For questions about the writing of proofs. But instead of focusing the mathematics behind the proof, these questions ask about the details and implementation of the proof.

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0
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0answers
33 views

How to prove that all powers of two minus one have only 1's when in binary representation?

It just came to my mind that all powers of two, when represented in binary format, are composed of only 1's, not 0's. I can see some logic behind it, however I can't seem to come up with an actual ...
2
votes
2answers
50 views

$X:\Omega \to \mathbb{N}$ is random variable, How to prove that $E[x]=\sum_{i} \Pr(X\ge i)$?

I'm stuck with this proof: $X:\Omega \to \mathbb{N}$ is random variable, prove that $\mathbb{E}[X]=\sum_{i=1,2,3...} \mathbb{P}(X\ge i)$? How I'm proving it? I'm starting with the definition: ...
1
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2answers
41 views

How does this proof that the square of an integer, not divisible by 5, leaves a remainder of 1 or 4 when divided by 5 work?

Below I have a part of a proof of the fact that the square of an integer, not divisible by $5$, leaves a remainder of $1$ or $4$ when divided by $5$. But I am wondering where does the part highlighted ...
7
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2answers
61 views

How do I close the gap between intuitively knowing something is true vs being able to prove it?

For example, one of my review problems is: Let $S_k$ be the kernel of $T^k$. Show there is a $K$ such that $S_K = S_{K+1} = \cdots$ Somewhere in the back of my brain there's an intuition that told ...
1
vote
1answer
26 views

Proving if $\frac{3x+1}{x-1}$ is onto?

So, I have this function: $f(x)=\frac{3x+1}{x-1}$. So, in proving if it is onto, then by definition, for every b in B, there exists an a in A such that $f(a)=b$. So, let's solve or a. We get: ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

How many square root matrices?

I would like to see a proof of the following statement: A positive-semidefinite matrix has precisely one positive-semidefinite square root, which can be called its principal square root. I ...
1
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1answer
45 views

Consider the function $g(x)=xe^x$. Make and prove a conjecture about the $n^\text{th}$ derivative of $g$. [closed]

Please help on this homework problem I have in my Proofs class. My prof is really bad at explaining and I don't know how to answer this problem! Thank you!
0
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3answers
69 views

Prove that a rational number minus an irrational number must be irrational. [duplicate]

Please help with this homework problem I have! I don't know how to prove this.
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Can you use proof by contradiction inside simple induction?

During a proof using simple induction, I assumed P(k) is true. Now in order to show P(k+1) is true using P(k), can I do a proof by contradiction on P(k+1) and say P(k) would be wrong if P(k+1) is ...
-1
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1answer
35 views

Can I prove these series with limit a using induction?

This is the equation: It is true for: E a normed space and $(a_n)_{n \in \mathbb N}$ a convergent sequence with limes a. $$s_k = \frac1k\sum^k_{n=1} a_n \rightarrow a$$ $a = \lim_{n\rightarrow ...
1
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0answers
48 views

Prove formula's tautology

Prove that a formula that only consists of variables, logical negation and logical equality, and in which all variables and negation appear for an even number of times, must be tautological.
0
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2answers
33 views

Formal negation of $((p\rightarrow q) \vee (q \leftrightarrow r)) \rightarrow q$

Can someone give me an outline for how I can negate the following? $((p\rightarrow q) \vee (q \leftrightarrow r)) \rightarrow q$
3
votes
2answers
87 views

Integer inequality: $x + y +z> a + b + c$ does not imply $xyz > abc$

Prove by contradiction that for any integers $x,y,z,a,b,c$ greater than $0$ such that $x+y>a+b$, it is not implied that $x\cdot y\cdot z>a\cdot b\cdot c$? Obviously this statement is true. ...
2
votes
2answers
50 views

Alternate way to Prove or disprove $6\mid n(n+1)(n+2)$

This is my proof, I'm wondering if I'm correct, and how to do without induction. My Work Basis Step $$\frac{(1)(2)(3)}{6} = 1$$ Inductive Hypothesis Assume that $\dfrac{k(k+1)(k+2)}{6} = d$ where ...
1
vote
3answers
41 views

Explain proof that any positive definite matrix is invertible

If an $n \times n$ symmetric A is positive definite, then all of its eigenvalues are positive, so $0$ is not an eigenvalue of $A$. Therefore, the system of equations $A\mathbf{x}=\mathbf{0}$ has no ...
1
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1answer
35 views

Let A⊆R be a set. Prove that A is bounded if and only if there is some M∈R such that M>0 and that |x|≤M for all x∈A.

I proved the above problem as follows but received feedback that I'm not certain I understand. Can someone help me determine where I went wrong in the proof? Let A⊆R be a set. Suppose M∈R where ...
0
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2answers
48 views

Proof for consecutive integers

Prove that if $n$ is an odd integer, $n^3$ is the sum of $n$ consecutive integers. I'm confused on how to prove something with consecutive integers.
0
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4answers
45 views

Induction Proof with a $\neq$ 1 [duplicate]

For $a \neq 1$ and $n>0$, $(1-a^{n+1})/(1-a)=1+a+a^2+...+a^n$ How do you prove this by induction?
2
votes
1answer
21 views

Prove an x exists with f(x) = f(x + T/2)

Suppose $f: \mathbb{R} → \mathbb{R}$ is a continuous and periodic function with period $T > 0$. Show that: there exists an $x \in \mathbb{R}$ such that $f(x) = f(x + T/2)$. We figured out we ...
1
vote
3answers
82 views

$f'(a)=0$ implies $x=a$ is not a simple zero of $f$

Let $a$ be the root of a polynomial $f(x)$ and let $f'(a)=0$. Then $x=a$ is not a simple zero of $f(x)$. What is the name of this theorem and does someone know a simple (high school level) proof?
0
votes
3answers
46 views

Prove/disprove: If $n\in \mathbb N$ with $n>2$ not prime, then $2n + 13$ is not prime.

Prove/disprove: If $n\in \mathbb N$ with $n>2$ not prime, then $2n + 13$ is not prime. From the context in which this question was set, I believe I have to prove/disprove it using ...
0
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1answer
43 views

Inductively showing $g(s) = 3(g(s-1)+g(s-2))+1$ is odd for all $s$

How would I show this equation is odd by using the induction hypothesis: $$ g(s) = 3(g(s-1))+(g(s-2))+1 $$ I was thinking that I would prove $g(s)$ is odd by $g(s+1) = 3(g(s)+g(s-1))+1$. How would I ...
0
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0answers
31 views

trouble in reading statements involving symbols

I have trouble in reading statements involving symbols. (1) For example, when reading a statement from a paragraph: Suppose the size of the set is n. The symbol ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

Proof by induction for a recursive function f

Consider the function $\operatorname{f}: \Bbb N \to \Bbb N$ defined recursively as follows: 1) Base case: $\operatorname{f}(0) = 0$ 2) Recursive case: $\operatorname{f}(x) = ...
0
votes
2answers
46 views

Prove that $ (A \cup B) \cap C \subseteq A \cup (B \cap C)$

I'm trying to practice proof writing, and found the following text question: For all sets A,B,C: $ (A \cup B) \cap C \subseteq A \cup (B \cap C)$ The first step I was thinking of showing is that: ...
2
votes
0answers
44 views

Assuming a Solution Exists

Students who are beginning to learn proofs (and some seasoned pros) occasionally commit the error of assuming what they're trying to prove. My question involves assuming at the onset that a solution ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

If (an)→ L, an > 0 for all n ∈ N, and L > 0, then prove that √an → √L .

To be honest, I don't even understand what the question is asking, and have no idea how to answer it. Any guidance would be great. I know convergent/divergent definitions, as well as basic limit laws, ...
0
votes
3answers
31 views

Disproving statement of convergence

How can I disprove this statement: If the sequence $(a_n+b_n)^\infty_{n=1}$ converges, then both $(a_n)^\infty_{n=1}$ and $(b_n)^\infty_{n=1}$ converge. Is this statement able to be disproved? I ...
2
votes
1answer
33 views

Trouble Understanding Proof About Polynomials

In the question I have to prove that: There is no polynomial $P (x) = a_n x^n + a_{n−1}x^{n−1} + · · · + a_0$ with integer coefficients and of degree at least 1 with the property that $P(0), ...
1
vote
3answers
64 views

Prove that the sequence $\cos(n\pi/3)$ does not converge

EDIT: Using a rigorous formal proof, I need to prove that this sequence does not diverge. I of course understand why it doesn't converge... $n=1$ to infinity of course. So, I have a bit of trouble ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

Prove the sequence $(\cos(\frac{n\pi}{3}))_{n=1}^\infty$ does not converge

How would I be able to prove that $(\cos(\frac{n\pi}{3}))_{n=1}^\infty$ does not converge? I know that for a sequence to converge to a limit, then for all $\varepsilon > 0, \exists N \in \mathrm N ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Proof by induction for a recursive function

Really having a tough time doing this question: Consider the function $\operatorname{f}: \Bbb N \to \Bbb N$ defined recursively as follows: 1) Base case: $\operatorname{f}(0) = 0$ 2) Recursive ...
1
vote
1answer
59 views

Solve this tautology

Hypotheses: not $q$, $p$ or not $s$, $p \rightarrow$ ($d$ and $q$), $e \rightarrow s$ Conclusion: not $e$ I have thus far, but unsure how to proceed. I am looking forward to solve it using ...
0
votes
2answers
68 views

Prove that $x=0.1234567891011\cdots$ is irrational [duplicate]

Prove that $x=0.1234567891011\cdots$ is irrational Proof: we argue by contradiction.suppose x is rational. then its decimal expansion ultimatetly periodic. Lets p denote the perid of this expansion. ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Prove that a function is a linear transformation.

Lets say that I have a vector space $A$ and a linear transformation defined as $f : A → A$. Now I have a function $g : A → A$ defined as $g(a) = bf(a)$ where $a\in A$ and $b \in \mathbb{R}$ is a ...
0
votes
2answers
24 views

Proving an Equality involving Matrices

I have been thinking about this problem for a while and I still can't come up with a solution. Could you please point me in a direction? Here's the problem. ...
1
vote
1answer
16 views

Frequency integration theorem (Laplace transform)

In my textbook I have the following theorem about the integration of the frequency (F(s)): Let the Laplace transform of a function $f(t)$ be $\mathscr{L}\{f(t)\}=F(s)$. If $\dfrac{f(t)}{t}$ is the ...
3
votes
1answer
40 views

Multiplicity of intersection between tangent and elliptic curve

Doubling a point (adding it to itself) on an elliptic curve is done by taking the tangent to the point and calculating the other point where the line intersects the curve. That point is then reflected ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Prove that the function is of exponential order and proving in mathematics

I'm currently learning about the Laplace transform and in my textbook in college and I have this definiton: Function $f$ is of exponential order if there exist constants $M>0$ and $a$ such that ...
1
vote
2answers
33 views

Long summation question, including sets

I have a really long question I'm absolutely stuck on, I don't even know where to begin: Given: $n \in \mathbb{Z}, \geq 2$ let $S$ be the set of all nonempty subsets of {2,3,...,n}. For each $S_i ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Set Operations Question (subtraction, union, intersection)

I have a questions reguarding order of operations for sets: $\forall A,B $ $(A-B) \cup (B - A) \cup (A \cap B) = A \cup B$ If I'm to understand this correctly, the first union $\big((A-B) \cup (B - ...
2
votes
2answers
47 views

Elementary set theory question (not a rational set)

not really sure where to begin with this question: let $$ A = \{x \in \mathbb{R}\space : \cos(x) \in \mathbb{Z}\}$$ and $$B = \{x \in \mathbb{R} : \sin(x) \in \mathbb{Z}\}$$ prove or disprove: ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Scalar Products equation proof

$\langle \langle x + y, z \rangle \rangle = \langle \langle x, z \rangle \rangle + \langle \langle y, z \rangle \rangle$ It is clear when there are only $\langle \dot \ , \dot \ \rangle$ but what ...
1
vote
2answers
35 views

How to prove that all of pascal's triangle is composed of integers.

I want to prove that all of n choose k values, i.e. pascal's triangle values are integers. It is pretty obvious, since it is a recursive definition with each term being the sum of its preceding ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

Let $ L = \infty $ and $ M\neq \infty $ Show that $ \lim_{n \to \infty }(x_n + y_n) = L + M$

$L$ and $M$ are the limits of the sequences $x_n$ and $y_n$ respectively I have already proven for the case where $L,M \in \mathbb{R}$. The method I used doesn't work here where the absolute value ...
0
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0answers
41 views

How can I prove this theorem?

Let n ∈ N. Let b ∈ Z. Then there exists c ∈ Z satisfying c ·n b = 1
2
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1answer
63 views

Prove $tr(\mathbf{A} + \mathbf{B} ) = tr(\mathbf{A}) + tr(\mathbf{B})$

Supposedly, this is an easy proof. But I'm really inexperienced and have little mathematical sophistication (trying to improve). Prove $tr(\mathbf{A} + \mathbf{B} ) = tr(\mathbf{A}) + tr(\mathbf{B})$ ...
5
votes
1answer
121 views

Prove spatial velocity identity - screw theory

This question involves a proof regarding coordinate transformations of velocities of screw motions. This comes from "A Mathematical Introduction to Robotic Manipulation" (the text is available for ...
2
votes
3answers
31 views

Cardinality with a Bijection

Suppose that $a, b \in \mathbb{R}: a<b$. Show that $(a, b) ≈ℝ$ by finding a bijection between the sets. I think this might work but am not certain: $g(x) = \frac{2x-b-a}{b-a}$ I was also told ...
1
vote
3answers
48 views

If $f: A→B$ and $g: B→C$ are surjective, then $g\circ f$ is surjective.

In my homework, I wrote: Assume f and g are surjective. Let m be an element of C. then there exists a b that's an element of B, such that g(b) = m and an a element of A such that f(a) = b by ...