For questions about approaches and techniques for discovering a proof, as opposed to writing it down clearly (which involves (proof-writing)). Should not be used unless the focus is on the technique of the proof instead of the solution.

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1answer
23 views

Proof of inverse of composite functions

Let $A$, $B$ & $C$ sets, and left $f:A \rightarrow B$ and $g:B \rightarrow C$ be functions. Suppose that $f$ and $g$ have inverses. Prove that $g\circ f$ has an inverse, and that $(g\circ ...
1
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0answers
28 views

Finite dense subset implies $X$ finite

Suppose $E \subset X$ is a finite dense subset. Prove that $X$ must also be finite. This is proven quite easily by showing that $\bar{E} = E$ since $E' = \emptyset$, so that $\bar{E} = X$. ...
0
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1answer
22 views

Proof of Transitivity

Let R be the following relation of x and y on Z where 3x + y is even. I can seem to get to the form of $3x + z$ when I am doing algebraic manipulations if this equation. I have $3x + y = 2k$ and $3y ...
1
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2answers
58 views

How to prove that the statement $ 4+10+16 + \cdots + (6n-2) = n(3n+1)$ for all $n \ge 1$ using mathematical induction?

I know you begin by establishing that it is true for $n=1$ which gives $6(1)-2 = 1(3\cdot1\cdot+1)$. Then I replace each $n$ for a $k$, and I suppose that is true for $6k-2=k(3k+1)$. But then the ...
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1answer
42 views

Cantor-Bernstein Theorem proof help? [duplicate]

I know this problem has something to do with the Cantor-Bernstein Theorem, but how do I show that the set of natural numbers $\mathbb N = \{0,1,2,3,\dotsc\}$ has the same cardinality as the set of ...
1
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2answers
67 views

Proving $n^2≤2^n+1$ for $n\geq 1$ by induction

Prove $n^2\leq 2^n+1$ for $n\geq 1$ using induction. Proof. For $n=1, (1)^2\leq 2^1+1=3$. $\therefore 1\leq 3$ is true. Assume $n=k$ is true so $k^2\leq 2^k+1$ or $k^2-1\leq 2^k$. Then prove for ...
2
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5answers
88 views

Set theory $A-(B-A) = A-B$

Determine which of he following statements are true for all sets $A,B,C,D$. If a double implications fails, determine whether one or the other statement of the possible implication holds, If an ...
0
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3answers
39 views

proofs using Am-GM inequality

I am getting crazy with this one. Suppose $a_n=(1^2+2^2+3^2+\ldots+n^2)^n$ and $b_n=n^n(n!)^2$. Show that $a_n>b_n$ for all $n$. They suggest to use the Am GM inequality. Thanks!
4
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5answers
139 views

Inequality in Algebra: $1 \leq x_1 x_2 \cdots x_n$ implies that $2^{n} \leq (1 + x_1)(1+x_2) \cdots (1 + x_n).$

How do I prove that if $x_1, \ldots, x_n$ are positive real numbers, then $$1 \leq x_1 x_2 \cdots x_n \text{ implies that } 2^{n} \leq (1 + x_1)(1+x_2) \cdots (1 + x_n).$$ I attempted a proof by ...
1
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2answers
69 views

Confusion about how to prove $\sum_{i=0}^n 2^i = 2^{n+1}-1$ for all $n\geq 0$ by induction

I'm trying to understanding proof by induction. But how do I check if that is correct? How do I know what I need to show? Any help would be great. Just trying to get my head around this. So I have ...
0
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2answers
43 views

Show that the function $f:\mathbb{Z} \rightarrow \mathbb{2Z}$ by $f(a)=a^3+3a+2$ is not onto

If the function $f:\mathbb{Z} \rightarrow \mathbb{2Z}$ by $f(a)=a^3+3a+2$, then show that $f$ is not onto. Hint: Show that $f(a)\neq 0$. I have a feeling I have to use the root theorem test, but I ...
1
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1answer
65 views

Convergence of a sequence by convergence of sub-subsequence

Suppose that $\{p_n\}_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ is a sequence in a metric space $X$. Assuming that every subsequence of $\{p_n\}_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ has itself a subsequence that converges, say, to $p$, ...
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5answers
33 views

Prove that $a_{n+1}=a_{n} + 1/(n+1)^2$ is bounded from above

Prove that $a_{n+1}=a_{n} + 1/(n+1)^2$ is bounded from above What I have tried is $$a_n=1+1/4+\dots+1/n^2\leq 1+1+\dots +1=n$$ So I conclude that $a_n$ is bounded above by $n$. Does this ...
1
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1answer
24 views

Proving that $B_1$ and $B_2$ doesn't have maximal element

This is one of the problem I have been solving form Velleman's How to prove book: Suppose $R$ is a partial order on $A$, $B_1 \subseteq A$, $B_2 \subseteq A$, $\forall x \in B_1 \exists y \in B_2 ...
3
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4answers
49 views

Prove a function $f(x)$ has a limit as $x$ approaches $1$.

I am trying to prove the function $f(x) = (1-x)/(1-\sqrt{x})$ has a limit as $x$ approaches 1 using an epsilon definition. I've gotten as far as finding the limit is $2$ by factoring the numerator, ...
1
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3answers
41 views

Proving existence of a unique real number

I am working on the following question: For all $x \in \mathbb{R}$, $x \neq 6$, there exists a unique real number $y$ such that $xy+x=6y$. Now I have the existence part. That there exists a ...
0
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2answers
14 views

Proof of Injection and Surjection

I am having trouble proving the function f is injective and surjective. $f$ is a function from $\mathbb{Z}\times{Z} \to $\mathbb{Z}\times{Z}$ and $f(x,y) = (5x-y,x+y)$. I know it should be fairly ...
1
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2answers
35 views

$A\subseteq B\to C\setminus B\subseteq C\setminus A\,$ — how to prove this?

Given $A \subseteq B $. Prove for every set $C, C\setminus B \subseteq C \setminus A $. Logical Argument: Given: $\forall x, x \in A \rightarrow x \in B $ Goal: $\forall C \forall x , x\in ...
1
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1answer
34 views

Proving Inequality using Induction.

I am trying to prove the following statement: For every nonnegative integer $n$, $1+6n \le 7^n$. I did the base case where $n=0$ but am having trouble manipulating the inductive step. So far I ...
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2answers
27 views

How do I prove this with induction?

I am give $a_{n+1}=\sqrt{a_{n}+12}$ and $a_{n}∈[-12, 4]$. I need to prove $0≤a_{n}≤4$ for all $n≥2$. I have that $a_{2}∈[0,4]$ so it works for the first case and $a_{3}∈[\sqrt{12},4]$ so it holds for ...
0
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1answer
8 views

Is the piece-wise function with mapping $f: (\mathbb{Q^{+}_r} \cup \{0\}) \rightarrow \mathbb{Z^+}$ injective or surjective?

Let $f: (\mathbb{Q^{+}_r} \cup \{0\}) \rightarrow \mathbb{Z^+}$ by $\begin{array}{cc}\Bigg \{&\begin{array}{cc} f(0)=1 \\ f(\frac{a}{b}) = a+b \end{array} \end{array}$ where $\mathbb{Q^{+}_r} = ...
0
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1answer
17 views

Prove that the relation $f$: ($\mathbb{Z^*} \times \mathbb{Z^*}$) $\rightarrow$ $\mathbb{Q}$ by $f(a,b)$ = $\frac{a+b}{a+b-3ab}$ is a function

Prove that the relation $f$: ($\mathbb{Z^*} \times \mathbb{Z^*}$) $\rightarrow$ $\mathbb{Q}$ by $f(a,b)$ = $\frac{a+b}{a+b-3ab}$ is a function I believe that f is a function and I am attempting to ...
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Is $f:\mathbb{Q^*} \rightarrow \mathbb{Q}$ by $f(\frac{a}{b}) = \frac{\max{(a,b)}}{\min{(a,b)}}$ a function?

Suppose that the relation $f:\mathbb{Q^*} \rightarrow \mathbb{Q}$ by $$ f \Bigl(\frac{a}{b} \Bigr) = \frac{\max{(a,b)}}{\min{(a,b)}} $$ is defined. Then is $f$ a function? If so, how would we prove ...
0
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1answer
31 views

Check my logical argument for this proof.

if x is a real number $x \not =\ 1 $, then there exists y which is also a real number $ ((y+1) \div ( y-2) ) = x .$ Prove it's converse also. Logical Argument: given: $x \not = 1$ Goal: $ ...
1
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0answers
29 views

Let $X=\mathbb Z^+$. Topologize $X$ with the finite complement topology. Let $A=\{3,5,6,7\}$. Find $\overline A$, int$(A)$, and bdry$(A)$.

Let $X=\mathbb Z^+$. Topologize $X$ with the finite complement topology. Let $A=\{3,5,6,7\}$. Find closure of $A$ $(\overline A)$, interior of $A$ (int$(A)$), and boundary of $A$ (bdry$(A)$). $A$ ...
3
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2answers
38 views

Set theory (containing Power Set) Need Help in a proof

I am confirming whether my proof is correct or not and need help. If $ A \subseteq 2^A , $ then $ 2^A \subseteq 2^{2^A} $ Proof: Given: $ \forall x ($ $ x\in A \rightarrow \exists S $ where $ ...
0
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2answers
36 views

How can I prove that $a_{n}$ and $a_{3n+2}$ converge to the same value?

I am given that $a_{n}\to L$, how can I prove that $a_{3n+2} \to L$ also? It makes sense since $3n + 2$ is still in $\mathbb{N}$, but I don't know how to say that in proof form.
3
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5answers
52 views

Sets $A,B,C$ with $B\subseteq C$, prove that $(A-B)-C=A-C$

Ran across this and couldn't figure out how you would give a formal proof. It seems intuitive, in that $(A-B)-C$ is the elements in $A$ but not in $B$, and then also remove the elements from $(A-B)$ ...
0
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2answers
47 views

Factorial Proof Problem

Suppose $m$ and $n$ are positive integers Prove $m!n! \lt (m+n)!$ I have something along the lines of: Since $1 \lt m+1$ and $2 \lt m+2$ etc.. then: $$n \lt m + n$$ So: $$n! \lt (m+n)!$$ I'm ...
2
votes
2answers
40 views

Show that $|e^z -1| \leq e^{|z|}-1$ for any z

Show that $|e^z -1| \leq e^{|z|}-1$ What i have tried is Let $z=x+iy$.Then, $$|e^z-1|=|e^x\cos y-1+ie^x\sin y|=\sqrt{(e^x\cos y-1)^2+(e^x \sin y)^2}=\sqrt{e^{2x}-2e^x\cos y+1}$$ I stuck here and ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Measure of open sets covering compact set

Prove that if $F$ is a finite collection of open intervals that covers a compact interval $[a, b]$, then the sum of the lengths of the intervals in the collection is strictly greater than $b − a$ ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Show $f(x)$ is bounded in a neighbourhood of its limit points

The attempt I made doesn't cover the case for $x=c$. How can I make it so it does? Prove that if a function $f : A \to \mathbb{R} $ has a limit $l \in \mathbb{R} $ at $c \in L(A)$, then it is bounded ...
0
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2answers
28 views

Show if $(a,p)=1$ there is a unique inverse of $a$ modulo $p$

In a proof of Wilson's theorem, I read this identity and just wondered how to prove it: When $1\leq a\leq p-1$, we have $(a,p)=1$, so there exists a unique $\overline{a}$ with $a\overline{a}\equiv ...
1
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1answer
34 views

Showing $f$ is integrable on a plane, given a bound on its $L^{3/2}$ norm on certain regions

(old qual question in analysis) If $A_\lambda=\lbrace (x,y): \lambda \le x^4+y^2\le 2\lambda \rbrace$ and $f$ is locally in $L^{(3/2)}(\mathbb{R}^2)$ and there is an $a>3/8$, such that ...
2
votes
1answer
50 views

Induction Proof on String

Formally prove the correctness of the union construction as follows. Let $M_1$ and $M_2$ be the two $\lambda$-NFA's constructed for $R_1$ and $R_2$ and let $N$ be the $\lambda$-NFA constructed so ...
2
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2answers
46 views

Limit proof check, show $f$ is bounded in a neighborhood of its limit point

edit: as lem has pointed out, the case where x=c is not handled. Could someone suggest an idea? Prove that if a function $f : A \to \mathbb{R} $ has a limit $l \in \mathbb{R} $ at $c \in L(A)$, then ...
0
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0answers
37 views

Why does the Radius of Convergence prove the fundamental theorem of algebra?

The radius of convergence of $ \sum a_n (x-x_0)^n $ is given by $$ \frac{1}{R} = \lim_{n \to \infty} \left| \frac{a_{n+1}}{a_n}\right| $$ if the limit exists in the extended reals. [Proof of ...
2
votes
4answers
66 views

Prove or disprove that the quotient ring is a field: $\displaystyle \frac{\mathbb Z_5[x]}{\langle 4x^3+ x^2+3\rangle}$

Prove or disprove that the quotient ring is a field: $$\frac{\mathbb Z_5[x]}{\langle 4x^3+ x^2+3\rangle}$$ Okay, so I need to either find an element that doesn't have an inverse or prove that they ...
2
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3answers
121 views

Showing that $f_0 (x_1, \ldots, x_m) \mathrm tr A =\displaystyle{ \sum_{i=1}^n} f_0(x_1, \ldots, Ax_i,\ldots, x_m)$

Question: Consider $f: (-\epsilon, \epsilon) \to \mathbb R^{m^2}$ a differentiable path of matrices $m \times m$ such that $f(0) = I_m$ and the function $g: I \to \mathbb R$ is defined by $$g(t) = ...
2
votes
2answers
81 views

If $x$ is an integer then $x^2+ 5x - 1$ is odd.

What would be a proof strategy for this? I would like to show a proof of the contrapositive: if the expression is not odd, then $x$ is not an integer. If I go that route, how do I express the ...
2
votes
2answers
75 views

formula for the $n$th derivative of $e^{-1/x^2}$

$f(x) = \begin{cases} e^{-1/x^2} & \text{ if } x \ne 0 \\ 0 & \text{ if } x = 0 \end{cases}$ so $\displaystyle f'(0) = \lim_{x \to 0} \frac{f(x) - f(0)}{x - 0} = \lim_{x \to 0} ...
3
votes
0answers
30 views

Proof of equilateral triangle given angles

Let's say we start with a scalene triangle ABC, with no given angle measures or side lengths: Then, we add 3 Isosceles triangles adjacent to this one, given that they have angle measures ...
0
votes
2answers
35 views

Proof or a counterexample of a function

I have the following exercise, how can I proceed? Let $A$ and $B$ be sets, with $S \subset A$ and $f:A\to B$ a function, and $g:A\to B$ be an extension of $f\rvert_S$ to $A$. Does $g$ equal $f$? ...
2
votes
1answer
52 views

What is satisfiable by a reduct of a model is satisfiable by the original model (and vice versa)?

My professor told me that any formula that is satisfiable by a reduct of a model is satisfiable by the model it is a reduct of, and vice versa (as long as the formula is interpretable on the ...
4
votes
2answers
117 views

What is a good approach to demonstrate solvability of this type of puzzle without use of brute-force?

I chanced upon this puzzle in this question on the Anime & Manga site, and, like the OP, tried to solve it without any success. Here is a representation of the puzzle: the blocks may only be moved ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Help with solving ODE differently [duplicate]

For which values of $T$ can we find a unique solution of the ODE $x''(t) = −x(t) $ satisfying the boundary conditions $x(0) = a_1$ and $x(T) = a_2$ for any values of $a_1$ and $a_2$ ? I can solve ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Contradiction in proof that in an integral domain, every prime is irreducible.

Let $\pi$ be a prime element in an integral domain. So, $\pi$ is a non-unit and if $\pi \mid ab \ $ then $\pi \mid a$ or $\pi \mid b$. An irreducible element $z$ is an element such that if $z=ab$, ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Locally injective function is globally injective [duplicate]

Let $f:\mathbb R\to \mathbb R$ be a continuous: Is the next statement true? If $f$ is locally injective for every real $x$ then $f$ is globally injective in $\mathbb R$ I think this theorem is true: ...
0
votes
2answers
33 views

Difference between open sets and open balls in metric space

Let $X$ be a separable metric space and let $\mathfrak{M}$ be the $\sigma$-algebra generated by open balls in $X$. Show that $\mathfrak{M}$ contains all the open sets in $X$ and all the closed ...
3
votes
3answers
42 views

Proving that $8^n-2^n$ is a multiple of $6$ for all $n\geq 0$ by induction

I have the following induction problem: $8^n-2^n$ is a multiple of $6$ for all integers $n\geq 0$. So far this is what I've done: Base case: $n = 0$ $8^0-2^0 = 6$ $1 - 1 = 6$ $0 = 6$ This ...