For questions about the writing of proofs. But instead of focusing the mathematics behind the proof, these questions ask about the details and implementation of the proof.

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1answer
32 views

Divisors of prime factorizations

Let $f,g,h \in F[x]$, with $f(x)$ and $g(x)$ relatively prime. If $f(x)$ divides $h(x)$ and $g(x)$ divides $h(x)$ prove that $f(x)g(x)$ divides $h(x)$. My thoughts: there are certain properties that ...
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1answer
25 views

Greatest common divisor of ring elements

Consider the ring $\mathbb Q[x]$. (a) Suppose that $a(x) = (x+1)^3(x-1)^4(x+2)$ and $b(x) = (x+1)^2(x+2)^3(x-3)^4$. What is the $\gcd (a(x),b(x))$? (b) Suppose that $c(x) = (x^2-1)^4(x^2+3x+2)$. ...
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0answers
12 views

Splitting Fields Proof

Let $K\subseteq L$ be fields and $ f \in K[X] \setminus K$. Prove that the following are equivalent. (a) $L$ is a splitting field for $f$ over $K$ (b) $f$ splits over $L$ and $L=K(a_1,\ldots,a_n)$ ...
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1answer
17 views

Proving sequence statement using mathematical induction, $d_n = \frac{2}{n!}$

I'm stuck on this homework problem. I must prove the statement using mathematical induction Given: A sequence $d_1, d_2, d_3, ...$ is defined by letting $d_1 = 2$ and for all integers k $\ge$ 2. $$ ...
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2answers
42 views

Help with a proof I came across

I came across this in my textbook and was wondering how it could be proven. If $a\mid m$ and $b\mid m$ and $gcd(a,m) = 1$, then $ab\mid m$. It's near some Euclid and Extended Euclid proofs so I ...
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0answers
57 views

Proof Synopsis of Fermat's Last Theorem

I'm taking a introduction to higher math course now (mostly number theory) and our professor wants us to include two sentence proof synopses with our longer proofs. This got me thinking, What is a ...
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1answer
47 views

hyperbolic geometry proof with parallel lines

We are assuming hyperbolic geometry in this proof. Prove that for every line $l$ and external point P (im assuming point $P$ is not on line $l$), there are an infinite number of distinct lines ...
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0answers
12 views

geometry 2 column proof of tangent chord angle corollary

I need to prove 12.23 on this section (http://i.imgur.com/M5iev9K.png) I can use any of the theorems or corollaries before 12.23 but not the ones after it. This is a list ...
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1answer
41 views

Prove the least upper bound property using Bolzano Weierstrass theorem

Prove the least upper bound property using Bolzano Weierstrass theorem. I know there are quite a fair number of similar questions on the site, but none of them provide satisfactory proofs. Does ...
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1answer
78 views

Best proof of some theorems in calculus

I would like to choose (among the miriads of proofs) a well-structured, elegant, neat, clear proof of the first fundamental theorem of calculus; the second fundamental theorem of calculus; the mean ...
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2answers
158 views

Help with graph induction proof

I'm trying to prove : Given a simple graph G with n vertices, where n is even, prove that if every vertex has degree n/2 + 1, then G must contain a (simple) 3-cycle. A (simple) 3-cycle is a set of 3 ...
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1answer
26 views

Proof for a graph distance

For Graph $G$, there are several $(x, y)$-paths; the shortest among them have length $2$. Thus $d(x, y) = 2$. Prove that graph distance satisfies the triangle inequality. That is, if $x,y,z$ are ...
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0answers
25 views

Linearly Independent and Span Proof

Let R be a field, M be an R-module, $X \subseteq M$. Show that $X$ is linearly independent if and only if $x$ not $\in$ span (X\ {x}) for each $x \in X$ (I'm not sure how to write the symbol for ...
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1answer
26 views

Span and Smallest Submodule Proof

Let R be a ring, M a R-module, and $X \subseteq M$ Show that span$(X)$ is the smallest submodule of R containing X. My ideas: Every submodule is contained in its span so $X \subseteq$ span$(X)$ and ...
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0answers
17 views

2 column proof of The Tangent-Chord Angle Corollary

I need to prove 12.23 on this section (http://i.imgur.com/M5iev9K.png) I can use any of the theorems or corollaries before 12.23 but not the ones after it. This is a list ...
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1answer
60 views

Using Pigeonhole Principle for a graph proof

Using the Pigeonhole Principle, prove that in any graph with two or more vertices there must exist two vertices that have the same degree. (Note: the problem does not assume that the graph is ...
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2answers
72 views

Let a, b, c, d be rational numbers…

Let $a, b, c, d$ be rational numbers, where $\sqrt{b}$ and $\sqrt{d}$ exist and are irrational. If $a + \sqrt{b} = c + \sqrt{d}$, prove that $a=c$ and $b=d$.
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1answer
14 views

Proving the Division Algorithm using induction

Let $n \in \mathbb{N}$. For every $m \in \mathbb{Z}$, there exist unique $q, r \in \mathbb{Z}$ such that $ m = qn+r$ and $0 \le r \le n-1$. We call $q$ the quotient and $r$ the remainder when dividing ...
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0answers
35 views

My first proof that uses the well-ordering principle (very simple number theory). Please mark/grade.

What do you think about my first proof that uses the well-ordering principle? Please mark/grade. Theorem The sum of the cubes of three consecutive natural numbers is a multiple of 9. Proof ...
2
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1answer
110 views

Proof concerning equivalent definition of supremum using limits

I believe I have a proof to the following theorem: Let $S$ be a subset of $\mathbb{R}$ that is non-empty and bounded above. $s \in \mathbb{R}$ is the supremum iff $s$ is an upper bound of $S$ and for ...
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2answers
33 views

Ring with special rules for add and mult

$R$ is a ring of integers with special rules for multiplication and addition. Suppose that $f: \mathbb Z \to R$ is an isomorphism that is defined by $f(x) = x-2$. What integer in the ring $R$ is ...
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0answers
23 views

Show that the field Q[sqrt2] cannot be ordered using the defined relation

The complete questions states: On $\mathbb Q\:$[$\sqrt2 $] we define the relation: $\mathbb a+b\sqrt2 < a'+b'\sqrt2$ if $\mathbb a<a'$ and $\mathbb b<b'$ then show that the field $\mathbb ...
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1answer
25 views

GCD of polynomials

In $\mathbb{Z}/5\mathbb{Z}[x]$ use the Euclidean Algorithm to find the GCD of $x^4+x^2$ and $x^4+x^3+3x$. My thoughts: I am getting to the point where I need to use a fraction to get further in ...
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0answers
15 views

Question regarding a surjective function

The function $f :\mathbb{Z}_{12} \longrightarrow \mathbb{Z}_4$ is defined by $f(x)=3x$. I am asked given any $a,b \in \mathbb{Z}_{12}$ if preservation of addition and multiplication occur. I proved ...
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48 views

Let {$p_n$} be a sequence of points in the $\mathbb{R}^2$. Use the notion of convergence to solve the following

A) Define what it means for a point p $\in$ $\mathbb{R}^2$ to be a limit point of {$p_n$}. B) Prove that p is a limit point of {$p_n$} if and only if {$p_n$} has a subsequence which converges to p. ...
2
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1answer
51 views

continuous time Markov chain, something the book does not explain

I have a problem with something in my book, under the chapter of continuous time Markov chains. I will post a link to what the book does. They do something which they seem to take for granted, but I ...
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0answers
39 views

My first proof employing the pigeonhole principle / dirichlet's box principle - very simple theorem on real numbers. Please mark/grade.

What do you think about my first proof employing the pigeonhole principle? What mark/grade would you give me? Besides, I am curious about whether you like the style. Theorem Among three elements ...
0
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4answers
45 views

direct proof of combination

Prove that $(^{n}_{2}) = 1+2+3+...+(n-1)=\sum^{n-1}_{k=1}k$ for $n \ge 2$ After some time flipping through notes I think I should use the sum of the 1st n natural is ...
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1answer
40 views

Building a partial injective relation

Question : A Partial Injective Relation from $A \rightarrow B$ is maximal if its graph of an injection function from $A$ to $B$ or the graph of an injection function from $B$ to $A$. Example: $A ...
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4answers
44 views

proof by induction: sum of binomial coefficients

Question: Prove that the sum of the binomial coefficients for the nth power of $(x + y)$ is $2^n$. i.e. the sum of the numbers in the $(n + 1)^{st}$ row of Pascal’s Triangle is $2^n$ i.e. prove ...
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2answers
23 views

Question with this proof

The integer $m$ is odd if and only if there exists q $\in \mathbb{Z}$ such that $m=2q+1$ I know that $m$ is even if 2|n, and $n$ is odd if $n$ is not even. I also know the division algorithm, which ...
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0answers
57 views

My first simple direct proof (very simple theorem on real numbers). Please mark/grade.

What do you think about my first simple direct proof? What mark/grade would you give me? Besides, I am curious about whether you like the style. Theorem Let $I = [a,b]$ be a non-empty closed ...
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0answers
12 views

Writing a proof that a certain algorithm generates the correct transition matrix for a quantum walk?

Regarding quantum walks, I have a transition matrix $M$ and a particle vector $P$ and I have determined that the elements of $M$ have to be positioned in a certain way so that the position of the ...
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0answers
24 views

On ambiguity in statements expressed in natural language, where the statements use an indefinite article, e.g. “a”.

Please consider the following example statements and judge the meaning of the article "a". Example: A house is a building. Example: A house is being built next to our house. In example 1, "a" is ...
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2answers
46 views

Prove for a simple graph that $n-1 \leq m \leq \frac{n(n-1)}{2}$

For a given simple (that is neither loops nor multiple edges are allowed) undirected graph, where $m$ is the number of edges and $n$ is the number of vertices that the following inequality holds. ...
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0answers
38 views

My first proof employing strong induction / complete induction (very simple number theory). Please mark/grade.

What do you think about my first proof employing strong induction? What mark/grade would you give me? Theorem Every natural number greater than 1 is a product of one or more primes. Proof First, ...
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3answers
664 views

My first induction proof (very simple number theory). Please mark/grade.

What do you think about my first induction proof? Please mark/grade. Theorem The sum of the cubes of three consecutive natural numbers is a multiple of 9. Proof First, introducing a predicate ...
3
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0answers
49 views

Proof for the form of characteristic polynomial

I'd like to proof: The caracteristic polynomial of $A \in M(n\times n, K)$ has the form: $P_A(\lambda) = (-1)^n \lambda^n + (-1)^{n-1} \operatorname{tr}(A)\lambda^{n-1} +\dots +\det(A)$ My proof ...
3
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1answer
48 views

Functional form of a solution to a Differential Equation (Euler-Lagrange)

Let $f=f(q(t),\dot q(t),t)$, where $q(t)=\{q_1(t),...,q_N(t) \}=\{q_{a}\}_{a=1}^N$ and $\dot q:=\frac{dq}{dt}$. I want to show that if the following equations (Euler-Lagrange) are satisfied ...
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1answer
15 views

Are these Cartesian Product equalities true?

Let $A, B, C, D$ be sets. (i): (A x B) $\cup$ (C x D) = (A $\cup$ C) x (B $\cup$ D) (ii): (A x B) $\cap$ (C x D) = (A $\cap$ C) x (B $\cap$ D) I have to prove these later for homework if true, and ...
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1answer
54 views

Show that if $R$ is a strict partial order on $X$, and $R$ is not linear, then there exists a strict partial order $R'$ and $R' \supsetneqq R$.

Question: Show that if $R$ is a strict partial order on $X$, and $R$ is not linear, then there exists a strict partial order $R'$ and $R' \supsetneqq R$. My attempt: By definition 6.23,6.3.1, and ...
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0answers
39 views

Help needed in understanding a proof

Claim: Let $M$ be a $R$-module ($R$ is an integral domain) and $p \in R$ be a prime. Suppose there exists non-empty finite subsets $B$ and $C$ of $M \backslash\{0\}$ such that $M= \bigoplus_{m \in ...
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1answer
23 views

If f(n)∈Ω(n) how do I prove or disprove f(n)∈O(n)

If f(n)∈Ω(n) how do I prove f(n)∈O(n) I feel it is true, but not sure how to show it the way I see it c1*n =< f(n) =< c2*n holds, but so confused on how to show it
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20 views

GCD and LCM Property

Let D = $\mathbb R + X\mathbb C[X]$ Show that $GCD(X, iX) = \mathbb R^\times$ and $LCM(X, iX) = \emptyset$ I have an outline of what to do but don't exactly know who to show all of it... First, ...
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0answers
10 views

Domain GCD Property

Let D be a domain and $\emptyset \subset A \subseteq D^*$ $d \in GCD(A)$ if and only if (d) is a minimum among the principal ideals containing (A) If $d \in GCD(A)$ then d|a for all $a \in A$ and ...
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0answers
24 views

How to prove that $FC/FA + GC/GA= 0$ from this triangle problem?

In triangle $ABC$, a transversal line intersects $AB$, $BC$, $CA$ at $D,E,F$ respectively. $BS$ intersects $AC$ at $G$, where $S$ is the intersection of $AE$ and $CD$. How to prove that ...
1
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1answer
34 views

Splitting field in multiple field extension

Let $F\subset K\subset E$ be fields, $f(x)\in F[x]$. E is the splitting field of $f(x)$ over $F$. Prove $E$ is the splitting field of $f(x)$ over $K$. My problem with this proof is that I do not know ...
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0answers
35 views

How to prove these equations base on this following interior and exterior angle bisectors problem?

In the triangle $\triangle ABC$, length of $BC$ is larger than length of $AC$. The interior angle bisector of $\angle C$ intersects $AB$ at $D$; and the exterior angle bisector of $\angle C$ ...
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1answer
50 views

Prove thoroughly: If the degree of all vertices is greater or equal to $\frac{|V| - 1}{2}$, then the simple graph is connected.

I am struggling to write a good, thorough proof. The proof is supposed to be logically rigorous, correct and complete (e.g. no hidden assumption). Moreover, style is important - the proof should be ...
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2answers
34 views

Should I create two distinct proofs? [*Soft question*]

This is a soft question, and if it is of poor quality, just let me know. As a method of improving my proofing abilities, should I make it habit to go about proving something twice. What I mean by ...