For questions about approaches and techniques for discovering a proof, as opposed to writing it down clearly (which involves (proof-writing)). Should not be used unless the focus is on the technique of the proof instead of the solution.

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0
votes
2answers
34 views

Symmetric matrices and eigenvalues

If the eigenvalues of a symmetric matrix $A$ are greater than 0, show that $v^{\top}Av > 0$ for every $v \ne 0$ I am trying to prove this as follows: If $v$ is an eigenvector of $A$, then $Av ...
7
votes
4answers
57 views

Showing a function $f: \mathbb{N} \times\mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{N}$ is injective

Let $f: \mathbb{N} \times\mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{N}$ with $$ f(i,j) = \frac{(i+j-2)(i+j-1)}{2}+j. $$ I want to show $f$ is an injection. This is how I approached the problem: I tried to show ...
0
votes
0answers
7 views

Prove the properties of penalized likelihood estimator in Fan and Li (2001) paper

I'm reading through Fan and Li's paper "Variable Selection via Nonconcave Penalized Likelihood and its Oracle Properties". In Page 2 near bottom right corner, they proposed three properties that a ...
1
vote
4answers
38 views

How to use Cross Product Properites to do proof

How do I proceed with a proof for this question? Prove that: \begin{equation} (a \times b) \cdot (c \times d) = \begin{vmatrix} a \cdot c & b \cdot c \\ a \cdot d & b \cdot ...
1
vote
0answers
12 views

Proof that bernstein-coefficients of $p(x)=x$ are $b_i=a+i\frac{b-a}{n},\ i=0,…,n$

I want to proof that the bernstein-coefficients for $p(x)=x$ on $[a,b]$ are described by $$b_i=a+i\frac{b-a}{n},\ i=0,...,n$$ Where the Bernstein polynomials on $[a,b]$ are defined by ...
1
vote
2answers
34 views

Proving $\int_0^1 \frac{f(t)}{t^{\alpha + 1}} \ dt$ diverges

Consider $f(t)$, continuous on $[0,1]$, and $\alpha > 1$, and: $$\int_0^1 \frac{f(t)}{t^{\alpha + 1}} \ dt$$ How can we tell this integral diverges? Basically since $f$ is continuous it reaches ...
0
votes
1answer
17 views

Riemann-integrability of $f(x) \geq (\frac{1}{\lfloor x\rfloor})^\alpha$

Let $f$ be Riemann-integrable in the interval $[1,\infty)$ and let for all $x \geq 1$ $f(x) \geq \left(\frac{1}{\lfloor x\rfloor}\right)^\alpha$. Then $\alpha > 1$. How to prove this statement? Ok ...
-2
votes
0answers
44 views

How to prove that composition of functions is a function [on hold]

Using the fact that a function is a relation, which is a subset of the product of $X$ and $Y$. $(a,b)$ belongs to $f$ and $(a,c)$ belongs to $f \implies b=c$
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Properties of exponentiation proof

I'm trying to prove the following: "Let $x, y$ be non-zero rational numbers, and let $n,m$ be integers. Then we have $x^n x^m = x^{n+m}$." I've managed to prove by induction the case $n,m \geq 0$ ...
2
votes
2answers
179 views

Fermat's little theorem

This is a very interesting word problem that I came across in an old textbook of mine. So I mused over this problem for a while and tried to look at the different ways to approach it but unfortunately ...
0
votes
2answers
50 views

Show that $\sup (A\cdot B)=\max\{\sup A\cdot\sup B, \sup A\cdot\inf B,\inf A\cdot\sup B,\inf A\cdot\inf B\}$

Given nonempty subsets $A$ and $B$ of positive real numbers, define $$A\cdot B=\{z=x\cdot y:x\in A,\,y\in B \}$$ show that if $A$ and $B$ are bounded sets of real numbers, then $$\sup(A\cdot ...
3
votes
3answers
61 views

Basic mathematical induction regarding inequalities

These are just the examples from my textbook, but I don't think it did not explain well. One of the problem was to prove the inequality $$n<2^n$$ for all integers $n$. I understand we assume ...
-1
votes
1answer
21 views

prove ceiling(x) - x = fp(1-x)

prove ceiling(x) - x = fp(1-x) using the facts: -> 0 <= fp(x) < 1, and fp(x) = x - ⌊x⌋ -> fp(1-x) = 1 - χℤ (x) - fp(x) -> the real interval [x,x+1) or (x,x+1] has an integer Here is my ...
2
votes
5answers
67 views

Can't determine if given relation is equivalence relation

Definition of relation ~ $(a,b)$ ~ $(c,d)$ $\iff$ $bc^2=da^2$, where $(a,b),(c,d)$ are from $\mathbb{R}\times\mathbb{R}$ and $(a,b),(c,d)$ are different from $(0,0)$ First of all, I wonder if ...
0
votes
1answer
20 views

prove that $fp(1 - x) = 1 - \chi_{\Bbb Z}(x) - fp(x)$

prove that $fp(1 - x) = 1 - \chi_{\Bbb Z}(x) - fp(x)$, where $fp(x) = x - \lfloor x\rfloor$, and $0 \le fp(x) < 1$, and $\chi_{\Bbb Z}$ is the characteristic function of the integers By the way of ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Proof the statements

Proof the statements below i)If $P(A)=0$ and $B$ is any event, then $A$ and $B$ are independents ii)If $P(A)=1$ and $B$ is any event, then $A$ and $B$ are independents iii)The events ...
0
votes
1answer
53 views

For what values of $a$ does $\int_{0}^{1}(-\ln x)^adx$ converge?

For what values of $a$ does $\int_{0}^{1}(-\ln x)^adx$ converge? I have seen a duplicate of this question but the answer there, though very good and creative, isn't clear about negative values. When ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Principle of well ordering

Every non-empty set $A\subset\mathbb{N}$ have a smallest element, i.e. an element $n_0\in A$ such that $n_0\leq n$ $\forall n\in\mathbb{A}$ Proof: Let $I_n=\{p\in\mathbb{N};p\leq n\}$ the set ...
1
vote
2answers
36 views

Logically Equivalance - Proofs

In terms of logical statements, is ($\exists$n $\in$ N)($\forall$ x $\in$ A)(nx >= 1) equal to ($\forall$x $\in$ A)($\exists$ n $\in$ N)(nx >= 1)? Also consider the following statements $\forall x ...
2
votes
2answers
42 views

Logical Statements - Proofs

Let $f$ be a real-valued function (a function with target space the set of reals). Let $P(x, M)$ stand for $|f(x)| \leq M $, let $N$ be the set of positive real numbers, and let $\mathbb{R}$ be the ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

For a real number x, define the fractional part of x as fp (x) := x − floor(x)

For a real number x, define the fractional part of x as fp (x) := x − floor(x). Prove that 0 ≤ fp (x) < 1. Here is my proof By the way of contradiction assume 0 > fp(x) >= 1. Suppose x is an ...
1
vote
5answers
85 views

Proof that intervals of the form $[x, x+1)$ or $(x, x+1]$ must contain a integer.

Show that any real interval of the form $[x, x+1)$ or $(x, x+1]$ must contain a integer. Here is my proof (by contradiction) We start by saying, assume the interval of the form $[x, x+1)$ or $(x, ...
0
votes
2answers
44 views

Proving the product rule for n functions

I am trying to prove that the product rule works for $n$ many functions, where $n$ is an integer greater than $2$. I am able to prove it for two functions, where the rule states if $k(x)=f(x)g(x)$ , ...
1
vote
2answers
43 views

Is 'a' differentiable in f when f is a product of a differentiable and non-differentiable function?

Recently, I was studying differentiable and non-differentiable functions and I wondered whether this "conjecture" of mine is true: 1) "If $f(x)$ is a function that is the product of $g(x)$ and $h(x)$ ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Computing conditional expectation $\mathbb E(U^V \mid U)$

Let $U$ and $V$ be iid uniformly continuous on $[0,1]$. How can I compute $\mathbb E(U^V\mid U)$? Which property do I have to use?
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Show that Quotient of a C*-algebra is a C*-algebra in its own right

Let $A$ be a commutative C*-algebra over $\mathbb{C}$ and let $J$ be an ideal of $A$ such that $J\in Closed(A)$ and that contains $x^*$ if it contains $x$, for all $x\in A$. I know that $A/J$ is also ...
3
votes
1answer
46 views

An inequality relating to moves to P-positions in Nim

I have been researching this variant of Nim. I have been unable to prove the following claim. What is annoying is that I feel I am missing something really obvious. Does anyone have any ideas on how ...
0
votes
4answers
46 views

Logic, writing proof

i)Suppose that $x$ and $y$ are real numbers. Prove that if $x\neq 0$, then if $y=\frac{3x^2+2y}{x^2+2}$ then $y=3$ ii)Suppose that $x$ and $y$ are real numbers. Prove that if $x^2y=2x+y$, ...
1
vote
2answers
24 views

Proof that if a simple Graph contains at most two nodes with odd degree then it has a Euler walk

My proof would be start as the following : In general if there are two node at most, then one node used to start walking and the other to end. A) If we start from odd one, this means we have two ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

Principle of infinite descent

I'm trying to prove the following: "It is not possible to have a sequence of natural numbers which is in infinite descent. (Hint: assume for sake of contradiction that you can find a sequence of ...
3
votes
0answers
53 views

Show that $A^k$ has eigenvalues $\lambda^k$ and eigenvectors $v$.

I want to prove the following statement: Let $A \in \Bbb R^{n\times n}$ with eigenvalues $\lambda$ and eigenvectors $v$. Show that $A^k$ has eigenvalues $\lambda^k$ and eigenvectors $v$. ...
1
vote
2answers
51 views

Proving associativity in Algebra

How to proof that a specially defined Transitive Join for the relations $R \subseteq A$ x $B$ und $S \subseteq B$ x $C$ is associative? The join is defined as: $R \Join S =_{def} \{(a,c)| $ there is ...
5
votes
2answers
326 views

proof by contradiction puzzle

Consider the following game between two players: • There is an initially rectangular grid of cookies. • The cookie in the upper left corner is poisoned. • The players take turns. On a player’s ...
2
votes
1answer
64 views

prove that this number contains two equal digits

We delete the first digit from the number $7^{1996}$ and then we add it to the remaining number, repeat this until we get a number consisting of $10$ digits, prove that, this number contains two equal ...
2
votes
2answers
50 views

Forming natural numbers with positive consecutive integers

I'm trying to prove that any natural number N can be formed by adding at least two positive consecutive integers except for powers of 2. For example, using $\,N = 3$, $N = 1 + 2$. When experimenting ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Proof Strategies for Convergent Sequences

I am struggling to understand how to choose epsilons during proofs for convergent sequences. It seems that many proofs just state the epsilon to choose without any motivation? How should I go about in ...
0
votes
0answers
49 views

How to prove it and how to solve it

Tomorrow I will begin my studies, real analysis, however I have some difficulties in making statements so I thought before starting the study in real analysis, learn how to do demonstrations properly. ...
-1
votes
1answer
62 views

Proof inequality using Lagrange Multipliers

Is it possible: $a,b,c$ are non-negative real numbers for which holds that $a+b+c=3.$ Prove the following inequality: $$ 4\ge a^2b+b^2c+c^2a+abc $$ Is it possible using Lagrange Multipliers. I ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Proof by contradiction - Predicates and quantifiers

Consider statement, For all integers, b,c,d, if x is a rational number such that $x^2+bx+c=d$, than x is an integer. a) express above statment in the form, $Q_1 b,c,d\in U_1 ( Q_2 x\in ...
0
votes
3answers
38 views

complete the proof for this statement

$$\forall x \in \mathbb{R}, x \neq 0 \implies \frac{1}{x^2\:+3}\:<\:\frac{4}{5}\: $$ I thought of doing the contrapositive but not sure what to do next. $$ \frac{1}{x^{2\:}+3}\:\ge ...
2
votes
2answers
56 views

Epsilon-Delta proof of $\lim_{x\to 2} x^2=4$

I have seen and understand the delta-epsilon proof of the limit of $x^2$ for $x\to2$, such as explained here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLpQgWWXgMM Now I am wondering, is there also another ...
4
votes
4answers
86 views

$(x+y+z)^3-(y+z-x)^3-(z+x-y)^3-(x+y-z)^3=24xyz$?

The question given is Show that $(x+y+z)^3-(y+z-x)^3-(z+x-y)^3-(x+y-z)^3=24xyz$. What I tried is suppose $a=(y+z-x),\ b=(z+x-y)$ and $c=(x+y-z)$ and then noted that $a+b+c=x+y+z$. So the ...
1
vote
3answers
69 views

Some questions about proofs of irrational numbers

I have some questions about some things I want to clarify in regard to basic questions that ask to show that roots are irrational, for example $\sqrt{3}$, $\sqrt{5}$ and $\sqrt{6}$. To me, I think ...
3
votes
1answer
63 views

Proving a trigonometric identity with tangents [closed]

Prove that: $$\tan^227^\circ +2 \tan27^\circ \tan36^\circ=1$$ any help, I appreciate it.
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Proving an Iff Statement

Suppose we had a function defined over the complex numbers: $ f(x)= \begin{cases} 1&\text{if } x\in\mathbb{R}\\ 0&\text{if } x\not\in\mathbb{R} \end{cases} $ And we are asked to prove that ...
2
votes
1answer
30 views

Commutator ideal of reductive Lie algebra

I'm working through Fulton and Harris's book on Representation theory, and I've just done the exercise where I had to show: If $\mathfrak{g}$ is a reductive Lie algebra (defined as $Z(\mathfrak{g}) = ...
3
votes
3answers
61 views

Is it necessary and sufficient that $6$ divides $n^2$ for the positive integer $n$ to be divisible by $6$? [closed]

As the title suggests, is it a necessary and sufficient that $6$ divides $n^2$ for the positive integer $n$ to be divisible by $6$? Like, I understand the dictionary definitions of necessary and ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

A set $A\in \Bbb{R}^n$ is compact $\iff$ every continuous function on $A$ is bounded. [duplicate]

A set $A\in \Bbb{R}^n$ is compact $\iff$ every continuous function on $A$ is bounded. I have a problem proving the direction according to which $A$ is compact. First direction I said: If $A$ is ...
1
vote
3answers
65 views

Implies in a truth table, unclear. [duplicate]

In my textbook, we have the following truth table: $P$ true and $Q$ true means that "$P \implies Q$" is true. $P$ true and $Q$ false means that "$P \implies Q$" is false. $P$ false and $Q$ true ...
1
vote
1answer
16 views

Showing an outerplaner graph has less than $2n-3$ edges

An outerplanar graph is a connected plane graph that can be drawn in such a way that all it's vertices are on the outer face. I want to show that for every $G$ outerplaner graph with $n$ vertices and ...