}$$ We can infer a number of geometric properties about the ...
0
votes
1answer
102 views

Quadratic spaces and definition of hyperbolic plane

I'm trying to figure out a proof in Lam's book on quadratic forms (he uses this to define a hyperbolic plane). He states that if $(V,q)$ is a 2-dimensional quadratic space over $F$, then the following ...
8
votes
2answers
535 views

Proving an inequality with Cauchy-Schwarz

In the "User's guide to viscosity solutions" by Crandall, Ishii and Lions (link), they make the following claim (inequality (A.4) p. 58) : Given $x$, $\xi$ $\in \mathbb{R}^n$, $A \in \cal{S}(n)$ ...
1
vote
1answer
103 views

Extension to Witt's bases

Let $X$ be a real finite dimensional linear space. Let $B:X\times X \rightarrow \mathbf{R}$ be a bilinear symmetric non-degenerated form. Let $M$, $N$ be totally isotropic subspaces with the same ...
5
votes
0answers
167 views

Solutions to equation in matrix form

Suppose $x=[x_1, x_2, \cdots, x_n]^t$, $b=[b_1,b_2,\cdots,b_n]^t$ with $b_i\in K$ and $A\in M_n(K)$, where $K$ is a field. There are well known criteria for the system of equations $Ax=b$, by ...
8
votes
4answers
2k views

Determining if a quadratic is always positive

Is there a quick and systematic method to find out if a quadratic equation is always positive or may have positive and negative or always negative for all values to its variables? Say for a quadratic ...
2
votes
0answers
252 views

Surface Function Fitting to Spherical Data

I have a set of geographic (longitude,latitude,value) data to which I would like to fit surface functions, specifically, the set of quadratic surfaces: $f(x,y)=Ax^2+Bx^2+Cxy+Dx+Ey+F$ At the moment, ...
1
vote
1answer
381 views

Maximal subspace that a quadratic form is non-negative on

Let $q: \mathbb{R^3}\to \mathbb{R},\ q(x_1, x_2, x_3)=-5x_1^2-x_2^2-x_3^2+2x_1x_3+2x_2x_3-4x_1x_2$ be a quadratic form. Find a maximal subspace $W \subseteq \mathbb{R^3}$ such that $\forall w ...
0
votes
1answer
90 views

A quadratic space over an algebraically closed field is isotropic

Let $F$ be an algebraically closed field, and let $(V,f)$ be a quadratic space over $F$. How can one show that if $\dim V \geq 2$ then it is an isotropic space? Thanks.
3
votes
3answers
266 views

Confused about quadratic forms

My book states: if $q: \mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}$ is a positive definite quadratic form then there exists a basis $B=(v_1,...,v_n)$ such that $q(x)=x_1^2+...+x_n^2=||x||^2$ for every ...
4
votes
1answer
75 views

Intersection of Sphere and Line in $\mathbb{R}^n$?

This seems to me as a very simple and basic question, though I'm having trouble with it. The Problem Given a sphere $K\in\mathbb{R}^n$ with radius $r\in\mathbb{R}$ and center ...
1
vote
1answer
203 views

Completion of the squares (actually of the quadratic forms)

I have this paragraph in the book I cannot understand (this is not the first time I encounter this thing but I usually move on). $$A^\prime TA+A^\prime QB+B^\prime UA+B^\prime RB = ...
1
vote
2answers
267 views

creating the smoothest curve

I have this iPhone app that has an array containing around 50 to 100 points. How do I calculate the smoothest curve that will fit the points? It can be bezier, cubic, quadratic, whatever. It just have ...
3
votes
4answers
275 views

Quadratic vertex form - negative $h$ means it's on the right side of the graph?

When putting a quadratic equation in vertex form, I am having difficulty understanding why $h$ is negative when the location of the parabola goes to the right... why is this? For example, if I ...
2
votes
2answers
190 views

A question about integral quadratic forms

Hi Would you please advise me? Consider the equation below: $$ ax^2+bxy+cy^2=n $$ in which $a, b, c$ and $n$ are integers. We then suppose that $a, b, c$ are constant. Is there any way to find the ...
5
votes
1answer
241 views

Universal quadratic forms

A quadratic form is a polynomial $p(x_1,\dots,x_n)$ of the form $$ p(x_1,\dots,x_n)=\sum_{i \leq j}a_{ij}x_ix_j. $$ For example, $p_1(x,y,z,w)=x^2+y^2+z^2+w^2$ and $3x^2-5y^2$ are quadratic forms. I'm ...
8
votes
1answer
159 views

construction of the Witt group

I've seen a couple of constructions of the so-called Witt group: it seems that most authors start with the commutative monoid of isometry classes of quadratic spaces under direct sum, pass to the ...
2
votes
1answer
837 views

Sufficient Conditions for a Bounded Feasible Region in the Linear Programming Problem

I am working on a problem where it would be nice to prove that the feasible region of a LP problem is bounded, but where it is not necessary to solve any particular problem. In particular, given an ...
5
votes
3answers
253 views

Factoring numbers “of the (binary quadratic) form” in two different ways

For some fixed $n$ define the quadratic form $$Q(x,y) = x^2 + n y^2.$$ I think that if $Q$ represents $m$ in two different ways then $m$ is composite. I can prove this for $n$ prime. I was hoping ...
7
votes
2answers
183 views

How does the theory of the quadratic number fields relate to the quadratic forms?

As every one knows, the quadratic number fields shares a deep connection with the binary quadratic forms; I have been told this relation when I was a senior high, and now I, learning some difficult ...
3
votes
1answer
199 views

About multiplying binary quadratic forms

The quadratic forms with discriminant -23 up to change of variables are: A(x,y): $x^2 + xy + 6 y^2$ B(x,y): $2 x^2 - xy + 3 y^2$ C(x,y): $2 x^2 + xy + 3 y^2$ Viewed as number fields it's ...
4
votes
1answer
106 views

Partitioning polynomials in $\mathbb{Z}[x,y]$ by the primes they represent

Suppose you have a set $S\subset\mathbb{Z}[x,y].$ How can one efficiently partition the polynomials into sets such that the primes represented by the polynomials in any given set are identical? For ...
12
votes
0answers
1k views

Proof of Legendre's theorem on the ternary quadratic form

Theorem (Legendre): Let $a,b,c$ coprime positive integers, then $ax^2 + by^2 = cz^2$ has a nontrivial solution in rationals $x,y,z$ iff ...
3
votes
3answers
718 views

Existence of solutions to diophantine quadratic form

Is there a general result about the existence of (non-trivial) solutions of the diophantine equation: $$Ax^2 + By^2 = Cz^2$$ for A,B,C known positive integers, pair-wise relatively prime? What if ...
2
votes
3answers
542 views

positive symmetric matrices and positive-definiteness

Is a symmetric real matrix with diagonal entries strictly greater than 1 and off-diagonal entries positive but strictly less than 1 necessarily positive-semidefinite?
1
vote
1answer
223 views

Finding the minimum value of a quadratic within a range

Given any quadratic equation of the form $y=ax^2+bx+c$, I want to find the minimum value for a specific range of $x$. My programmer brain can do it in a branchy, algorithmic way as follows, but is ...
26
votes
2answers
823 views

Elementary proof that $2x^2+xy+3y^2$ represents infinitely many primes?

We did in class $x^2+y^2$, which was easy, and we had for homework $2x^2+2xy+3y^2$, which I did (its values (if not square) must be divisible by form primes, or of the form $x^2+5y^2$, and clearly ...
4
votes
1answer
374 views

Is a general (non-homogeneous) quadratic equation in $\mathbb{R}^3$ an ellipsoid?

This sounds like a simple problem, but I can't get it done. Given the general equation $ax^2 + by^2 + cz^2 + dxy + exz + fyz + gx + hy + iz + j = 0,$ what are the requirements on the coefficients so ...
1
vote
3answers
852 views

How to solve inhomogeneous quadratic forms in integers?

If I have a quadratic form like $y^2 - x^2 - x = k$ none of the techniques I know work because of the nasty $x$. Note that homogenizing doesn't work because a solution of $Y^2 - X^2 - X Z = k Z^{(2)}$ ...