Questions about quadratic forms in many variables, for example $4x_1^2 + 3x_1x_2 + 5x_1x_3 - 8x_3^2$.

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What's wrong with $\det(P) = -1$ : Change of variable for Quadric Forms ? [Kolman P552 8.7.25]

Would someone please explain "why $\det(P) = 1$ is required" and the general procedure of effecting this? Lay S7.2 didn't expound on this and neither does Kolman in S8.6-8.8. Identify the graph ...
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17 views

Why must P be orthonormal, and not just orthogonal, for change of variable in Quadratic Form? [Kolman P560 8.8.24]

Lay P402 : A change of variable is an equation of the form $x=Py$, where $P$ is an invertible matrix and $y$ is a new variable vector in $\mathbb{R}^{n}$. Here $y$ is the coordinate vector of ...
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1answer
42 views

Find a relation between $a$ and $b$?

I would appreciate if somebody could help me with the following problem: Let $f(x)=x^2-2ax+b$, $a,b\in \mathbb{R}$ Q: Find a relation between $a$ and $b$ ? If $|x|\leq 1$ then $|f(x)|\leq1 $
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3answers
45 views

Quadratic equations and inequalites

For every positive integer $n$, prove that $$\sqrt{4n+1}<\sqrt{n} + \sqrt{n+1}<\sqrt{4n+2}$$ Hence or otherwise, prove that $[\sqrt{n}+\sqrt{n+1}] = [\sqrt{4n+1}]$, where $[x]$ ...
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1answer
35 views

On representation of quadratic form

In linear algebra, a quadratic form is defined as $Q(x)=x^TAx$ for some (non-singular) matrix $A$ and any $x\in V$, where $V$ is a vector space. Actually, quadratic form can be any one satisfying ...
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1answer
32 views

Find two bilinear forms with the same quadratic form over $\mathbb F_2$

Let $V$ be a $K$-vectorspace with a bilinear form $\langle , \rangle$ and the associated quadratic form $q:V \to K, v \mapsto \langle v,v \rangle$. Let $K = \mathbb F_2$. Are there two different ...
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18 views

Stuck in quadratic forms and discriminats problem

So I'm stuck in a pretty easy question about discriminants and quadratic forms of equations. I have already proved one side of the problem: we suppose that $x_0, y_0$ are the solutions to the ...
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2answers
24 views

Quadratic equation form?

Suppose we know that the sum of two positive numbers is $2k$ and their product is $m$ then which of the following will be its quadratic equation and why? 1) $x^2$+ $(2k)x$+ $m$= $0$ 2) $x^2$- ...
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2answers
56 views

how to find rational numbers satisfying the binary quadratic equation $x^2+3xy+5y^2=4$

I am looking for a generalisation of the solution of $x,y$ wich are rational numbers,they could be infinite,how can i find such solutions,integer solutions are obvious I have found that ...
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0answers
10 views

how to write a lattice $[\alpha,\beta ]$ in the form [$a,b+c\omega _7$]

$\fbox{1}$ if we write [$2-\sqrt{7},5+3\sqrt{7}$] in the form [ $a,b+c\omega _7$],what is the value of $a,b,c$ $\omega=\sqrt{7}$,since $ 7\equiv 3\mod 4$ $N(2-\sqrt{7})=4-7=-3$ $N( ...
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0answers
15 views

A function whose quadratic form is positive-semidefinite cannot have a local maximum at a critical point

Suppose f is a $C^3$ function in a neighborhood of the critical point $a$ in $\mathbb{R}^n$ $(n \ge 2)$ and that the quadratic form $q(h)$ is positive semidefinite but not zero. How do we prove that ...
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1answer
22 views

Condition on the positivity of a quadratic form

We place ourself in $\mathbb{R}^{n}$. Let's consider a positive definite matrix $M \in \mathcal{M}_{n} (\mathbb{R})$, $V$ and $E$ $\in \mathbb{R}^{n}$, and $\alpha > 0$. We consider the ...
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1answer
36 views

how to solve these two quadratic equations

Can someone help me find the solution for these two quadratic equations ? $ 2(z^2) \ - \ 3.023bz \ + \ 0.115(b^2) \ + \ 2.0814b \ + \ 0.142z \ - \ 0.5856 \ = \ 0 $ $ 6.0828(z^2) \ + \ 2.0414bz \ + \ ...
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0answers
11 views

Diagonalization of quadratic forms over $\mathbb{Q}$

I'm having difficulties in finding the diagonal forms of some quadratic forms. I am sure it is not supposed to be that difficult but I guess I am lacking some creativity after overdoze of coffee and ...
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2answers
58 views

number theory of coefficients in an infinite sequence of polynomials

EDIT: equivalent formulation by Hurkyl in comments: if $n$ is odd and $p^\nu \parallel n$ and $n > 2k,$ then $$ p^{(\nu + 2 + 2 k - n)} \; | \; \sum_j \left( \begin{array}{c} n \\ 2j \end{array} ...
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58 views

number of integral values for which $x^2+19x+92$ is a perfect square.

number of integral values of x for which $x^2+19x+92$ is a perfect square=? I have no idea how to do this. Please help.
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2answers
51 views

Minimum of a quadratic form

If $\bf{A}$ is a real symmetric matrix, we know that it has orthogonal eigenvectors. Now, say we want to find a unit vector $\bf{n}$ that minimizes the form: $${\bf{n}}^T{\bf{A}}\ {\bf{n}}$$ How can ...
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2answers
43 views

steepest descent with quadratic form converge in 1 iteration

Well I'm stuck on an exercise given: The steepest descent method is applied to the quadratic form $$Q(\mathbf{x}) = \tfrac{1}{2}\mathbf{x}^TA\mathbf{x} - \mathbf{b}^T\mathbf{x} + c$$ where $A$, ...
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2answers
35 views

proving that $\max Q(x)=\lambda_\max$

Let $Q(x)$ be quadratic form. Prove that $\max_{\|x\|=1}Q(x)=\lambda_\max$. $Q$ is symmetric so it can be presented as $$\langle Ax,x\rangle$$ where $A$ is matrix which on its diagonal appears ...
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3answers
58 views

Please help me with a (simple?) “solve for x” problem.

I'm preparing for the GRE and was working through an old textbook (chapter on quadratic equations "completing the square," if that helps) and got stumped on $\displaystyle x^2 +{\frac{5x}{a}} + 6x^2 = ...
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14 views

Why is it that quadratic forms seem fundamental for reciprocal or dual mappings?

In projective geometry mappings between points and hyperplanes (a "reciprocal" or "dual" mapping) often involve quadratic forms, e.g. in 3d projective space the polarity against an ellipsoid. The ...
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1answer
49 views

Combining results with Chinese Remainder Theorem?

$9x^2 + 27x + 27 \equiv 0 \pmod{21}$ What is the "correct" way to solve this using the Chinese Remainder Theorem? How do I correctly solve this modulo $3$ and modulo $7$ without brute force?
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11 views

Positive definite integral quadratic form with minimal orthogonal group?

Are there explicit examples in every rank of positive definite integral quadratic forms with orthogonal group $\pm 1$?
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1answer
15 views

Positivity of homogeneous form of the fourth degree

I encountered an exercise that asked if the study of the positivity of $Q(u,v) = a_0 u^4 + a_1 u^3 v + a_2 u^2 v^2 + a_3 u v^3 + a_4 v^4$ can be reduced to the study of the corresponding problem ...
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2answers
32 views

a quadratic equation for two unknown number

find values of $p$ such that the equation $4x^2 + 3px - 2p = 0$ has? below are a few choices of the value p: a) 2 real roots b) 1 real roots c) no roots or complex roots so far i did for a) 2 ...
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1answer
24 views

completing the square for matrices

I'd like to calculate the posterior distribution given the prior distribution $w\sim N(0,\Sigma_p)$ and the likelihood $y|X,w\sim N(X^\top w,\sigma_n^2I).$ Ignoring everything that does not contain ...
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1answer
52 views

Counting function for sums of three squares

Legendre showed that an integer is the sum of three squares if and only if it is not of the form $4^n(8m + 7)$ for some nonnegative integers $n$ and $m$. However, I have been unable to find any ...
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1answer
57 views

Quadratic Map Solution

I read this on Wolfram Alpha. It states that: a quadratic recurrence relation uses a second degree polynomial to express $x_{n+1}$ as a function of $x_n$. A "quadratic map", then, is a recurrence ...
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1answer
23 views

Perform matrix-vector multiplicacion using quadratic form

I have a quadratic from, $v^{T}Hv +q^Tv+c$, where neither the $H$, $q$ and $c$ are given implicity. The whole expression is very complicated, but it is quadratic form. $H$ is simetric. The question ...
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1answer
24 views

Quadratic function question

Find an equation of the quadratic function whose f has zeros -1 and 3 and a maximum value of 8. I've tried to use intercept form, but I'm not sure wha to do with the maximum value of 8.
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1answer
35 views

Finding intersection points of 2 functions. My method is incomplete.

These are the 2 functions : $y = x^{4}-2x^{2}+1$ $y = 1-x^{2} $ Here's how I solved It : $x^{4}-2x^{2}+1 = 1-x^{2}$ $x^{4}-x^{2} = 0$ $x^2(x^2-1)=0$ $x^2-1=0$ $x=\pm \sqrt{1} $ Value of $y$ when ...
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40 views

Finding all integral solutions of a positive definite quadratic equation

Let $q(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ be an integral positive definite quadratic form. For $d\in\mathbb{N}$ the equation $$q(x_1,\ldots,x_n)=d$$ has a finite number of integral solutions. Is there an algorithm to ...
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22 views

a question about relationship between KKT matrix equation and optimal solution of quadratic problem.

I have a question regarding how the KKT matrix plays in solving for optimization problem: Is it correct that the optimal solution for quadratic optimization problem with positive definite hessian ...
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40 views

Enumerating integer solutions to quadratic equations

Consider a quadratic equation with integer coefficients in two variables. $$ax^2+bxy+cy^2+dx+ey+f=0$$ I would like to know how to find the number of integer solutions $(x,y)$ to this equations. Is ...
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1answer
26 views

for each of the following solve for x and y

Question 1- For each of the following equations 1.1 Solve for x $$x^2-2xy+y^2=0$$ $$5x^2-3xy-8y^2$$ $$8x^2-5xy-13xy^2=0$$
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50 views

References for Composition Law on Binary Quadratic Forms

What are some good references for the Gauss composition law on binary quadratic forms in terms of Galois Cohomology? It is my understanding that there is a cohomological approach, and I am studying ...
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2answers
37 views

Linear Algebra Quadratic True False

"Every quadratic form $x^TAx$ with $A$ an invertible matrix is either positive definite, negative definite, or indefinite." Is this true or false? I am just wondering does it have to be positive, ...
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1answer
38 views

Signature of quadratic form and eigenvalues

I'm asking about the signature of the quadratic form - the triple (n0, n+, n−). Is it true that n+ is the number of positive eigenvalues, and n- is the number of negative of eigenvalues of the matrix ...
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1answer
56 views

Quadratic form and symmetric bi linear form formula, basic point unclear to me

Something really basic but I have to ask it: I was taught that the formula of symmetric bi linear form of the quadratic form if: $f(v,w) = 1/2(q(v+w)-q(v)-q(w))$ but $q$ is linear so what did we get ...
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0answers
42 views

Connection between class number and the theory of Ideals/Quadratic Fields

I've been studying the classic results in integer binary quadratic forms, mainly the equivalence and reduction of quadratic forms and the class number $H(d)$ (the definition I got for $H(d)$ is the ...
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2answers
123 views

On the hessian matrix and relative minima

I'm asked to prove the following statement: Let $\mathbb{A} \subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$ an open subset and $f: \mathbb{A} \to \mathbb{R} / f \in \mathbb{C}^3 \wedge (P \in \mathbb{A} : \nabla f(P)=0)$. ...
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71 views

Does this quadratic form represent 1?

I am stuck on the following question in Lam's quadratic forms for a few days now. Let $a,b,c$ be three elements of a field $F$ such that $0 \neq a^2+b^2 \neq c^2$. Show that the quadratic form ...
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1answer
48 views

About the roots of a quadratic equation

Let $m_1$ and $m_2$ the real and diferent roots of the quadratic equation $ax^2+bx+c=0$. Do you know some way to write $m_1^k + m_2^k$ in a simplest form (linear, for example) using just $a,b,c,m_1$ ...
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27 views

Definition of the term 'generic' in context of quadratic forms.

In Proposition 3.3 of the paper: A. Lubotzky, R. Phillips and P. Sarnak, Ramanujan Graphs, Combinatorica 8(1988), the authors use a result obtained by Malisev : "Let $f(x_1,\ldots,x_n)$ be a ...
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4answers
75 views

Find $\frac{a^3}{a^6 + 1}$ given a is a root of a quadratic equation

My question is: If a is a root of the equation $x^2 - 3x + 1 = 0$, then find the value of $\frac{a^3}{a^6 + 1}$. So, I figured we can use the Sridharacharya ...
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1answer
86 views

If $3\mid a,b,c$ and $n=a^2+b^2+c^2$, prove that there exist $x,y,z$ such that $n=x^2+y^2+z^2$, where $3\nmid x,y,z$.

If $3\mid a,b,c$ and $n=a^2+b^2+c^2$, prove that there exist $x,y,z$ such that $n=x^2+y^2+z^2$, where $3\nmid x,y,z$. Here $n\in\mathbb N$, $a,b,c,x,y,z\in\mathbb Z$. This problem is originally ...
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2answers
64 views

Is this expression a quadratic form

I have an matrix expression that basically is of the form: \begin{equation} tr(B X BX ) \end{equation} Where $B$ and $X$ and nonsquare matrices. $B$ is $p \times n$, $X$ is $n \times p$. It ...
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2answers
57 views

Congruent diagonal matrix

For two days I reflect on this question without an answer: If $A=(i+j-1)_{1\le i,j\le n}$ is matrix in $\mathcal M_n(\mathbb R)$, the question is to find basis in which $A$ is congruent to diagonal ...
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1answer
101 views

Let $W \subset V$ vector spaces, let $W'$ be the orthogonal complement of $W$. Show $\dim(W)+\dim(W')=\dim V$

As title says: Let $W \subset V$ vector spaces, let $W'$ be the orthogonal complement of $W$. Show $\dim(W)+\dim(W')=\dim V$. We are given that $W \subset V$ finite vector spaces, symmetric bilinear ...
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2answers
77 views

Find the symmetric matrix that represents the quadratic form $Q(X)=trace(X^2)$, $X\in mat_n\mathbb (R)$

as the title says, find the symmetric matrix (or signature) of $Q(X)=trace(X^2)$ where $X$ is an $n$ by $n$ matrix with real entries. the diagonal of $X^2$ is $$\sum_{k=1}^n x_{ik}x_{ki}$$ So ...