For questions about approaches and techniques for discovering a proof, as opposed to writing it down clearly (which involves (proof-writing)). Should not be used unless the focus is on the technique of the proof instead of the solution.

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2answers
76 views

Proving: if $|a|<\epsilon \forall \epsilon>0$ then $a=0$ using a direct proof

I am asked to prove: if $|a|<\epsilon,\forall \epsilon>0$, then $a=0$ I can prove this as follows. Assume $a \not= 0$ I want to show then that $|a| \geq \epsilon$ for some $\epsilon$ We ...
1
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1answer
41 views

Proving equivalence of two definitions

Hi all I am intersted in proving the equivalence of the following two definitions of pseudomontoncity: Let $V$ be a reflexive Banach space and $K \subset V$ closed and convex. Definition 1: $A: V ...
1
vote
1answer
75 views

Puzzle : Truant List of Statements

I was working my way through some puzzles in Discrete Maths by Rosen, when I came across the following question: The $n^{th}$ statement in a list of 100 statements is : "Exactly $n$ of the ...
-3
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1answer
52 views

Please help with the following questions or at least one of them.

Problem 1. Let $f \colon X\to Y$ be a function from the set $X$ to the set $Y$. For a subset $A\subset X$, let $f_*(A)=\{ y\in Y | \exists x\in A\text{ such that }f(x)=y\}$. Prove the following: ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Proving that the integral of $\cos^m(x)\sin{(nx)}$ between $0$ and $\pi$ is zero

I've been doing a question that initially asks to derive a reduction formula for the indefinite integral of $\cos^m(x)\sin{(nx)}$ then the next part asks to prove that: ...
1
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2answers
34 views

Proving an Inequality Involving the Modulus of the Difference of Moduli

Prove the following inequality and give necessary and sufficient conditions for equality. $\left| |z|-|w| \right| \leq |z-w|$ for complex numbers $z$ and $w$. I have the following: By definition ...
0
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1answer
29 views

Proving a number doesn't divide another and proving $lcm$ using the definition

Say I have two integers $a,b$ and I want to prove that $a\not \mid b$ or $ak\neq b$, do I have to take two adjacent $k$s such that $ak_1 < b$ and $ak_2> b$? Is there another way? Another ...
2
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4answers
53 views

Proving that if $8\mid (n^2+2n)$ then $2\mid n$

Let $n\in \mathbb N$ prove that if $8\mid (n^2+2n)$ then $2\mid n$. From the given, there exists $k\in \mathbb N$ such that $8k= (n^2+2n)$, take $k=1$, and we get $2\cdot 4 = n(n+2)$. Now my ...
3
votes
2answers
124 views

Help demonstrate how to arrive at the implication of some given inequalities and equations

Given: $0<x<y<1$ $z=x+y$ $x=u$ $y=z-u$ $0<u<z-u<1$ I need to show that this implies: If $0<z<1$, then $0<u<\frac{z}{2}$, and If $1<z<2$, then ...
1
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4answers
64 views

Proving $\forall x\in \mathbb R$, if $x>0$ then $(x+\frac 1 x \ge 2)$ [duplicate]

Prove $\forall x\in \mathbb R$, if $x>0$ then $(x+\frac 1 x \ge 2)$ I think a proof by contradiction is the easiest in this case, so we have: $\forall x\in \mathbb R :x>0\wedge \neg(x+\frac ...
1
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2answers
152 views

If there exist integers m and n such that am + bn =1 and c≠± 1, then c does not divide a or c does not divide b

Prove that for all integers a, b, and c. If there exist integers m and n such that am + bn =1 and c cannot be equal to 1 or negative 1, then c does not divide a or c does not divide b. This is the ...
3
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2answers
41 views

Use Induction to prove $\forall m,n \in \Bbb Z_{\ge 0}, 1 +mn \leq (1 + m)^n$

Use Induction to prove: $$\forall m,n \in N, 1 +mn \leq (1 + m)^n$$ for integers $m,n\ge 0$. My biggest problem with this proof is ...
0
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0answers
16 views

Proof verification (limit superior)

Could please somebody verify the proof? $x_n$ is a sequence of real numbers $\lim_{n \to 0} x_n \ne x$, show that $\exists \epsilon >0$, $\lim \sup_{n \to \infty} |x-x_n|>\epsilon$. Proof by ...
0
votes
0answers
56 views

rigorous proofs in pure math

I cant figure out how to start proofs not even easy ones. what can I do to fix this. I know I can practice, but nothing seems to help. I don't even know what assumption to make or what to start with
0
votes
1answer
115 views

Properties of the inverse of unit (lower) triangular matrix

Is there any special properties about the inverse of a unit lower triangular matrix? I'm trying to prove this: $$L^{-1}=I_n + N + N^2 + ... + N^{n-1}$$ where $L$ is a unit lower triangular matrix ...
1
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1answer
42 views

Understanding proof of The Ratio Root test

Now this is how I reason. I first try to identify which method that is used to give the proof. I am however so bad at identifying if there are any "hidden" quantifiers in the text. (if there are ...
1
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3answers
126 views

Proof that the graph of a linear function and its inverse cannot be perpendicular.

I am refreshing my high school maths and got an exercise to proof that the graph of a linear function and its inverse cannot be perpendicular. Below is my proof. A linear function is a straight ...
1
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2answers
49 views

Limit of a sequence of a supremum.

Problem: Suppose that $f$ is continuous on $[a,b]$ and that $f(a)<f(b)$. Prove that there are numbers $c$ and $d$ with $a\leq c < d \leq b$ such that $f(c)=f(a)$ and $f(d)=f(b)$ and ...
0
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1answer
32 views

proof detail concerning bijection between a set and its power set

Theorem: If $X$ is a set, then $X$ is not equivalent to its power set. Proof: suppose for a contradiction that $f:X\to P(X)$ is a bijection. Define $B:=\{x \in X, x\not\in f(x)\}$. Because $f$ is ...
1
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1answer
89 views

Wheel Graphs and Dimension of Embeddings

I'd like to preface this by saying this is the tip of the iceberg for an optional question for a summer REU program application, so if you think asking this question is in bad taste, let me know and I ...
0
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1answer
56 views

If $2^{k} + 1$ is prime, prove that $k$ has no other prime divisors than $2$. [duplicate]

I am trying to prove this by contradiction: Assume $2^{k} + 1$ is prime. By definition of odd number $2^{k} + 1$ is odd because $2^{k} + 1 = 2\cdot 2^{k-1} + 1$ Then $2^{k} + 1 \pmod{2} \equiv 1 ...
4
votes
2answers
137 views

Proving $\sqrt{100,001}-\sqrt{100,000} < \frac{1}{2\sqrt{100,000}}$

Proving $\sqrt{100,001}-\sqrt{100,000} < \frac{1}{2\sqrt{100,000}}$ I squared both sides of the equation to get $100,001 + 100,000+-200\sqrt{10}\sqrt{100,001} < \frac{1}{400,000}$. I am just ...
1
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1answer
30 views

Prove that if $p > 3$ is a prime then $2(p-3)! \pmod{p} =-1 \pmod{p}$.

Prove that if $p > 3$ is a prime then $2(p-3)! \pmod{p} =-1 \pmod{p}$.. I am totally lost; at first I thought this could be done by induction, but unfortunately this is not possible (at least I ...
1
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0answers
38 views

Proving with a given definition that if $|A|=|B|$ then $A,B$ are equivalent (with induction but without using the induction hypothesis)

Let $A,B$ be finite sets, we'll say the sets are equivalent if $|A\setminus B|=|B\setminus A|$. Prove with the above definition that if $|A|=|B|$ then $A,B$ are equivalent. Suppose ...
0
votes
3answers
45 views

Proving if $p|ab$ then $p|a\vee p|b$, then $p$ is prime

Let $1\neq p\in \mathbb N$ such that $\forall a,b \in \mathbb N$ if $p|ab$ then $p|a\vee p|b$. Prove that $p$ is prime. My attempt, proof by contradiction: Suppose $p$ isn't prime, then ...
2
votes
0answers
77 views

About Mellin transform and harmonic series

Let $\mathfrak{M}\left(*\right)$ the Mellin transform. We know that holds this identity$$\mathfrak{M}\left(\underset{k\geq1}{\sum}\lambda_{k}g\left(\mu_{k}x\right),\, ...
0
votes
1answer
75 views

Proof of floor function identity.

Let $f(x) = \lfloor x \rfloor$ and let $l$ be the greatest integer $\le x$ How do I prove $l + 1 > x$ I see that: $x \ge \lfloor x \rfloor = l$ No complete answers, just hints
3
votes
1answer
21 views

Boolean Algebra: Converting $xy'z + wxy'z' + wxy + w'x'y'z' + w'x'yz' = w'x'z' + xy'z + wx$

Notation w,x,y,z are all just primary statements "+" is the OR logical operator what looks like two or more statements being multiplied is actually the AND operator The complement or prime ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

Finding a specific term in a repeating sequence.

Let $f(x) = \frac1{1-x}$, and define the function $f^r$ by $$f^r(x):=\underbrace{f(f(f(...f(f}_{r\text{ times}}(x))))).$$ I am asked to find to find $f^{653} (56)$. I know that there are only $3$ ...
3
votes
3answers
513 views

How can I prove this integral is equal to f(0)?

Given that $f$ continuous over $[-1,1]$, how can I show $\lim_{x \to 0}\frac{1}{x}\int_0^xf(t)dt = f(0)$? I know the limit of $\frac{1}{X}$ doesn't exist at 0, and it's negative infinity from the ...
1
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2answers
226 views

Proving Pascal's identity

So I came across Pascal's identity: Prove that for any fixed $r\geq 1$, and all $n\geq r$, $$ \binom{n+1}{r}=\binom{n}{r}+\binom{n}{r-1}. $$ I know you can use basic algebra or even an inductive ...
2
votes
3answers
58 views

Prove that $0 < 1$. Prove that $ab = 0 \implies a = 0$ or $b = 0$.

Proof: There exists $a = 0$ (For every $b$, an element of the set of positive numbers, such that: $b > a$) $$a + b > 0 \implies b > 0 \implies a < b.$$ Thus, we have shown that $0 < ...
0
votes
2answers
70 views

Binomial coefficient identity $\sum_{k=1}^n k {n \choose k } = n\cdot 2^{n-1}$ [duplicate]

I'm having a bit of problems proving the following: $$\sum_{k=1}^n k {n \choose k } = n\cdot 2^{n-1}$$ I always seem to get to the line: $2^{n-1} + 1 = 2^n$ which I know is untrue. Could anyone ...
6
votes
4answers
132 views

Show $7!^{1/7} < 8!^{1/8}$

Show $7!^{1/7} < 8!^{1/8}$ So I know that the first step is to remove the radicals. So would I raise both sides to the power of 8 to get $({7!}^{1/7})^8 < 8!$. I am not sure where to go from ...
3
votes
2answers
84 views

Show that $a^2 + b^2 + c^2 \geq ab + bc + ca$ for all positive integers $a$, $b$, and $c$ [duplicate]

Show that $a^2 + b^2 + c^2 \geq ab + bc + ca$ for all positive integers $a$, $b$, and $c$. I am not sure how to approach this problem. Should I divide this problem into multiple cases based on ...
3
votes
2answers
64 views

What is the modus ponens of a tautology?

In the statement $P$ and $Q$, please show that $\; (P \land (P \Rightarrow Q))\Rightarrow Q \;$ is a tauntology. The state the $\;(P \land (P \Rightarrow Q))\Rightarrow Q\;$ in words. I know I need ...
2
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3answers
38 views

Prove that $\sqrt x$ is Lipschitz on $[1, \infty)$

Prove that $\sqrt x$ is Lipschitz on $[1, \infty)$ I want to show that $|f(x) - f(y)| \leq L |x - y|$ So $|\sqrt x - \sqrt y| = \frac{|x - y|}{\sqrt x + \sqrt y} \leq \frac{1}{2}|x - y|$. I can ...
1
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2answers
39 views

Proving if $A$ or $B$ are symmetric then $AB$ is symmetric

Prove if $A$ or $B$ are symmetric then $AB$ is symmetric. Symmetric set definition: $A$ is symmetric if for every $a\in A$ there's $-a\in A$ Product set definition: $AB=\{ab\mid a\in A, ...
2
votes
2answers
75 views

Is there another way to prove $(x-n)^2 = (n-x)^2$

Let's say $n$ is $4$. So, I came up with the solution below. $(x-4)^2 = (x-4)(x-4) = x^2 - 8x + 16$ $(4-x)^2 = (4-x)(4-x) = 16 - 8x + x^2 = x^2 - 8x + 16$ I was wondering if there is another way ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Rectangles in one dimension

I have to prove the following proposition : Show that the intesection of two rectangles in $\mathbb{R}^{n}$ is either the vaccum or is another rectangle. My attempt: I one is embeded in the other ...
1
vote
2answers
50 views

Proving if $|A|\ge 4 \vee |A|\le 2$ then $|A+A|\neq 4$ with direct, contradiction and contraposition

Prove if $|A|\ge 4 \vee |A|\le 2$ then $|A+A|\neq 4$. $A$ is some set and we define $A+B=\{a+b|a\in A, b\in B\}$, $A$ is some subset of the reals. In a direct proof and proof by contradiction I'd ...
1
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0answers
49 views

Using induction to show associativity on $x_1+\dots + x_n$

I want to use induction to show that the sum $x_1 + \dots + x_n$ of real numbers is defined independently of parentheses to specify order of addition. I know how to apply induction(base, assumption, ...
0
votes
1answer
129 views

How to prove that the integral of a positive, continuous function is positive?

Obviously intuitively the area under something that is above the x-axis is always positive, but how can I show this with a proof?
2
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2answers
54 views

Proving with induction $(1-x)^n<\frac 1 {1+nx}$

Prove using induction that $\forall n\in\mathbb N, \forall x\in \mathbb R: 0<x<1: (1-x)^n<\frac 1 {1+nx}$ My attempt: Base: for $n=1: 1-x<\frac 1 {1+x}\iff 1-x^2<1$, true since ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

prove that $p^2-1$ is divisible by $24$ if $p$ is a prime greater than $3$ [duplicate]

How to prove that $p^2-1$ is divisible by $24$ if $p$ is a prime number greater than $3$?
0
votes
1answer
124 views

Prove tautology without truth using a truth table. [duplicate]

I am struggling to prove, without using truth tables, that the statement is a tautology. [(p→q)∧(q→r)]→(p→r) My work so far... ¬[(¬p∨q)∧(¬q∨r)]∨(¬p∨r) ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Using set theory to prove a function problem

I begin with: $$A = \{a \le x < x_0 | f(x) = 0 \}$$ $$B = \{x_0 < x \le b | f(x) = 0 \}$$ Let $c = \sup A$ and let $d = \sup B$ First to prove $f(x) > 0$ for $x \in (c, d)$ I will ...
1
vote
2answers
64 views

How to get to $5^3 \geq n^3$ in the proof by contradiction?

This is the same problem asked here. - Next step to take to reach the contradiction? Here is it again. I understand the solution - how you want to get to the fact 100 divides n^2 and then go ...
5
votes
1answer
253 views

Homology groups of orientable surfaces.

Edit: I have a proof here but when I spoke last with my professor, she told me something was close, but not quite. Can someone help me patch this proof? I've been trying to get this down for quite a ...
0
votes
2answers
38 views

Prove that $\lim_{h \rightarrow 0} [f(x_{0} + h) - f(x_{0})] = 0 \Rightarrow \lim_{h \rightarrow 0} [f(x_{0} + h) - f(x_{0} - h)] = 0$

Prove: $\lim_{h \rightarrow 0} [f(x_{0} + h) - f(x_{0})] = 0 \Rightarrow \lim_{h \rightarrow 0} [f(x_{0} + h) - f(x_{0} - h)] = 0$ Proof: $\lim_{h \rightarrow 0} [f(x_{0} + h) - f(x_{0} - h)] = 0$ ...