For questions about the writing of proofs. But instead of focusing the mathematics behind the proof, these questions ask about the details and implementation of the proof.

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0answers
24 views

Proving the continuity of the function $f(x)=x^\alpha$ through power series

The textbook I'm studying on presents the following two theorems: $a^x=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{(\ln{a})^nx^n}{n!}$ The function $f(z)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}a_nz^n$ converges for every $z\in\mathbb{C}$ ...
2
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2answers
39 views

$\{a_n\} \to a$ iff $\limsup_{n \to \infty} \{a_n\} = \liminf_{n \to \infty} \{a_n\}$

It is clear that if $$\limsup_{n \to \infty} \{a_n\} = \liminf_{\to \infty} \{a_n\},$$ then $\{a_n\} \to a$, since we can just squeeze the terms in the middle. I understand that to prove the ...
13
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5answers
752 views

Fibonacci number identity.

How do I see that $f_{n+1}f_{n-1} = f_n^2 + (-1)^n$, $n \ge 2$, where $f_1 = 1$, $f_2 = 1$, and $f_{n+2} = f_{n+1} + f_n$ for $n \in \mathbb{N}$?
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Confused About Definition of a Limit Proof

I'm working on $\epsilon-\delta$ limit proofs, and there's something about the proof I don't get. Currently doing a proof for $\lim_{x\to 3} (2x-1) = 5$. The first part of the definition says "if ...
1
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1answer
22 views

Theory of Computation Notation Proof

The Question: Show that if $f(n) = \mathcal{O}(g(n))$ and $g(n) = \mathcal{O}(f(n))$, then $f(n) = \Theta(g(n)).$ I know that since $\Theta$ is a stronger notation than $\mathcal{O}$, then: $f(n) = ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Is there a geometric progression containing 2, 3 and 5

I am trying to find a geometric progression containing 2, 3 and 5 (the terms do not have to be consecutive). If there is no such progression, is it possible to prove this? Thanks in advance.
3
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3answers
34 views

Help with partitions, equivalence classes, equivalence relations.

The following definitions and results are from my textbook. A partition $\mathcal{P}$ of a set $X$ is a collection of nonempty sets $X_1, X_2, \dots$ such that $X_1 \cap X_j = \emptyset$ for $i ...
4
votes
1answer
53 views

What does the notation $11\mid a^2$ mean?

What does the notation $11\mid a^2$ mean as used in this answer: http://math.stackexchange.com/a/948251/13230 I am trying to understand the proof that $\sqrt{11}$ is an irrational number, but am ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Approximation of characteristic function by mollifiers

I have been asked to show that the Heaviside function $H := \chi_{[0,+ \infty)}$ does not admit weak derivative in $L^1_{loc}(\mathbb{R})$. Here's my reasoning: By definition the weak derivative of ...
0
votes
0answers
14 views

Proof of optimal substructure for the “plus sign game”

First of all, I think there's no "plus sign game", I have just invented the name to describe the problem faster. Another thing: I thought to ask the question in these stack exchange's website because ...
1
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2answers
59 views

Solving Simple Partial Differential Equation

I can't solve this partial differential equation. $$x\frac{\partial \phi}{\partial x}+y\frac{\partial \phi}{\partial y}+ (\alpha+1-x)\phi =0$$ The short answer in the book which i read from it , ...
1
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1answer
21 views

Show that if there is a function $g:Y\to X$ such that $g\circ f$ is the identity function on $X$, then $f$ is one to one.

Let $X,Y$ be nonempty sets and $f:X\to Y$ be a function. Show that if there is a function $g:Y\to X$ such that $g\circ f$ is the identity function on $X$, then $f$ is one to one. My approach is by ...
0
votes
1answer
49 views

Proof of a Vector Space

Let $F$ be a field and let $(V, +, F)$ be a vector space over $F$. If $W_1$ and $W_2$ are subspaces of $F$, prove that $W_1 - W_2 = \{v \in V | v = w_1 - w_2 \text{ for some } w_1 \in W_1, w_2 \in W_2 ...
1
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1answer
38 views

Exercise from (Baby) Rudin (Chapter 3, exercise 13): is this proof correct? Is it well-written?

The problem is the following: Prove that the Cauchy product of two absolutely convergent series converges absolutely. Here is my attempt: Let $s_n=\sum^n_{k=0}a_k$ and $t_n=\sum^n_{k=0}b_k$ be ...
1
vote
1answer
13 views

Maximum maintains order under limit in $\mathbb{R}^2_{+}$

I'm trying to show that if: $$ (a_{1n},a_{2n})\to (a_1,a_2)\\ (b_{1n},b_{2n})\to (b_1,b_2)\\ max\{a_{1n},a_{2n}\}\geq max\{b_{1n},b_{2n}\},\forall n\in\mathbb{N} $$ Then: $$ max\{a_1,a_2\}\geq ...
0
votes
2answers
21 views

Clarification: Prove there exists a number $N$ such that $n > N$ implies $s_n >a$

Below is the proof that I have been working on and the solution provided by the professor. Let $(s_n)$ be a convergent sequence, and suppose $\lim s_n > a$. Prove there exists a number $N$ ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

About proof writing in axiomatic set theory

I meet question as following: i) Show that the mappings $f: X \rightarrow Y$ from one given set $X$ into another given set $Y$ themselves form a set $M(X, Y)$. ii) Verify that if $R$ is a set ...
0
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0answers
6 views

Prove of negative transitive relation

Prove that a binary relation R on X is negatively transitive if and only if for each x, z∈X, xRz implies that ∀y∈X, xRy or yRz.
2
votes
0answers
55 views

What's wrong with this proof of Schröder-Bernstein theorem?

In V. A. Zorich's Mathematical Analysis I there is an exercise to Analyze the following proof of the Schröder-Bernstein theorem: $(\operatorname{card} X \leq \operatorname{card} Y) \land ...
3
votes
2answers
28 views

$X \cap (Y \setminus Z) = (X \cap Y) \setminus (X \cap Z)$

As the title suggests, what is the easiest way to see that$$X \cap (Y \setminus Z) = (X \cap Y) \setminus (X \cap Z)?$$
1
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1answer
73 views

Is this a valid proof of this math challenge problem?

From a fixed point P not in a given plane, three mutually perpendicular line segments are drawn terminating in the plane. Let a, b, c denote the lengths of the three segments. Show that ...
3
votes
1answer
29 views

Indicator Function Distributive Property Proof

This is my first post(: I'm trying to understand how to prove the distributive property using the indicator function. I have made the truth tables and understand how this is proved using set ...
5
votes
1answer
48 views

Stating the induction hypothesis

I would like to ask about the best way to state the induction hypothesis in a proof by induction. Just to use a concrete example, suppose I wanted to prove that $n!\ge 2^{n-1}$ for every positive ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

problem in understanding some part of proof of theorem

In proof of theorem: for every finite non abelian p-group $G$ of class 2 there is utter automorphism of calss 2 fixing $\Phi(G)$ by counterexample,If we know 1. $G'=\langle[a,b]\rangle$ 2. $H=\langle ...
3
votes
3answers
68 views

If a set is countable and infinite, there is a bijection between the set and $\mathbb{N}$

I'm trying to show that if a set $S$ is infinite and countable then there is a bijection $\varphi : S\to \mathbb{N}$. Since $S$ is countable, we know that there is an injection $f: S\to \mathbb{N}$. ...
0
votes
1answer
52 views

Total boundedness for a non standard metric on $\mathbb{R}^n$

I want to prove this two things: 1) $(\mathbb{R},d_B)$ is not totally bounded. where $d_B=\frac{|x-y|}{1+|x-y|}$ and $d_E$ is the Euclidean metric. 2) $B_M(0)$ is totally bounded in ...
3
votes
0answers
22 views

Why calculating XOR of consecutive values can be simplified?

I was trying to calculate integer xor of 0..n. I named the function xored(n). Note that in examples below ^ does not mean power but integer xor (like in C or Java language) So, xored(0) = 0, ...
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4answers
69 views

How to prove that the following sequence will never contains number greater than 3

You may now the following sequence: 1 11 21 1211 111221 312211 13112221 Explanation of the sequence (I've put an hint just for the ones who want to search a bit ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

Let $R$ be a relation on $A$ and let $S$ be the transitive closure of $R$. Prove that $\text{Dom}(S) = \text{Dom}(R)$.

This is from "How To Prove It". The full exercise also asks to prove that $\text{Ran}(S) = \text{Ran}(R)$ but I was set from the outset on proving that $\text{Dom}(S) = \text{Dom}(R)$ first. Since the ...
1
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0answers
32 views

Basic Set-Theoretic Properties from Halmos

I've been backtracking lately to make sure that I have a solid set-theoretic background before taking measure theory this fall. Here's a few facts I've come across today, and my attempted proofs. Let ...
4
votes
4answers
82 views

Understanding how to use $\epsilon-\delta$ definition of a limit

I finally understand the geometric intuition behind the $\epsilon-\delta$ definition of a limit, which is actually quite neat: But I'm having trouble actually using the definition to come to a ...
0
votes
3answers
114 views

Proof that there are infinitely many prime numbers

I answered a question to prove that there are infinitely many prime numbers, but I'm not sure if my attempt is right. Can somebody help me to check if my attempt is right? I would like, if I am wrong, ...
0
votes
0answers
53 views

Trying to prove that a continuous function $\,f: \mathbb{D}^2 \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^2$ has a zero using the fundamental group?

Prove: For a continuous $\;f: \mathbb{D}^2 \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^2,\;$ $\,f\left(\omega,0\right) \notin f\left(S^1\right),\,$ given a non constant function $\left(f_{\mid S^1}\right)_{\ast} : ...
0
votes
2answers
97 views

How to go about proving that $\cos(\frac{\pi}{2}-x) = \sin(x)$?

I have very little experience writing proofs so I don't know how to begin. I recognize that the statement is always true, but I can't go about proving it without using circular reasoning. How could ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Whether a real number is a dyadic rational iff its binary expansion terminates?

In self-studying a textbook on computability theory, I found that many of the exercises depend on the following factlet: A dyadic rational is a rational number whose denominator is a power of two, ...
2
votes
2answers
92 views

Simple proof that $|xy| = |x||y|$

Apologies if this is a duplicate, I had no luck trying to find this (simple) question anywhere. Define $|x| = \max\{x,-x\}$. Prove that $|xy| = |x||y|$. This result seems incredibly intuitive, ...
1
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0answers
36 views

Uniform Continuity of $\frac {1}{x}$ on [$a, \infty$) for positive $a$

$\frac {1}{x}$ behaves nicely in that it's monotone and the derivative is monotone also. So on [$a,\infty$] it can be seen that the $\delta$ which will work everywhere is the $\delta_1$ at the end ...
5
votes
3answers
91 views

Infinite set always has a countably infinite subset

I'm trying to show that one infinite always has a countably infinite subset, but I'm confused with something on the proof. Let $S$ be one infinite set. In that case, to show it has one countably ...
1
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1answer
40 views

Proof strategy/writing for change of variables

Claim: If $f(x)=g(x)$ for all $x$, then $f(x+c)=g(x+c)$ for all x. Proof (attempt): Set $u=x-c$, and substitute $x=u+c$. $f(x)=g(x)$ implies $f(u+c)=g(u+c)$ for all $u$. Because $u$ is a dummy ...
2
votes
1answer
45 views

Prove that it is NOT true that for every integer $n$, 60 divides $n$ if and only if 6 divides $n$ and 10 divides $n$.

This is Velleman's exercise 3.4.26 (b): Prove that it is NOT true that for every integer $n$, 60 divides $n$ iff 6 divides $n$ and 10 divides $n$. I do understand that a number will be ...
0
votes
1answer
35 views

Proof for a first-order differential equation claim

Claim: If $p(x)$ is a solution to a first-order differential equation in the form of $df/dx=g(f)$, then $p(x+c)$, with $c$ constant, is a solution as well. I know the idea of the proof, but I am ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Prove that there are no integer solutions x,y to the following system of equations using mod 4 arithmetic:

So i was given a question stated in the title and I have to show this for A)$2x+7y=3$ B)$3x+ 8y = 3$ C)$4x + 9y = 5$ I understand how to use the linear diophantine equation to solve these ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

Proof that the fractional knapsack problem exhibits the greedy-choice property

I have the following problem: Prove that the fractional knapsack problem has the greedy-choice property. The greedy choice property should be the following: An optimal solution to a problem ...
1
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3answers
57 views

How do I know when to use “let” and “suppose” in a proof?

When the goal is $∀n\in\Bbb N ∀m\in\Bbb N (n \ge m \rightarrow H_n-H_m \ge {n-m \over n})$, I can begin the proof with "Let n and m be arbitrary. Suppose n and m are natural numbers" or "Let n and m ...
0
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3answers
37 views

For any two sets A and B, if $f: A \rightarrow B$ is injective, then if A is countable, B must be countable.

So i was given two questions you either prove or disprove them. A) For any two sets A and B, if $f: A \rightarrow B$ is injective, then if A is countable, B must be countable. B) For any two sets A ...
1
vote
1answer
23 views

Determining Injectivity, surjectivity, bijectivity, and inverses

I was given a question that begins like this. Suppose that $A$ is the set $\{a,b,c\}$ (these are just names for some three elements - you don't know anything about $a,b,$ or $c$). Consider the ...
3
votes
4answers
84 views

Fibonacci proof question $\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^nF_i = F_{n+2} - 1$

The sequence of numbers $F_n$ for $n \in N$ defined below are called the Fibonnaci numbers. $F_1 = F_2 = 1$, and for $n \geq 2$, $F_{n+1} = F_n + F_{n-1}$. Prove the following facts about the ...
2
votes
2answers
78 views

Prove the root is less than $2^n$

A polynomial $f(x)$ of degree $n$ such that coefficient of $x^k$ is $a_k$. Another constructed polynomial $g(x)$ of degree $n$ is present such that the coefficeint of $x^k$ is $\frac{a_k}{2^k-1}$. ...
1
vote
2answers
37 views

Is this function a bijection?

$f: \Bbb N \to P(\Bbb N)$ be given by $f(n) = \{n+1,n+2,n+3,\ldots\}.$ From general intuition and reasoning I think the function is not injective here is my work. If $n = 1$ $f(1) = ...
1
vote
2answers
57 views

Let $f : \mathbb{N} → \mathcal{P}(\mathbb{N})$ be given by $f(n) = \{n+1 , n+2 , n+3 , . . . \}$

So i was given a question like this Let $ f : \Bbb N\to \mathcal P(\Bbb N) $ be given by $f(n) = \{n+1 , n+2 , n+3 , . . . \}$ (a) Is f an injection? Explain (b) Is f a surjection? Explain. I ...