For questions about approaches and techniques for discovering a proof, as opposed to writing it down clearly (which involves (proof-writing)). Should not be used unless the focus is on the technique of the proof instead of the solution.

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70 views

What are the typical approaches to showing that some function sequence does not converge uniformly?

The following problem is from Munkres's Topology (Exercise 6 of Section 21 "The Metric Topology (continued)", 2nd edition). Exercise: Define $f_n : [0,1] \to \mathbb{R}$ by the equation $f_n(x) = ...
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3answers
163 views

Using rules of inference (Leibniz) to prove theorems.

Leibniz: If $A \equiv B$ is a theorem, then so is $C[p:= A] \equiv C[p:= B]$. Note: p is "fresh" means p doesn't occur in $A, B, C$. I am trying to understand how to use Leibniz rule of inference for ...
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1answer
48 views

Critical Points and Gradients/Derivatives

Plot the function $f(x)= 3+\cos(3x)-0.5\sin(5x)+0.2\cos\left(10x-\left(\frac{\pi}{4}\right)\right)$. Estimate how many critical points are on the interval $[0,2\pi]$. Consider $\mathbb{R}^{20} \to ...
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4answers
93 views

Prove or Disprove the existence of a basis

I'm asked to prove or disprove the existence of a basis $(p_0,p_1,p_2,p_3)$ of $F(t)(3)$ (Polynomials of degree at most 3) such that each of the polynomials $p_0,p_1,p_2,p_3$ satisfies the equation ...
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0answers
74 views

Suppose $G=\{a_1,\dots a_n\}$ is a finite abelian group and $a^2\neq e$ for all nonidentity elements. What is the product $a_1a_2\dots a_n$?

Let $G$ be a finite abelian group such that for all $a \in G$, $a\ne e$, we have $a^2\ne e$. If $a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n$ are all the elements of $G$ with no repetitions, what is the product $a_1 a_2 ...
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1answer
40 views

(Geometry) Proof type questions

Can someone please explain to me the given question and proof? otherwise I might just have to end up dropping my maths course because unfortunately I'm not understanding anything from my teacher. ...
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0answers
28 views

Validity of a proof by induction

By intuition, I would say that if L1 is a subset of L and that L is regular, then L1 is also regular, because L1 has less states than L2 and therefore there must be an automata for L1 too. However, ...
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3answers
83 views

Define $a\ast b=a+b+5$, and show $(\Bbb Z,\ast)$ is a group.

Let the set $\mathbb Z$ have the operation $*$ defined by $a * b = a + b + 5$ for all $a,b \in\mathbb Z$. Show this is a group. I understand how to prove closure and associativity. For ...
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1answer
49 views

Union and Intersection of families of initial segments

I'm trying to show that unions and intersections of families of initial segments are initial segments. An initial segment of a partially ordered set X is a subset of A such that, for every x$\in$X ...
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2answers
47 views

$|a-b|+|b-c|+|c-a|=2(\max\{a,b,c\}-\min\{a,b,c\})$

Let $a,b,c ∈ \Bbb R$ Show that $|a-b|+|b-c|+|c-a|=2(\max\{a,b,c\}-\min\{a,b,c\})$ Not sure where to start
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1answer
97 views

Prove! that $a+(1/a) ≥ 2$ and $a+(1/a) ≤2$

Let $a \in R$ If $a>0$, then $a+\frac1a\geq2$ If $a<0$, then $a+\frac1a\leq2$ This is how someone explained the first one to me but still not really sure about it. Proof: ...
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2answers
61 views

Prove that $a^2 \equiv b^2 \pmod q$ if and only if $a\equiv\pm b \pmod q$ for any prime numbers $q$.

Prove that $a^2 \equiv b^2 \pmod q$ if and only if $a\equiv\pm b \pmod q$ for any prime numbers $q$ homework question, please help.
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2answers
108 views

Gaussian integers - If $N(t)$ is an ordinary prime, prove then $t$ is a Gaussian prime

$\mathbb{Z}[i] = \{a+bi | a,b\in\mathbb{Z}\}$ Show that if $N(t)$ is an ordinary prime in $\mathbb{Z}$ then $t$ is a Gaussian prime in $\mathbb{Z}[i]$ (we say that $t\in\mathbb{Z}[i]$ is a Gaussian ...
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0answers
16 views

Prove that the following function of binary random variables is monotonic

Consider a binary random variable $y$ over the space $\mathcal{Y} = \{+1, -1\}$ such that $\Pr(y = 1) = q$. Consider also $r$ binary random variables $y^1, \ldots, y^1$ over the space $\mathcal{Y}$ ...
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2answers
97 views

Help with the algebra in for this number theory proof?

For all $n\geq 1$, prove with mathematical induction $\frac{1}{1^2}+\frac{1}{2^2}+\frac{1}{3^2}+\cdots+\frac{1}{n^2}\leq 2-\frac{1}{n}$ So far.. I have substituted 1 and saw that the statement is ...
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2answers
42 views

Strong Induction - Understanding the lateral conditions.

I dont want the proof of this statement unless it is necessary for my questions, I just want some clarification. If cr = 1 would cr-1 = 0? How is cj 1 or 0? I understand cj is an arbitrarily ...
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1answer
59 views

Probability Theory proof question

Problem: In football, a coin known to be unfair is tossed to see who receives the first kickoff. Your team has a peculiar curse in that the probability of winning the game given that they won ...
1
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1answer
1k views

Prove that between every two rational numbers a/b and c/d that there is a rational number and there are an infinite number of rational numbers [duplicate]

So the full problem is Prove that between every two rational numbers $a/b$ and $c/d$ that: There is a rational number There are an infinite number of rational numbers I am having ...
5
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1answer
66 views

Question about sets of well-orders and isomorphisms between well-orders

I was thinking about this problem in trying to better get a feel for and understand well-orders (I'm trying to learn some set theory) - right now, I'm not really hoping for anybody to supply me with a ...
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4answers
167 views

Help me to Prove that log2 3 is irrational. [closed]

seemingly simple homework assignment, help? Was never the best with logarithms, how would I go about proving? Sorry the question read IRrational!
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1answer
25 views

Show that f is a symmetric relation on A

I am learning about relations and I come across this exercise. And I don't understand the problem. Let me first state the problem here: Let $f: A \rightarrow A$ be a function for which $f(f(x))=x$ ...
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2answers
114 views

Proving that $fib(n) < (5/3)^n$ for $n \ge 1$ by induction

I know this has been shown before here but no post really answered my question. I had this problem given to me as an induction practice problem and I couldn't solve it without help. When I got the ...
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3answers
63 views

How can you prove this equality?

I am trying to figure out the following equality, but cannot seem to get anywhere. I tried integrating by parts, but that blew up when I set u = (log x)^n and tried to take log (0). I also tried ...
0
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2answers
59 views

Proof of $\lim_{n\to\infty}\left(\frac{a_n+b_n}{2}\right)^n=\sqrt{ab}$

Let $a_n$ and $b_n$ two strictly positive sequences such that $$\lim_{n\to\infty}a_n^n=a>0\qquad \lim_{n\to\infty}b_n^n=b>0.$$ I need to prove that ...
2
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4answers
89 views

Proof that $1+4^n+7^n$ is divisible by 3 for all $n \in \mathbb{N}$

So, as the title said I have to proof that $1+4^n+7^n$ is divisible by 3 for all $n \in \mathbb{N}$. I have to do it with induction. So I got my start, for $n=0$: We have $1+4^0+7^0 = 1+1+1 = 3$ and ...
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0answers
50 views

How to prove: If $a \to -\infty $ and $b$ is bounded from below by a constant $k\in\Bbb R^{>0}$, then the $a\cdot b\to -\infty$

I must proof the following, with $a: \Bbb{N} \to \Bbb{R}$ and $b: \Bbb{N} \to \Bbb{R}$ If $a \to -\infty\ (n\to\infty)$ and $b$ is bounded from below by a constant $k\in\mathbb R^{>0}$, then the ...
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3answers
81 views

Suppose x and y are coprime integers and z is a natural number. Prove that If xy is a zth power then x and y are both zth powers. [duplicate]

I'm supposed to use a prime factorization somewhere, and that the fundamental theorem of arithmetic is to be applied as well.
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1answer
84 views

Prove $(1 + \sqrt n)^{2/n} \leq (1 + 1/\sqrt n )^2$ for all natural $n$.

Prove $(1 + \sqrt n)^{2/n} \leq (1 + 1/\sqrt n )^2$ for all natural $n$ I may or may not have to use Bernoulli's Inequality in this question. I tried using Bernoulli's inequality on both sides of ...
1
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1answer
63 views

Proof concerning Latin squares

I'm asked to solve this problem : Let $R$ be an $r\times c$ partial Latin rectangle using the numbers $[n]= \{1,2,...,n\}$. Suppose that $r < n$ and $c < n$, and let $N(i)$ be the number of ...
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3answers
397 views

Proving the area of a square and the required axioms

I recently realized the area formula of all polygons, and most basic figures can be proven from the areas of square and rectangle. For example if we know the area of rectangle, we can the area formula ...
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4answers
60 views

Let x and y be integers, let x and y be greater than 0. Prove that the gcd (x/gcd(x,y) , y/gcd(x,y) = 1

Very confusing, not really sure how I'm supposed to deduce what $\gcd (x,y)$ is and how $$\gcd \left(\frac{x}{\gcd(x,y)} , \frac{y}{\gcd(x,y)}\right)$$ can be $1$?
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3answers
78 views

Suppose $X$ and $Y$ are greater than $0$. Show that $\gcd(X,Y)$ is $1$ iff $\gcd(X^m,Y^m)= 1$

Problem Suppose $X$ and $Y$ are greater than $0$. Show that $\gcd(X,Y)$ is $1$ iff $\gcd(X^m,Y^m)= 1$. Please help with the above. I have no idea what's going on. An explanation would be nice.
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2answers
285 views

Fallacious Induction Proof that All Integers are Equal [duplicate]

We're currently learning about induction in my real analysis course. I came up with the following proof that is obviously false but cannot quite figure out why it fails. Here it is... "Any set $S$ of ...
2
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1answer
118 views

Injection function and product of two exponential elements - homomorphisms -

[Fraleigh, p.133, ex. 13.7] Let $f_i: G_i \rightarrow G_1 \times G_2 \times \dots \times G_r$ be given by $f_i(g_i) = (e_1, e_2, ..., g_i, ..., e_r),$ where $g_i \in G_i$ and $e_j$ is the ...
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2answers
36 views

Groups Math Proof Help

Show that the indicated set $G$ with the specified operation forms a group by showing that the four axioms in the definition of a group are satisfied. $G = \mathbb Z_5$ under addition mod $5$. I ...
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1answer
67 views

Image of Group Homomorphism is Finite and Divides |Domain of Group| - Fraleigh p. 135 13.44

Let $\phi: G \rightarrow G'$ be a homomorphism. Show that if $|G|$ is finite, then $|\phi[G]|$ is finite and divides $|G|$. Because $φ[G] = \{φ(g) \, | \, g ∈ G\}$, we see $|φ[G]| ≤ \quad |G|$ which ...
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1answer
59 views

Greatest Common Divisor Proof

If $d = \gcd(a,n)$, must $\dfrac ad$ and $n$ be relatively prime? Prove or disprove. Do I show that they need to be relatively prime and then the inverse that they do not need to be relatively ...
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1answer
52 views

Prove that for any two real numbers a and b $\big||a|-|b|\big|< |a-b|$ [duplicate]

I know I should use the triangle inequality.
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1answer
35 views

REF(A + B) = REF(A) + REF(B) [Strang P130 3.3.5]

Describe all $m$ by $n$ matrices $A$ and $B$ such that $ref(A) + ref(B) = ref(A + B)$. Is it true that $ref(A) = A$ and $ref(B) = B$? Does $ref(A - B) = rref(A - B)$? Here, ref = Row Echelon ...
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0answers
590 views

Easier Solution? - Find plane perpendicular to another plane and through the intersection line of two planes [Stewart P803 12.5.38]

$38.$ Find an equation of the plane that's $\perp$ the plane $x + y - 2z = 1$ and passes through the line of intersection of the planes $x - z = 1$ and $y + 2z = 3$. $\bbox[3px,border:2px solid ...
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0answers
51 views

Nontrivial homomorphism for $Z_a \times Z_b $to $Z_c \times Z_d$ - Fraleigh p. 134 13.35

This isn't a duplicate of this. Let $(A, B) \in \mathbb{Z_a \times Z_b}$. Hinging on p. 2, I guess homomorphism is $h(A,B) = (A \text{ mod } c, B \text{ mod } d)$. I'm unsettled. p. 2 sprang it up ...
3
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1answer
91 views

$K_{1,3}$ packing in a triangulated planar graph

I am trying to show that every planar triangulated graph $G=(V,E)$ with $|V| \ge 5$ has an edge decomposition into $|V| - 2$ groups of $K_{1,3}$. In other words, that we can pack $|V| - 2$ instances ...
6
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1answer
84 views

Necessary and Sufficient Condition for $\phi(i) = g^i$ as a homomorphism - Fraleigh p. 135 13.55

Let $g \in \text{ group } G $ and $n \in N$. Let $\phi : \mathbb{Z_n} \rightarrow G$ be defined by $\phi(i) = g^i$ for $0 \le i \le n$. Give a necessary and sufficient condition (in terms of g and n) ...
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1answer
38 views

Is there a nontrivial homomorphism for each of the given groups? - Fraleigh p. 134 13.38, 13.41, 13.43

(38.) $\mathbb{Z} \rightarrow S_3$? Let $φ(n) = \begin{cases} \mathrm{id} \in S_3 &, \text{for all $n$ even,} \\ \mathrm{transposition} (1,2) &, \text{for all $n$ odd integers.} ...
5
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1answer
107 views

Intuition - Homomorphic Image of Group Element is Coset - Fraleigh p. 135 13.52, p.130 Theorem 13.15

Theorem 13.15: Let $\phi: G \rightarrow G'$ be a group homomorphism, $g \in G$. Then $g\ker\phi = (\ker\phi)g = \operatorname{Im}^{-1} \left[ \; \{ \; \phi(g) \; \} \; \right] = \phi^{-1}[ \; \{ ...
3
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2answers
230 views

How to ensure that you haven't run into a paradox proving a theorem e.g. by proof by contradiction?

While preparing some lecture notes for next semester and going back to basics (set theory and proof strategies) I came along the following simple question which is about proving theorems in general ...
2
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4answers
113 views

Show Pascal triangle properties

I need to prove two pascal triangle properties: 1) $\sum_{k=0}^{n}\binom{p+k}{k}=\binom{p+n+1}{n}$ 2) $\sum_{k=0}^{n}\binom{k}{p}=\binom{n+1}{p+1}$ I need some advice on how to approach to this ...
1
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0answers
157 views

Choosing the vector that minimizes this sum related to the rearrangement inequality

The rearrangement inequality states that, for two sets of real numbers $x_1\leq\dots{}\leq x_n$ and $y_1\leq\dots{}\leq y_n$, the sum $\sum_{i=1}^n x_{\sigma(i)}y_i$ is minimized for the particular ...
1
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0answers
81 views

How to prove that the inverse of a persymmetric matrix is also persymmetric?

An exercise in a textbook I'm using to brush up on my linear algebra asks to prove that the inverse of a persymmetric matrix is also persymmetric. I have a colleague's old notes in front of me with a ...
2
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1answer
166 views

Prove by induction that $2^{2n} – 1$ is divisible by $3$ whenever n is a positive integer.

I am confused as to how to solve this question. For the Base case $n=1$, $(2^{2(1)} - 1)\,/\, 3 = 1$, base case holds My induction hypothesis is: Assume $2^{2k} -1$ is divisible by $3$ when $k$ is a ...