For questions about approaches and techniques for discovering a proof, as opposed to writing it down clearly (which involves (proof-writing)). Should not be used unless the focus is on the technique of the proof instead of the solution.

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2
votes
1answer
29 views

$f$ is uniformly continuous on $(a, b]$ implies $\lim\limits_{x\to a^+} f(x)$ exists and finite

I need to prove: $f$ is uniformly continuous on $(a, b]$ implies $\lim\limits_{x\to a^+} f(x)$ exists and finite Now, I already have a sketch for the proof: Let $\{x_n\}$, a sequence such ...
52
votes
8answers
2k views

Problems that become easier in a more general form.

When solving a problem, we often look at some special cases first, and then try to work our way up to the general case. It would be interesting to see some counterexamples to this mental process, ...
1
vote
2answers
43 views

If a continuous function is positive at a point, it is also positive in some neighborhood of the point [closed]

Suppose that $f:\mathbb{R}^k\to\mathbb{R}^1$ is a continuous function and that $f(x^*)>0$. Show that there is a ball $B=B_\delta(x^*)$ such that $f(x)>0$ for all $x\in B$.
0
votes
1answer
26 views

Prove: If this system is solvable, then this dual system is not.

I'm trying to get a handle on algebraic dual spaces, and it's hurting my head. To be proven: Let $A$ be a $m \times n$-matrix and $b$ be a $1 \times n$-matrix. Show that the system $$\begin{cases} ...
1
vote
1answer
115 views

Understanding last step of a proof that “two trajectories cannot cross at a finite value of t” (Phase trajectories/nodes)

Note: This proof prefaced critical points at the origin for coupled first order ODEs. It was done before showing the asymptotically stable and unstable critical points: Improper, Proper, Spiral, ...
1
vote
2answers
118 views

Is there a more direct way of proving that this ring is an integral domain?

In self studying abstract algebra and I've come upon the following problem which I could not solve directly. For any $d\in \mathbb{Z}$ we are asked to show that $\mathbb{Z}[\sqrt d]=\{a+b\sqrt{d} ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Divisibility problem ($p \leq \sqrt{n}$)

If $n \geq 2$ and $n$ is composite, then there exists a prime $p$ such that that $p \mid n$ and $p \leq \sqrt{n}$ As $n$ is composite, it follows that $n = ab$ for some $a, b \in \Bbb N$, where ...
3
votes
2answers
39 views

Prove that there is no bipartite graph on $14$ vertices with this degree sequence.

Prove that there is no bipartite graph on $14$ vertices with degree sequence: $$6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 6, 5, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3.$$ I assume a vertex with degree $5$ breaks this graph from being ...
0
votes
0answers
38 views

Proof Strategy: Induction Summation of Series

Let $P(n)$ be the following statement: $$\sum\limits^{n}_{i=0}r^i = \dfrac{1-r^{1+n}}{1-r}\text{ for all }n \in \mathbb{N}\text{.}$$ I am stuck at the base case: $$P(1):1 + r = ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

How to prove the uniqueness of linear functional

$\textbf{Theorem}$ If $V$ is a $n$-dimensional vector space, if $\{x_1,.,.,., x_n\}$ is a basis in $V$ and if $\{\alpha_1,\cdots \alpha_n\}$ is any set of $n$ scalars, then there is one and only one ...
1
vote
4answers
59 views

How to prove correctness of this algorithm

Situation There is a long patch of grass with seeds planted along it. Each seed needs to be within 2 metres of a sprinkler in order to be watered daily. Describe an algorithm that will result in ...
0
votes
1answer
28 views

Prove that for any $\{x_{m_k} \}\in I_n$, where $I_n$ are dyadic intervals, $\lim_{n \to \infty} x_{m_k} =c$

Proving for any $\{x_{m_k} \}\in I_n$ that:$$\lim_{n \to \infty}\{x_{m_k} \}=c$$ I have been trying to solve this problem, but i dont know how to write it properly, so i need your help whit ...
3
votes
2answers
62 views

How do you formulate a vague notion into a mathematical expression?

I am a software engineer wanting to learn math. I also do a little bit of drawing. What I am wondering is, how do you formulate a vague notion of something you're trying to model into a mathematical ...
5
votes
1answer
179 views
+100

Proving these trigonometric sums $\sum\limits_{k=0}^{n-1}\sin\frac{2k^2\pi}{n}=\frac{\sqrt{n}}{2}\left(\cos\frac{n\pi}{2}-\sin\frac{n\pi}{2}+1\right)$

Can someone help me to prove that: $$ \sum_{k=0}^{n-1}\sin\frac{2k^2\pi}{n}=\frac{\sqrt{n}}{2}\left(\cos\frac{n\pi}{2}-\sin\frac{n\pi}{2}+1\right)$$ ...
2
votes
0answers
35 views

Proof of Gersgorin Discs Theorem

I have a question about the proof of Gersgorin Theorem from the book Matrix Analysis by Horn & Johnson. The Theorem states that for any $A\in \mathbb{C}^{n \times n}$ 1) all eigenvalues are ...
1
vote
2answers
41 views

Doubt in proof of Dual of the direct sum

If $M$ and $N$ are subspaces of $V$, and if $V = M \oplus N$, then $$V' = M^\perp \oplus N^\perp$$ where $W^\perp$ is the annihilator of $W$. I didn't understand how to prove both of the ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

If $n$ is any positive integer whose last digit is $5$, then $5$ divides $n$

Prove that if n is any positive integer whose last digit is a 5, then 5|n Therefore, n is going to be 5, 15, 25, 35 etc ... b∣a states that 'b divides a' and we know that 5∣5, 5∣15, 5∣25, 5∣35 ...
1
vote
0answers
16 views

Gaussian integral of a function with nonzero mean

From the wikipedia article, for a Gaussian integral of an analytic function we have that I'm trying to obtain a similar formula when there is a linear term in the Gaussian (ie the Gaussian has a ...
0
votes
3answers
125 views

prove transitivity property congruence mod m

Prove transitivity property of congruence mod m. Show that if $x\equiv y \pmod m$ and $y \equiv z\pmod m$ then $x\equiv z\pmod m$ . I didn't really get the tutors explanation of this, I get what ...
0
votes
5answers
39 views

Injective function proof involving floor function

Let $f : \Bbb{Z} \to \Bbb{Z}$ and $g : \Bbb{Z} \to \Bbb{Z}$ be functions defined by $f(x)=3x+1$ and $g(x)=\lfloor\frac{x}{2}\rfloor$. Is $g(f(x))$ one-to-one? So, $g(f(x)) = ...
2
votes
2answers
78 views

prove that any integer greater than or equal to 8 can be represented as the sum of nonnegative integer multiples of 3 and 5

This problem asks to use Well Ordering Principle to prove any integer greater than or equal to 8 can be represented as the sum of nonnegative integer multiples of 3 and 5. Here's where I'm at: For ...
0
votes
0answers
37 views

Problem: use the well ordering principle to show that all positive rational numbers can be written in lowest terms

This problem involves pointing out the unjustified inference/logic error in the following proof that all positive rational numbers can be written in "lowest terms" that is as a ratio of positive ...
0
votes
2answers
43 views

Help With a proof (Irrational Number)

Prove the following statement by proving its contrapositive: if $r$ is irrational, then $r^\frac{1}{5}$ is irrational. Its contrapositive will be: If $r^\frac{1}{5}$ is not irrational, then $r$ is ...
0
votes
1answer
23 views

How to prove the Hubble law is the unique expansion law compatible with homogeneity and isotropy?

In the book physical foundations of cosmology, it saids that Hubble law is unique and a problem seems to be a hint of proving that. In order for a general expansion law,v=f(r,t), to be the same ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

From 2 to 3 dimensions: integrating a force along a contour/surface.

I am studying the following problem: Consider a closed contour $\mathcal{C}$ in $\mathbb{R}^2$ defined by $r(\theta)$ where $\theta\in[0,2\pi)$ and $r(0)=r(2\pi)$ (let the center to be zero for ...
3
votes
3answers
48 views

Show surjectivity of a linear map

It pains me to say that this bewilders me, but here's the problem. All I want to do is show that: Given $T$ a linear operator on some finite-dimensional space $V$, with the property that $Im(T) = ...
1
vote
7answers
115 views

Error in proving of the formula the sum of squares

Given formula $$ \sum_{k=1}^n k^2 = \frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6} $$ And I tried to prove it in that way: $$ \sum_{k=1}^n (k^2)'=2\sum_{k=1}^n k=2(\frac{n(n+1)}{2})=n^2+n $$ $$ \int (n^2+n)\ \text d ...
3
votes
2answers
157 views

Discriminant of $x^n-1$

Question is to find discriminant of polynomial $x^n-1$ I consider $f(x)=x^n-1=(x-a_1)(x-a_2)(x-a_3)\cdots(x-a_n)$ Now, ...
1
vote
2answers
32 views

Use induction to prove trignometric identity with imaginary number

Prove by induction that if $i^2 = -1 $, then for every integer $n >= 1$, $[\cos(x) + i\sin(x)]^n = \cos(nx) + i\sin(nx)$. My solution so far: 1. It can be easily shown that it is true for n = 1. ...
0
votes
2answers
32 views

Prove that the set $C = \{x \in\Bbb R : ax\le b\}$ is convex

Prove that if a and b are real numbers, then the set $C = \{x \in\Bbb R : ax\le b\}$ is a convex set. My solution so far: To show that a set $C$ is convex it needs to be shown that for for every ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

given coordinates, find the number at that coordinates in spiral matrix.

given coordinates, find the number at that coordinates in spiral matrix. Given is the image of spiral i am talking about. at 0,0 ---> 0 0,1 ---> 1 1,1 ---> 2 0,1 ---> 3 -1,1 ---> 4 ...
0
votes
1answer
66 views

Show without expanding that the two determinants are equal

$$ Let\ A= \begin{bmatrix} 0 & a^2 & b^2 & c^2\\ a^2 & 0 & z^2 & y^2\\ b^2 & z^2 & 0 & x^2\\ c^2 & y^2 & x^2 & ...
1
vote
3answers
57 views

Trigonometric proof [L.H.S.=R.H.S]

Question: $$\frac{2-3\sin\theta+\sin^3\theta}{\sin\theta+2}=2\sin\theta (\sin\theta-1)+\cos^2\theta$$ I don't know how to start with these problem. Normally these type of proof confuse me. In my ...
2
votes
0answers
23 views

Proof that function is real part of $\sec(z)$ [duplicate]

I'm working on the following problem: I've deduced that the key is to show that $u$ is the real part of $\sec(z)$. But, I'm getting stuck in the algebra and am hoping someone can point me in the ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Proof that $\cos^2(x)\cosh^2(y) + \sin^2(x)\sinh^2(y) = -1 + \sin^2(x) - \sinh^2(y)$

Could anyone offer a proof that $$ \cos^2(x)\cosh^2(y) + \sin^2(x)\sinh^2(y) = -1 + \sin^2(x) - \sinh^2(y)? $$
3
votes
3answers
131 views

Convergent or divergent $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{e^nn!}{n^n}$?

Any suggestion/hint, not the whole solution, how to determine convergence/divergence of $$ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\dfrac{e^n \cdot n!}{n^n} $$ I'm currently stuck.
0
votes
3answers
51 views

Completion of this proof

Suppose $$\forall m \in \Bbb N : \exists k \in \Bbb N : 5^m +1 =k^3$$ $$\Rightarrow 5^m = k^3 -1$$ $$ \Rightarrow 5^m = (k -1) (k^2+k +1)$$ Since $5^m$ is a power of 5 both $(k-1)$ and $(k^2+k ...
1
vote
2answers
59 views

How to prove that the sequence is decreasing $a_{n}=\frac{ln(n)}{n^2}$

Is my way/proof good and completely mathematically rigorous? $a_{n}=\frac{ln(n)}{n^2}$ --> $a_{n+1}=\frac{ln(n+1)}{(n+1)^2}$ $\frac{ln(n)}{n^2} > \frac{ln(n+1)}{(n+1)^2}$ ...
7
votes
5answers
77 views

prove by induction $7 \mid 3^{3^n}+8$

Okay so ive been trying to prove this for about 5 hours... really need salvation from the geniouses around here. prove by induction $7\mid 3^{3^n}+8$ i really need some directions on what to do ...
3
votes
1answer
223 views

Proving that, if a function f is O(g), the ceiling of f is also O(g).

I'm having a bit of trouble with this problem: $$\forall (f, g) \in F, f \in O(g) \implies \lceil{f}\rceil \in O(g)$$ Where F is the family of functions from $\mathbb{N}$ to $\mathbb{R}^+$. I know ...
0
votes
2answers
42 views

Prove a limit with condition specified at infinity

Suppose that $$ \lim_{t\rightarrow \infty}\left(\dot{x}(t)+\gamma x(t)\right)=0,\quad \gamma>0. $$ How can I prove $$ \lim_{t\rightarrow \infty}x(t)=0~? $$ Please give a strict proof. Thanks!
-1
votes
0answers
8 views

cone of influence and compact support

We are given that wavelet $\psi$ is of compact support $\subset$ [-k, k] then using the concept of cone of influenc how we consider its support to be $\{(x, y);|y-x|\leq |x|k\}$ .
0
votes
0answers
31 views

Differentiability and $L^1, L^2$ spaces

If $f\in L^1(\mathbb{R})$ then $\frac{d}{dx}\{f(x)\}\in L^1(\mathbb{R})$ where we have given that $f$ is of compact support.
0
votes
1answer
21 views

Giving restriction on the value of $N$ in $\epsilon-N$ proof.

I'm still working on $\epsilon-N$ proof. If you don't mind is it possible for us to give restriction on the value of $N$ as illustrated by this example: Say after some manipulation of the limit ...
0
votes
2answers
38 views

Showing that two maps are homotopic

Let $X$ be a topological space and let $S^2 \subset \mathbb{R^3}$ be the unit sphere with the metric $d$ inherited from $\mathbb{R^3}$. Show that if $f,g:X\to S^2$ are continuous maps such that ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Choosing the right N in $\epsilon-N$ proof

I'm just a little bit confused in choosing the right $N$ when working on the rough sketch of the proof. Suppose after some algebra we have reached the point where we get this expression, say: ...
3
votes
1answer
33 views

General lists of techniques to prove whether a set is a generator of a matrix group

It seems like a rather common problem in group theory, at least in undergraduate maths, to check whether a set is a generator of a group. The question is usually as follow: Given a group $G$, and a ...
3
votes
1answer
24 views

Partitioning a totally ordered set into three subsets according to the order

Consider a set $S$, and a total order $R$ over that set. Part (a) Given some element $e \in S$, explain why it is possible to partition $S$ into the following three sets: $$S_1 = \{ x \in S ...
3
votes
0answers
60 views

How to find $f$ and $g$ if $f\circ g$ and $g\circ f$ are given?

The question is: Let $f:\mathbb R\rightarrow \mathbb R$ and $g:\mathbb R\rightarrow \mathbb R$ be two functions such that $(f\circ g)(x)=4x^2+4x+1$ and $(g\circ f)(X)=x^2+2x+2$. Find $f(x)$ and ...
-2
votes
1answer
36 views

Set Theory Proof [closed]

How can I prove that $A \cup B = A \cup (A'B)$ It is a useful identity when proving : $ P(A \cup B) = P(A)+P(B)-P(AB)$ But I don´t know where that identity comes from. Is there an analytical proof ...