Questions about quadratic forms in many variables, for example $4x_1^2 + 3x_1x_2 + 5x_1x_3 - 8x_3^2$.

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0answers
17 views

Prove that every reproducing kernel is a positive matrix (and vice versa)

Let $\mathcal{H}$ be a functional hilbert space (defined over a set $S$) with a reproducing kernel K. Prove that: a) $K$ is a positive matrix means the queadtric form is positive, i.e ...
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3answers
34 views

System of two equations with two unknowns - can't get rid of $xy$

The system is: $x^2 + 2y^2 + 3xy = 12$ $y^2 - 3y = 4$ I try to turn $x^2 + 2y^2 + 3xy$ into $(x + y)^2 + y^2 + xy$ , but it's a dead end from here. Can anyone please help?
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2answers
149 views

Solving homogeneous quaternary quadratic Diophantine equation

Given the equation $w^2+x^2+y^2+z^2=wx+wy+wz+xy+xz+yz$, how does one systematically enumerate all non-negative integer solutions $\{w,x,y,z\}$?
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2answers
65 views

Prove a quadratic form is positive definite

I want to prove - without using eigenvalues- that the quadratic form $$q(x,y)=Ax^2+2Bxy+Cy^2$$ is positive definite iff $A>0$ and $AC-B^2>0$ This exercise was taken from a practice for a ...
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1answer
48 views

Inequality of expectation of a quadratic form

I was reading a proof in a paper. Let $X$ and $Y$ be two possibly correlated $K$-dimensional random vectors. Suppose $\mathrm{E}(YY^T)=I$, where $I$ is an $K\times K$ identity matrix. By ...
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1answer
34 views

Terminology: what is the “generic character” of a ternary quadratic form?

The title says it all: What is the "generic character" of a ternary quadratic form? Motivation: I'm reading a really old paper, and the author refers to this terminology without any further ...
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3answers
53 views

A simple system of equations

I'm trying to refresh my school math knowlegde and have trouble solving a simple system of equations: $\begin{cases} x + xy + y = -3,\\ x - xy + y = 1. \end{cases}$ I derive $y$ from the second: $y ...
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1answer
24 views

Implications of a prime square dividing a binary quadratic form

Let $u,v$ be positive integers with $\gcd(u,v)=1$, let $k\ge 3$ be an odd integer, and fix a prime $p$. Now what are the implications of $p^2 \mid (u^2+kv^2)$? I know implications in certain cases, ...
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2answers
41 views

how many solutions to non-linear simultaneous equations

I'm doing a Lagrange multiplier optimization problem, and I wound up with the following simultaneous equations: $2x + 1 -2\lambda x = 0$ $4y-2 \lambda y = 0$ $6z-2 \lambda z = 0$ $-x^2 - y^2 - z^2 + ...
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0answers
31 views

can someone break this quad formula down for me?

Can someone explain how this person yield the stuff on the right side using quad formula?
4
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1answer
51 views

Same quadratic forms on $\mathbb R^n$

Let $q$ be an inner product on $\mathbb R^n$ and $Q$ be its matrix expressed in the canonical basis of $\mathbb R^n$. Assume that the group $$SO(q)=\{A\in M_n(\mathbb R) \ | \ A^TQA=Q\}$$ of ...
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1answer
46 views

Discriminant of a ternary quadratic form

What is the discriminant of a ternary quadratic form $x^2-y^2+z^2-2xy+4yz-6xz$? The answer says, first make it $a_{11}x^2+a_{22}y^2+a_{33}z^2+2a_{12}xy+2a_{23}yz+2a_{13}xz$, and then the discriminant ...
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1answer
48 views

Quadratic forms — rank of matrix

Assume that $M$ is the matrix of some quadratic form (over any field of characteristic not $2$) and set $$Q(\overline{x})=\overline{x}^tM\overline{x}$$ We can replace $M$ by the symmetric matrix ...
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1answer
43 views

Polynomial and super-symmetric tensor

A quadratic function uniquely determines a symmetric matrix. Ok that’s easy. Now a homogeneous polynomial function $f(x)$ also uniquely determines a super-symmetric tensor. My question is how do I ...
4
votes
3answers
189 views

A conjecture on products/composition of Pell forms

Based on a few brute-force calculations, I've formulated the following. Conjecture. Let $x,y,u,v,p,q,a,b,c \ge 2$ be integers such that $$ (x^2+ay^2)(u^2+bv^2) = p^2+cq^2, $$ and write \begin{align} ...
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2answers
57 views

Divisors of numbers of the form $a^2+2b^2$ with $\gcd(a,b)=1$

Let's say I have a number $n$ which can be written as $a^2+2b^2$ for integers $a,b$. By Fermat/Euler/etc., I know that the primes dividing the squarefree kernel of $n$ cannot be congruent to $5$ or ...
1
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1answer
28 views

One Sheeted Hyperboloid

Putting this into Wolfram Alpha, I saw that it is a one-sheeted hyperboloid: $$2x^2 - 4xz + z^2 - 4yz = 4$$ Would someone be able to explain how to prove this mathematically? I thought this surface ...
0
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1answer
18 views

Find $\alpha , \beta$ s.t. $\forall s_i\in\mathbb{Z} ,\frac{\alpha^2}{\beta}\neq\frac{(s_1-s_2)^2+(s_3-s_4)^2+…}{(s_1+s_2)^2+(s_3+s_4)^2+…}$

Let us assume that $\alpha,\beta , s_i\in\mathbb{Z}$ , for $i=1,...,8$. is it possible to choose $\alpha,\beta$ such that for all $s_i\in\mathbb{Z}$ the following equation is $never$ ...
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3answers
139 views

Find $m_1 , m_2,m_3,m_4\in\mathbb{Q}$ s.t. $\forall a_k,b_k\in\mathbb Z,\,m_1(a_1^2+a_2^2)+m_2(a_3^2+a_4^2)\neq m_3(b_1^2+b_2^2)+m_4(b_3^2+b_4^2)$

Let us assume that $a_1 , a_2 , a_3 ,a_4,b_1,b_2,b_3,b_4\in\mathbb{Z}$. If $m_1 , m_2,m_3,m_4\in\mathbb{Q}$, then how can I choose $m_1,m_2,m_3,m_4$, such that the following equation is $never$ ...
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6answers
1k views

what would be the way to solve a system of equations like this one?

Solve: $xy=-30$ $x+y=13$ {15, -2} is a particular solution, but, how would I know if is the only solution, or what would be the way to solve this without "guessing" ?
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0answers
120 views

Reducing a linear algebra expression to quadratic form

I am trying to solve the following exercise for my Machine Learning course. Expand this expression so that there are only quadratic terms: $(\mathbf{x} - \mathbf{\mu})^T \mathbf{\Sigma}^{-1} ...
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0answers
126 views

Proof of Fisher-Cochran's theorem

$dim(E)=n$ We have $u_1, u_2..., u_p$ self-adjoint operators which belong to $E$ $(i)$ : $rk(u_1)+...+rk(u_p)=n$ $(ii)$ : $q_1(x)+...q_p(x)=x.x$ with $q_i$ the quadratic form $q_i(x)=u_i(x).x$ for ...
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1answer
23 views

Determine an orthonormal basis so that $s(v_i, v_j) = 0, 1 \leq i, j \leq 3, i \not= j$

Determine an orthonormal basis $ (v_1, v_2, v_3) $ so that $ s(v_i, v_j) = 0, 1 \leq i, j \leq 3, i \not= j $ $s$ is a symmetrical bilinear form given by the matrix A: $$ A = M_\beta(s) = ...
0
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1answer
43 views

Expectation of an exponentiated quadratic form

Given a multivariate normal random $n\times 1$ vector $X \sim N(\mu,\Sigma)$, what is the expectation $$\mathbb{E}[exp(X^TAX+b^TX)]$$ where $A$ is a $n\times n$ matrix and $b$ is a n-dimensional ...
2
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3answers
135 views

“Descent” on binary quadratic forms?

Let's say I have the Diophantine equation $$ x^2+3n^2 = y^2+3z^2. \tag{$\star$} $$ where $n$ is a known integer, and we're trying to determine solutions in integers $x,y,z \ge 1$. Rewrite ($\star$) ...
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2answers
71 views

Which integers are representable by $x^2+2y^2+7z^2$?

I have been trying to characterize integers representable by several ternary forms and reached a roadblock with this particular form: $$x^2+2y^2+7z^2$$ Ideally, I am looking for a characterization ...
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0answers
18 views

Distribution of a quadratic form

Let $A$ be a symmetric positive definite matrix, and $x$ a random vector. Suppose we know the distribution of $x^\top A x$. What can we say about the distribution of $x^\top x$?
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1answer
74 views

Zeros of quadratic form of vectors

I have a set of vectors defined as $[\mathbf{v}(x)]_n = e^{jn\pi x}; \quad n = 0 ~\text{to}~ (N-1)$ where $\mathbf{v}$ is an $N \times 1$ vector, $j$ is $\sqrt{-1}$, and $-1 \leq x < 1$. For a ...
2
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1answer
42 views

Using continued fractions to well-approximate a quadratic form?

Continued fractions are the "best rational approximation" of other numbers. For a real number $\alpha$ the continued fraction algorithm produces a sequence of integers $\alpha = [a_1, a_2, \dots, ...
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1answer
39 views

Representation of integers by ternary quadratic form $x^2+y^2-z^2$

Let $Q$ be the ternary quadratic form $Q(x,y,z)=x^2+y^2-z^2$. Since $Q(0,p+1,p)=2p+1$ and $Q(1,p+1,p)=2p+3$, we see that for every integer $k$, the equation $E_k:Q(x,y,z)=k$ always has a solution. Is ...
4
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2answers
161 views

How can I solve this system of equations? [closed]

Here is a system of equations: $$\begin{cases} x^2 + 10y = 41\\ y^2-2z = 23\\ z^2-6x = 17 \end{cases} $$ What's the value of $x$ and $y$ and $z$?
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0answers
48 views

Show that for any given d<0, the primitive positive definite quadratic forms of discriminant d all have the same number of automorphs.

Show that for any given d<0, the primitive positive definite quadratic forms of discriminant d all have the same number of automorphs. I think we should let f(x,y) = $ax^{^{2}} + bxy + ...
0
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3answers
174 views

Solving a system of nonlinear (quadratic) equations

Consider the following system of equations: $$\begin{align} (x + 1)^2 [(p - l)^2 + (q - m)^2] &= (a - l)^2 + (b - m)^2 \\ (x + 1)^2 [(p - a)^2 + (q - b)^2] &= x^2[(a - l)^2 + (b - ...
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0answers
18 views

On discrete subgroups of modular group and quadratic forms

I'm trying to work my way through a couple of papers on product formulae associated with certain modular forms. In "Borcherds Products Associated with Certain Thompson Series" by Chang Heon Kim, the ...
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0answers
80 views

Solving a system of equation and finding the largest possible value of one of the variables

This problem comes from question 5 in the PUMAC Algebra A competition (link here): Suppose $w, x, y, z$ satisfy $$w+x+y+z=25$$ $$wx+wy+wz+xy+xz+yz=2y+2x+193$$ The largest possible value of $w$ can ...
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1answer
32 views

Will a 2 by 2 quadratic form be negative definitive if it has repeated eigenvalues which are negative?

Say we have the quadratic form $$ f = x^T Q x \\ Q = \begin{bmatrix}-1 & 0 \\ 0 & -1\end{bmatrix}$$ which has repeated eigenvalues $\lambda = -1$. Will the quadratic form be negative ...
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2answers
49 views

A curious question about optimizing a function of 2 variables.

Let $f(x,y)$ be defined and has continuous first and second partials on a domain $D$. Also, let $$A = \frac{\partial^2 f}{\partial x^2} \\ B = \frac{\partial^2{f}}{\partial x \partial y} \\ C = ...
3
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1answer
60 views

Does an isotropic vector always exist for an indefinite quadratic forms?

I have some problem reading some paper. In that paper, the author proved that a quadratic form $Q$ has an isotropic vector(of course, nonzero) by showing $Q$ has both nonnegative and nonpositive ...
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0answers
35 views

Rank four quadratic form with trivial discriminant

Is there an example of a field $k$, quadratic form $\varphi$ of rank four, which is anisotropic over $k$, has trivial discriminant and is not a Pfister form? In case of rank six one can use Albert ...
3
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1answer
112 views

Solution to a System of Quadratic Equations

Problem: Solve for the values of a, b Equation 1: $$(x_1-a)^2+(y_1-b)=r^2$$ Equation 2: $$(x_2-a)^2+(y_2-b)^2=r^2$$ Where, $x_1, x_2, y_1, y_2$ and $r$ are all constant values For the ...
6
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1answer
148 views

Expressing a quadratic form, $\mathbf{x}^TA\mathbf{x}$ in terms of $\lVert\mathbf{x}\rVert^2$, $A$

EDIT: This question is actually an attempt to solve this. Please take a look. Let $A$ be a symmetric postive-definite $n\times n$ matrix, i.e. $A\in\mathbb{S}_{++}^{n}$ Also, let ...
0
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0answers
19 views

example of quadratic form

Kindly give me an example of regular quadratic forms $q_1, q_2$ over a field $\mathbb F$ such that $D(q_1)=D(q_2)$ and $d(q_1)=d(q_2)$ but $q_1$ is not isometric to $q_2$, where $D(f)=\{d \in \mathbb ...
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1answer
125 views

Find max and min subject to constraint ||x|| = 4

$Q(x,y)=7x^{2}+12xy+12y^{2}$ I only know how to do this is $\|(x,y)\|=1$ If $\|(x,y)\|=1$, the eigenvalues are $16$ and $3$. So obviously $\min=3,\max=16$. I don't know what to do if ...
0
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2answers
45 views

Symmetric Matrix Quadratic Form

Let $A,B\in\mathbb{M}_{n\times n}(\mathbb{R})$ and $A,B$ are symmetric matrics. Prove that if $\vec{x}^TA\vec{x} = \vec{x}^TB\vec{x}$ $\forall\vec{x}$, then $A=B$. Since $A,B$ are symmetric, they are ...
3
votes
2answers
36 views

Rational quadratic forms

The quadratic form $$10x^2+20y^2+2z^2+4xy-6xz+8yz$$ can be written as $x^TAx$, where A = [ [10,2,-3] , [2,20,4] , [-3,4,2] ] Using diagonalization, this can be written in the form ...
1
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1answer
63 views

Projecting self-adjoint operator onto closed subspace

Let $H$ be a complex Hilbert space and let $(Q, D(Q))$ be a closed, densely defined, positive semidefinite, Hermitian quadratic form on $H$. (That is, $D(Q)$ is a dense subspace of $H$, $Q$ maps ...
2
votes
1answer
57 views

When does $x^TAx + c^Tx$ have a global minimum?

This question is closely related to my last question about extended quadratic forms. I figured out a nice criterion, when $$f : \mathbb R^n \rightarrow \mathbb R$$ $$f(x) = x^TAx + c^Tx$$ has a ...
1
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1answer
45 views

Rescaling of Ternary quadratic forms

I was reading about the Hilbert residue symbol, and the discussion of it starts out with the assumption that we can reformat any ternary quadratic form over the integers into the form ...
1
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3answers
153 views

Solving $a^2+3b^2=c^2$

I'm looking for how to solve the equation $a^2+3b^2=c^2$ where $a,b,c$ are integers and $b$ is even, I'm looking for the algorithm used to solve this kind of equations, not just the solution. Regards ...
1
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1answer
79 views

Signed determinant of quadratic forms over Q_p

Let $W(k)$ be the Witt-Ring of the field $k$. in this script http://math.uga.edu/~pete/quadraticforms2.pdf at the bottom of page 2 the signed determinant is introduced by $d^\pm (q) = ...