For questions about approaches and techniques for discovering a proof, as opposed to writing it down clearly (which involves (proof-writing)). Should not be used unless the focus is on the technique of the proof instead of the solution.

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7
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248 views

Proving equivalence of a tree-based version of Countable Choice for families of finite sets.

In this paper by Good and Tree, the following result is mentioned without proof as part of Proposition 6.5: Each of the following statements imply those beneath it. The countable union of ...
7
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0answers
192 views

Proof that the set of doubly-stochastic matrices forms a convex polytope?

Does the set of all doubly-stochastic matrices form a convex polytope? In general, I wonder how the proofs of convexity and geometry can be established for sets of matrices of this kind? Anything to ...
6
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0answers
51 views

Necessary and Sufficient Condition for $\phi(i) = g^i$ to be a homomorphism - Fraleigh p. 135 13.55

Let G be a group, g an element of G, and n a positive integer. Let $\phi : \mathbb{Z_n} \rightarrow G$ be defined by $\phi(i) = g^i$ for $0 \le i \le n$. Give a necessary and sufficient condition (in ...
6
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0answers
47 views

Find all subgroups of $\mathbb{Z_2} \times \mathbb{Z_2} \times \mathbb{Z_4}$ isomorphic to the Klein $4$-group - Fraleigh p. 110 Exercise 11.12

I tried to fill in the steps but I'm still confounded by this solution. $|\mathbb{Z_2} \times \mathbb{Z_2} \times \mathbb{Z_4}| = 2\cdot2\cdot4$. $order(\mathbb{Z_2} \times \mathbb{Z_2} \times ...
6
votes
0answers
93 views

Prove that $3x^3+4y^3+5z^3 \equiv 0 \pmod{p}$ is solvable for all primes p

I am trying to prove that the congruence $3x^3+4y^3+5z^3 \equiv 0 \pmod{p}$ is solvable for all primes p. I proved it using primitive root, but my professor in number theory told me that it can be ...
6
votes
0answers
282 views

Extension of the Jacobi triple product identity

The Jacobi triple product identity is: $$\prod\limits_{n=1}^{ \infty }(1-q^{2n})(1+zq^{2n-1})(1+z^{-1}q^{2n-1})=\sum\limits_{n = - \infty }^ \infty z^n q^{n^2} $$ I would like to extend the idea for ...
5
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201 views

Span and Dimension: A subspace

If $A$ is finite set of linearly independent vectors then the dimension of the subspace spanned by $A$ is equal to the number of vectors in $A$. This is obviously true. Since $A$ is a finite set of ...
5
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111 views

Are these sets with orbits subgroups of $S_A$ = set of all permutations of A? - Fraleigh p. 86 8.41-8.43

In Exercises 40 through 43, let $A$ be a set, $B$ a subset of $A$, and let $b$ be one particular element of $B$. Determine whether the given set is sure to be a subgroup of $S_A$ under the induced ...
5
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123 views

Questions on Answer to “The cardinality of the set of all finite subsets of an infinite set”

Would someone please enlarge on Arturo Magidin's original answer ? $1.$ Say the question didn't divulge $|S| = |X|$. Then how can $|S|$ be determined? Any intuition? I recast it below with more ...
5
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324 views

Proof Strategy for a Dynamical System of Points on the Plane

I have a rather simple-looking system which exhibits a particular behaviour in simulation, and I would now like to attempt to prove this formally. The problem is, I don't really know where to start, ...
4
votes
0answers
74 views

A tough one: show that this is not differentiable at any point in R

Here's the question: Define $\phi: \ \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ by $$ \phi(x) = \begin{cases}x & 0\leq x\leq\frac{1}{2}\\ 1-x & \frac{1}{2}\leq x\leq 1\end{cases}. $$ And then ...
4
votes
0answers
66 views

Suppose $G=\{a_1,\dots a_n\}$ is a finite abelian group and $a^2\neq e$ for all nonidentity elements. What is the product $a_1a_2\dots a_n$?

Let $G$ be a finite abelian group such that for all $a \in G$, $a\ne e$, we have $a^2\ne e$. If $a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n$ are all the elements of $G$ with no repetitions, what is the product $a_1 a_2 ...
4
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40 views

Nontrivial homomorphism for $Z_a \times Z_b $to $Z_c \times Z_d$ - Fraleigh p. 134 13.35

This isn't a duplicate of this. Let $(A, B) \in \mathbb{Z_a \times Z_b}$. Hinging on p. 2, I guess homomorphism is $h(A,B) = (A \text{ mod } c, B \text{ mod } d)$. I'm unsettled. p. 2 sprang it up ...
4
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30 views

Magical Counterexamples to Nonidentities - Power of Cosets and Right Coset - Fraleigh p. 103 10.30, 33

Let H be a subgroup of a group G and let $a, b \in G.$ Prove the statement or give a counterexample. If $aH= bH,$ (30.) then $Ha= Hb.$ (33.) then $a^2 H = b^2 H.$ I understand p. 3: Let $G = S_3$ ...
4
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116 views

Puzzle - zero knowledge proof

I am solving the following problem : I have edge-matching puzzles, where all pieces are squares and the grid has $n$*$n$ format. There is no global image to guide a puzzle solver. Despite the puzzles ...
4
votes
0answers
71 views

How to Create/Invent Combinatorial Arguments for Proving Identities

What are some strategies or tips for contriving/devising combinatorial arguments? Combinatorial proof for $\binom{n}{a}\binom{a}{k}\binom{n-a}{b-k} = \binom{n}{b}\binom{b}{k}\binom{n-b}{a-k}$? I ...
4
votes
0answers
108 views

Proof for '$AB = I$ then $BA = I$' without Motivation?

I have read this question page (If $AB = I$ then $BA = I$) by Dilawar and saw that most of proofs are using the fact that the algebra of matrices and linear operators are isomorphic. But from a ...
4
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86 views

Cauchy induction: are there examples of cases where choosing an integer other than $2$ is a better strategy?

Cauchy induction, sometimes called backwards induction, works as follows: show that $p(1)$ is true show that $p(n)$ implies $p(2n)$ (which inductively implies $p(2^n)$ is true) show that $p(n)$ ...
4
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0answers
80 views

Infinite “String” of Implication Statements

This question is inspired by the conversations at Does this require transfinite induction? First of all, does an infinite string of implication statements have a conclusion? I don't think so, but I ...
4
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0answers
70 views

Arbitrary ratio sequences on a partition of $\mathbb{R}$ (Partition regularity of fixed ratio sequences)

Background: This question arose purely recreationally and doesn't really fit into any context that I know of. Let $A \sqcup B = \mathbb{R}$ be a partition of the ...
4
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0answers
110 views

Using other fields of math to simplify a proof.

One of the first non-trivial results given in most courses on algebraic topology is the proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra using topological methods. This is on page 11 of J.P. May's A ...
4
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0answers
210 views

Combinatorics and graph theory - counting connected graphs

We denote by $C(n,n+k)$ the number of connected graphs on $n$ vertices with $n+k$ edges. I have 2 problems I wish to prove, but after much effort have gotten nowhere with. I would greatly value some ...
4
votes
0answers
343 views

Constructing adjunction from left adjoint and unit

The definition of adjoint functors in terms of universal morphisms lends itself to very economical proofs in situations where one has a functor but no "direct" candidate for the left adjoint functor ...
3
votes
0answers
49 views

Proof for the form of characteristic polynomial

I'd like to proof: The caracteristic polynomial of $A \in M(n\times n, K)$ has the form: $P_A(\lambda) = (-1)^n \lambda^n + (-1)^{n-1} \operatorname{tr}(A)\lambda^{n-1} +\dots +\det(A)$ My proof ...
3
votes
0answers
27 views

Intution, Figure. Negation of Continuity and Uniform Continuity (S.A. pp 117 T4.4.6)

Every time I need negation, I have to write out all the logical symbols to negate manually. I know how to determine these negations myself. But I want to compehend intuition or figure like ...
3
votes
0answers
68 views

Substitute Proof by Contradiction/Negation with Direct Proof or Proof by Contrapositive

When do proof by contradiction, or by negation, or direct proof, or proof by contrapositive all work equally well? When can any one be chosen as the proof form? I'm interested in a pragmatic answer ...
3
votes
0answers
80 views

In a finite cyclic group of order n, number of solutions to $x^m = e$ - Fraleigh p. 68 6.53,54

(53.) Show that in a finite cyclic group G of order n, written multiplicatively, the equation $x^m = e$ has exactly m solutions $x$ in G for each $m \in \mathbb{N}$ that divides n. (54.) With ...
3
votes
0answers
36 views

Using an automatic tool for checking geometric conjectures

I do a lot of research about squares, and I thought of using some automatic tool for proving / disproving some geometric conjectures. As a simple example, consider the following Square coloring ...
3
votes
0answers
46 views

Proofs involving Disjunctions [Velleman, Chapter 3.5]

$\Large{{1.}}$ Are proofs using strategies $P136, P143$ always easier than those using $P140$? In the former two, only one statement (either $P$ or $Q$) must be proven. In the latter, both $P$ and ...
3
votes
0answers
49 views

Induction on Primitive Recursive Function

The set $F_{n}$ of primitive recursive function symbols of arity $n$ can be defined inductively as: \begin{align} & Z, \text{Succ} \in F_{1} & \\ &\pi_{j}^{n} \in F_{n} \quad \text{for ...
3
votes
0answers
36 views

representation of points of continuity of a function $f :\mathbb{R}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$

Question is : Suppose $f$ is continuous at $x\in \mathbb{R}$ we need : for given $\epsilon >0 $ existence of $\delta > 0$ such that $|x-y|< \delta$ implies $|f(x)-f(y)|< \epsilon$ ...
3
votes
0answers
43 views

How does Hildebrands proof of the prime number theorem via large sieve work?

How does the sieve inequality (I may not know the most general form) lead to the distribution of primes? To me, these concepts do not seem to be related. Can their connection be described in a ...
3
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0answers
61 views

Is there a proof reading website where users can submit their problems and upload their proof documents to be reviewed?

I'm just looking for a proof reading website that would allow a user to post her/his problem to be proved and her/his scanned documents to their claimed proof to the problem. I was just about to post ...
3
votes
0answers
205 views

Proving identity involving sum

I'm stuck trying to prove the following identity: $$\displaystyle\sum_{i=j}^k\frac{(-1)^{i+j}{k+1 \choose i}{i \choose j}(4S-i-k-3)!(4S-2i-1)}{(4S-i-j-1)!} $$ $$=\frac{(-1)^{j+k}(4S-2k-3)!{k+1 ...
3
votes
0answers
33 views

fancy about some properties of kernel functions at infinity

Consider the two common types of kernel functions $\sum\limits_{t=a}^bf(t)K(x,t)$ and $\int_a^bf(t)K(x,t)~dt$ , prove whether the following properties are correct or not: $1.$ If $K(x,t)$ is bounded ...
3
votes
0answers
989 views

Proof of the sine rule

So I made my first attempt at a proof. I think it turned out well. Maybe not. But I was wondering if someone could take a look at it and tell me what they think. I'd be glad to hear some criticism on ...
3
votes
0answers
560 views

proving a greedy algorithm with a exchange argument

I have the following problem: We have a set of tasks that requires some preprocessing time. When the job is preprocessed, the job can be executed on a parallel thread that also requires some time. ...
3
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0answers
113 views

Proofs by Contradiction (cont.)

This question is somewhat of a continuation of the very interesting question and its responses: Can every proof by contradiction also be shown without contradiction? I did a rough count of proofs ...
3
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0answers
78 views

Solving inequalities by creating a function.

I have noticed a few answers involving inequalities proven by creating a function comprised of the terms in the inequality. I hadn't seen this before and was wanting to know more about how to use it. ...
3
votes
0answers
58 views

Lucasian Criterion for the Primality of $3\cdot 2^n+1$

Note : This problem has no specific source Def : Let's define number $N$ as : $N=3\cdot 2^n+1$ Def : Let's define starting seed $S$ as : $S = \begin{cases} 32672, & \text{if } n\equiv 1 ...
3
votes
0answers
142 views

Do mathmatician ever prove that a theorem could not generalize into a much general theorem? Is there a historic mile stone example?

Do mathmatician ever prove that a theorem could not generalize into a much general theorem? Is there a historic mile-stone example refer to the above question?
3
votes
0answers
165 views

Primes $p$ such that $3$ is a Primitive Root Modulo $p$

In this paper (Proposition 4) you can find statement : If $p$ is a prime of the form : $p = 2q + 1$ for some odd prime $q$, then $2$ is a primitive root modulo $p$ if and only if : $q \equiv ...
3
votes
0answers
169 views

$GF(n,20)$ is prime iff : $GF(n,20) \mid S_{4^{n-1}}$?

Let us define recurrence equation as : $S_n=S_{n-1}^{10}-10\cdot S^8_{n-1}+35\cdot S^6_{n-1}-50\cdot S^4_{n-1}+25\cdot S^2_{n-1}-2$ , with $S_0=12$ and let us define following notation : ...
2
votes
0answers
31 views

In a complete metric space $(X,\rho)$, show that if $E$ and $X\setminus E$ are dense, then at most one of them is a countable union of closed sets.

The problem statement is in the title. I approached this proof using contradiction. My attempt was: Suppose that both $E$ and $X\setminus E$ are dense and that both are a countable union of closed ...
2
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0answers
47 views

Intuition and Proof - $H$ is a maximal normal subgroup of $G \iff$ $G/H$ is simple. - Fraleigh p. 150 Theorem 15.18

I don't understand some steps in the proof by B.S.. Start with some definitions. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maximal_subgroup#Maximal_normal_subgroup: $H \unlhd G$ is a maximal normal subgroup ...
2
votes
0answers
84 views

Back-and-Forth Argument vs. “One-Way” Argument

The wikipedia article on the Back and Forth Argument claims at the end: If we iterated only step $(1)$, rather than going back and forth, then in some cases the resulting function from A to B ...
2
votes
0answers
38 views

Need assistance: proof of differentiability & directional derivate of $x^2\cdot y\cdot (x^2+y^2)^{-1}$

I really need some help/guidance with the following tasks: Given is the function $x^2\cdot y\cdot (x^2+y^2)^{-1}$ for $(x,y) \neq (0,0)$ with $f(0,0)=0$. 1) Is this function partial differentiable? ...
2
votes
0answers
83 views

Stereographic projection from sphere to $\mathbb{R}^2$

This question is from my tutorial problem set: One way to define a system of coordinates for the sphere $S^2$ given by $x^2+y^2+(z-1)^2=1$ is to consider the stereographic projection $\pi:S^2-\{N\} ...
2
votes
0answers
124 views

Show that an element has order $p$ in $S_n$ iff its cycle decomposition is a product of commuting $p$-cycles.

I would like to know if my proof below is correct. Problem Let $p$ be a prime. Show that an element has order $p$ in $S_n$ iff its cycle decomposition is a product of commuting $p$-cycles. Show by ...
2
votes
0answers
17 views

Prove that $(-\infty, b)$ for any $b \in \mathbb{R}$ has cardinality $c$

Prove that $(-\infty, b)$ for any $b \in \mathbb{R}$ has cardinality $c$ Proof: Define function $f: (-\infty, b) \rightarrow (-b, \infty)$ by $f(x) = -x$. Note that $f$ is one-to-one and onto because ...