For questions about approaches and techniques for discovering a proof, as opposed to writing it down clearly (which involves (proof-writing)). Should not be used unless the focus is on the technique of the proof instead of the solution.

learn more… | top users | synonyms

1
vote
2answers
16 views

Proving if $A$ or $B$ are symmetric then $AB$ is symmetric

Prove if $A$ or $B$ are symmetric then $AB$ is symmetric. Symmetric set definition: $A$ is symmetric if for every $a\in A$ there's $-a\in A$ Product set definition: $AB=\{ab\mid a\in A, ...
2
votes
2answers
47 views

Is there another way to prove $(x-n)^2 = (n-x)^2$

Let's say $n$ is $4$. So, I came up with the solution below. $(x-4)^2 = (x-4)(x-4) = x^2 - 8x + 16$ $(4-x)^2 = (4-x)(4-x) = 16 - 8x + x^2 = x^2 - 8x + 16$ I was wondering if there is another way ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Rectangles in one dimension

I have to prove the following proposition : Show that the intesection of two rectangles in $\mathbb{R}^{n}$ is either the vaccum or is another rectangle. My attempt: I one is embeded in the other ...
1
vote
2answers
37 views

Proving if $|A|\ge 4 \vee |A|\le 2$ then $|A+A|\neq 4$ with direct, contradiction and contraposition

Prove if $|A|\ge 4 \vee |A|\le 2$ then $|A+A|\neq 4$. $A$ is some set and we define $A+B=\{a+b|a\in A, b\in B\}$, $A$ is some subset of the reals. In a direct proof and proof by contradiction I'd ...
1
vote
1answer
34 views

Using induction to show associativity on $x_1+\dots + x_n$

I want to use induction to show that the sum $x_1 + \dots + x_n$ of real numbers is defined independently of parentheses to specify order of addition. I know how to apply induction(base, assumption, ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

How to prove that the integral of a positive, continuous function is positive?

Obviously intuitively the area under something that is above the x-axis is always positive, but how can I show this with a proof?
0
votes
5answers
48 views

Number theory proof [on hold]

$(i)$ Prove that for every natural number $n \geq 2$, one has $(n + 1)|(n^3 + 1)$; $(ii)$ Suppose that $n$ is a natural number exceeding $1$. Prove that $(n^2-1)|(n^3+1)$ if and only if $n = 2$.
2
votes
2answers
48 views

Proving with induction $(1-x)^n<\frac 1 {1+nx}$

Prove using induction that $\forall n\in\mathbb N, \forall x\in \mathbb R: 0<x<1: (1-x)^n<\frac 1 {1+nx}$ My attempt: Base: for $n=1: 1-x<\frac 1 {1+x}\iff 1-x^2<1$, true since ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

prove that $p^2-1$ is divisible by $24$ if $p$ is a prime greater than $3$ [duplicate]

How to prove that $p^2-1$ is divisible by $24$ if $p$ is a prime number greater than $3$?
0
votes
1answer
31 views

Prove tautology without truth using a truth table. [duplicate]

I am struggling to prove, without using truth tables, that the statement is a tautology. [(p→q)∧(q→r)]→(p→r) My work so far... ¬[(¬p∨q)∧(¬q∨r)]∨(¬p∨r) ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Using set theory to prove a function problem

I begin with: $$A = \{a \le x < x_0 | f(x) = 0 \}$$ $$B = \{x_0 < x \le b | f(x) = 0 \}$$ Let $c = \sup A$ and let $d = \sup B$ First to prove $f(x) > 0$ for $x \in (c, d)$ I will ...
1
vote
2answers
51 views

How to get to $5^3 \geq n^3$ in the proof by contradiction?

This is the same problem asked here. - Next step to take to reach the contradiction? Here is it again. I understand the solution - how you want to get to the fact 100 divides n^2 and then go ...
2
votes
2answers
23 views

Homology groups of orientable surfaces.

I am trying to show that the second (simplicial) homology group or an orientable surface is ismormophic to $\mathbb Z$. I can show that this group is non-trivial by triangulating the surface, and ...
0
votes
2answers
34 views

Prove that $\lim_{h \rightarrow 0} [f(x_{0} + h) - f(x_{0})] = 0 \Rightarrow \lim_{h \rightarrow 0} [f(x_{0} + h) - f(x_{0} - h)] = 0$

Prove: $\lim_{h \rightarrow 0} [f(x_{0} + h) - f(x_{0})] = 0 \Rightarrow \lim_{h \rightarrow 0} [f(x_{0} + h) - f(x_{0} - h)] = 0$ Proof: $\lim_{h \rightarrow 0} [f(x_{0} + h) - f(x_{0} - h)] = 0$ ...
1
vote
4answers
57 views

The divisibility of $a^p-1$ by $a-1$ and by $(a-1)^2$

I was working my way through some number theoretic proofs and being a newbie am stuck on this problem : Let a $\geq$ 2 and p be any positive integers , then prove that : $(a-1) \mid(a^p - ...
2
votes
2answers
37 views

Show that the set of all cofinite subsets of S is enumerable.

I've been having some trouble with this question. In fact, I spend a long time on a solution which I came to realize the next day it was entirely wrong. I feel completely stumped, and I could really ...
1
vote
3answers
33 views

Proving by contradiction that if $a\in\mathbb Q,b\in \mathbb R\setminus \mathbb Q$ then $a+b\in \mathbb R \setminus \mathbb Q$

I'm trying to prove by contradiction that if $a\in\mathbb Q,b\in \mathbb R\setminus \mathbb Q$ then $a+b\in \mathbb R \setminus \mathbb Q$, I already proved it with contra position and a direct proof ...
7
votes
0answers
70 views

Olympiad-style question about functions satisfying condition $f(f(f(n))) = f(n+1) + 1$

QN: What functions (from non-negative integers to non-negative integers) satisfy the condition $$f(f(f(n))) = f(n+1) + 1$$ Comment: Evidently $f(n) = n+ 1$ is one solution. Equally evidently no ...
3
votes
1answer
23 views

How to proceed with the following integration?

If $n$ is a positive integer, show that $$ \int_{\sqrt{n\pi}}^{\sqrt{(n+1)\pi}} \sin(t^2) dt = \frac{(-1)^n}{c}$$ for some $c \in [\sqrt{n\pi}, \sqrt{(n+1)\pi}]$ I have an idea that i can use Mean ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

How can I prove this about the tangent line formula??

The equation of a tangent line to $f(x)$ at $x = t$ is $y = f'(t)(x - t) + f(t)$. Recently, I heard that it is also determined by the remainder of polynomial division of $f(x)$ by $(x-t)^2$. For ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

For how many integers is this a prime number?

For how many integers $n$ is: $9 - (n-2)^2$ a prime number? I want to try this using a rigorous definition of prime number/ actual problem rather than try-error? Please only give hints, so I can do ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

Proving an “OR” statement

If one wants to proof $P\vee Q$, is it sufficient to proof $\lnot P \rightarrow Q$? Because it makes intuitively more sense to me that $P\vee Q$ would be logically equivalent with $(\lnot P ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

For what natural number $n$ is the following inequality true: $2^n \geq 2\cdot n^2$?

Can you solve this by using induction? The inequality is true for $n = 1$, but is false until $n = 7$. After the induction step I got $$2^n \geq n^2 + 2n + 1.$$ If you take the limit as $n$ ...
0
votes
1answer
22 views

Prove that the difference between two rational numbers is rational

This is a terribly simple question I'm sure, but I can't find a work-around in my proof. I must prove that the difference between two rational numbers is thus rational. Here is my attempt: Let $a$ ...
-1
votes
1answer
20 views

question on proving inequalities [on hold]

If I need to prove $t(x) \ge0 $, for all $ x>0$ and I prove that $t(x) \gt 0 $, for all $ x>0$ does that make for a proof or is it wrong?
0
votes
2answers
30 views

Olympiad minimum question, minimal value

If the numbers $A, B, C$ are such that the expression $\sqrt{A-B} + \sqrt{(B+3)^2} + C^2 - 4C + 4$ is as small as possible, then $A+B+C$ is? I thought start with, $A > B > C$ without loss of ...
0
votes
1answer
62 views

What is the contraposive of this statement?

I have to prove the negation of this statement: $$\forall a,b,c\in\mathbb{Z}{\;if\;a\;|\;b\} $$ But the fact that there is a "and" is very disturbing. I think that I am missing something because my ...
3
votes
3answers
60 views

Rank in row echelon form

$$A= \begin{bmatrix} a & 1 & a & 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & b & 1 & b & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & c & 1 & c & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 & d & 1 ...
0
votes
2answers
43 views

Matrices that commute with all matrices [duplicate]

Let $Z_n$ be the set of all $n \times n$ matrices that commute with all $n \times n $ matrices. Show that $$Z_n = \{\lambda I_n \ | \ \lambda \in \mathbb R\}$$ ($I_n$ is the $n \times n$ identity ...
1
vote
1answer
48 views

Convert to Riemann Sum

The following limit has to be converted to Riemann Sum. $$\lim_{N→∞}\sum^{N}_{n=-N}\left(\frac{1}{(N+in)}+\frac{1}{(N-in)}\right)$$ My attempt: ...
0
votes
1answer
26 views

How to prove that the infinity norm of a matrix is the max of row sum?

I know how to prove that the 1-norm of a matrix is the max of the column sum, but not sure how to prove that the inf-norm is the max of the row sum. Any suggestion? Thanks
1
vote
2answers
101 views

Proving a function is onto?

Let $f: \mathbb{R}\setminus \{3\} \to \mathbb{R}\setminus \{1\}$ be defined by $f(x)=\dfrac{x+3}{x-3}$ Prove that $f$ is onto: Okay, here is the deal. I just started my first abstract algebra ...
-1
votes
1answer
16 views

Prove that if a is not 0, then |x|>c>0 implies |(1/a)-(1/x)|<(|a-x|/(c|a|))

For a,c, and x in the reals, prove that if a is not 0, then |x|>c>0 implies |(1/a)-(1/x)|<(|a-x|/(c|a|)). I'm trying to practice these kinds of questions, and any help or suggestions are greatly ...
0
votes
1answer
74 views

proof: $\sum\limits_{i=k}^n\binom{i}{k}=\binom{n+1}{k+1}$

Let $n ≥ 0$ and $k ≥ 0$ be integers. 1) How many bitstrings of length $n + 1$ have exactly $k + 1$ many $1$s? 2) Let $i$ be an integer with $k ≤ i ≤ n$. What is the number of bitstrings of length $n ...
-1
votes
2answers
31 views

Prove that if $y>1$, then $\forall M\in\mathbb{R}$, there exists an $N$ in the natural numbers s.t. $n\geq N$ implies $y^n>M$. [on hold]

For $y\in\mathbb{R}$, prove that if $y>1$, then $\forall M\in\mathbb{R}$, $\exists N\in\mathbb{N}$ such that $$ n≥N \implies y^n>M. $$ I'm not used to proving these kinds of questions so any ...
3
votes
1answer
64 views

Could someone take a crack at this number theory problem?

The question is stated as follows: If $\mathrm{gcd}(a,m)=1$ and $X$ is a complete residue system $\bmod m$, then the set obtained by multiplying each member of $X$ by $a$ is also a complete residue ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Define $x^3$ = $x \times x^2$. Prove that if $x_1, x_2$, . . . represents $x$, then $x_1^3$, $x_2^3$, . . . represents $x^3$ [on hold]

I'm a little bit lost on where to start this problem. My initial thought is to work backwards. Say $x^3$ is a Cauchy sequence. Then for some $j, k \geq m$ contingent on $n$, we have |${x^3}_j - ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Prove the associative law for the addition of real numbers

The problem asks us to prove the commutative and associative laws for the addition of real numbers. The commutative proof seems straightforward. I am wondering how to approach the proof of the ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views
+100

Conditional independence given elementary events implies conditional independence given $\sigma $-algebra

Proposition: Let $X$ be a continuous markov chain with discrete state space $S$. Let $Z$ be the corresponding jump chain and $\left\{ {{W_i},i \in \mathbb{N}} \right\}$ its holding times. Let ...
3
votes
1answer
56 views

Relationship between increasing integer sequences

Suppose that $\mathcal X\cap \mathcal Y=\emptyset$, that $\mathcal X\cup \mathcal Y=\Bbb N$ and that $X(n),\;Y(n)$ are increasing surjections $\Bbb N\to \mathcal X$ respectively $\Bbb N\to \mathcal ...
10
votes
3answers
86 views

Prove that if $\left({x+\sqrt{x^2+1}}\right)\left({y+\sqrt{y^2+1}}\right)=1$ then $x+y=0$

Let $$\left({x+\sqrt{x^2+1}}\right)\left({y+\sqrt{y^2+1}}\right)=1$$ Prove that $x+y=0$. This is my solution: Let $$a=x+\sqrt{x^2+1}$$ and $$b=y+\sqrt{y^2+1}$$ Then $x=\dfrac{a^2-1}{2a}$ and ...
4
votes
0answers
36 views

Limit of continuous function

Prove or provide a counterexample: 1) $f: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is continuous. If $(a_{n}) = f(n)$ converges to $L$, then $\lim_{x \rightarrow \infty} f(x) = L$. Counterexample: I ...
0
votes
4answers
62 views

Prove that a continuous real function with finite limits is bounded

$f: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is a continuous function. Assume that $\lim_{x \rightarrow \pm \infty} f(x)$ exist and are finite. Prove that $f$ is bounded. So to show that $f$ is bounded, I ...
0
votes
0answers
63 views

Prove the limit as $x$ approaches $0$, $\frac{\sin(x)}{x}$ approaches $1$ using the epsilon delta definition [duplicate]

Prove that $\lim_{x\to0}\frac{\sin(x)}{x} = 1$. So far i have things such as $|\sin(x)|\leq|x|$ for small $x$ and $|\sin(x)|\leq1$ so it is bounded but I'm rather stuck, Also I am not looking for a ...
2
votes
1answer
42 views

How to adapt proof by contradiction showing that a sqrt(2) is irrational for sqrt(20)?

This example is from Discrete Math and its Applications I understand the steps the author is taking. First he assumes sqrt(2) is rational meaning that there exists integers a, and b such that ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

Should this be rephrased into saying no common factors but 1?

This is from Discrete Mathematics and its Applications For the phrase "a and b have no common factors" , does that actually mean a and b have no common factors other than 1? I feel like this would ...
9
votes
3answers
112 views

Prove that $a+b$ cant divide $a^a+b^b$ nor $a^b+b^a$

Let a and b be natural numbers so that $2a-1,2b-1$ and $a+b$ are prime numbers. Prove that $a+b$ cant divide $a^a+b^b$ nor $a^b+b^a$. I get that $gcd(a,b)=1$. I havent got anything special for now ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

What is the difference between assuming for $\forall k< n$ and proving for $n$ than assuming for $n$ and proving for $n+1$

What is the difference between assuming for $\forall k< n$ and proving for $n$ than assuming for $n$ and proving for $n+1$ (or $n-1$ and proving for $n$)? both with induction. The first one is ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Help with Conic: Hyperbola's chord of contact

please help with this proof. "Show that the tangents at the endpoints of a focal chord of the hyperbola $ \frac{x^2}{a^2} - \frac{y^2}{b^2} = 1 $ meet on the corresponding directrix." This is a ...