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17 views

Give $1^{st}$ order reduced model obtained by Galerkin projection, given the state space system

We have $\delta(t) = 1$ if $t = 0$ and $\delta(t) = 0$ if $t \neq 0$ and $x(t+1)= \begin{bmatrix} 1 &&{-0.5}\\0.5&&0 \end{bmatrix}x(t)+\begin{bmatrix} 1\\1\end{bmatrix}\delta(t)$ ...
0
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0answers
31 views

Relation between stalks of twisted sheaf and structure sheaf

Let $A$ be a ring, $B = A[T_0,\dots, T_d]$, and $X = \textrm{Proj } B$. Then at every point $x \in X$, $$\mathcal{O}_X (n)_x \cong \mathcal{O}_{X,x}$$ Let $x$ correspond to a homogeneous prime ...
3
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0answers
44 views

Global sections of Proj

In constructing the relative Proj for a graded ring $S$, one inevitably has that the distinguished opens, $D_+ (f)$, where $f \in S_+$ gives rise to a scheme that is isomorphic to $\textrm{Spec } ...
3
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1answer
38 views

What is the “module of twisted global sections”?

Let $X$ be a projective variety. Suppose we have computed the graded modules corresponding to $\Omega_{\mathbb P^n}$ (the cotangent sheaf) and $\mathcal O_X$. One way to get a representation for ...
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0answers
25 views

Construction of relative projective space via glueing

I would like to gain further practice on glueing schemes by constructing projective space over a ring. I am considering the following: I wonder how we get that $\mathcal{O}_{X_i} (X_{ij}) = ...
1
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0answers
28 views

Are $ \mathbb{A}^n (k ) = k^n $ and $ \mathbb{P}^{n} (k) = \mathrm{Proj} \ k[X_0 , \dots , X_n ]$ irreducibles?

Are $ \mathbb{A} (k ) = k^n $ and $ \mathbb{P}^{n} (k) = \mathrm{Proj} \ k[X_0 , \dots , X_n ]$ irreducibles when $ k $ is a domain ? Thanks in advance for your help.
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0answers
21 views

twist and product of projective spaces

On $\mathbb P^n_k\times_k \mathbb P^m_k$, is it true that $T_{\mathbb P^n_k\times_k \mathbb P^m_k}\otimes \mathcal O_{\mathbb P^n_k\times_k \mathbb P^m_k}(d,e)\simeq p_1^*T_{\mathbb P^n_k}(d)\oplus ...
1
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1answer
68 views

Very basic question on projective bundles: Why is the fiber a vector space?

Consider an integral scheme $(X,\mathcal O_X)$ of dimension $n$ and a "good" locally free sheaf of $\mathcal O_X$-modules $\mathcal E$ of rank $n+1$. Then, thanks to the "global proj construction" we ...
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0answers
60 views

Why is $ \mathrm{Spec} \ A [T_1 , \dots , T_n ] \to \mathrm{Proj} \ A [T_0 , \dots , T_n ] $ an embedding?

Let $ A $ be a commutative ring with identity. I would like to know how to establish that : $ \mathrm{Spec} \ A [T_1 , \dots , T_n ] \to \mathrm{Proj} \ A [T_0 , \dots , T_n ] $ is an embedding ? ...
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1answer
86 views

map between projective schemes induced by rational points

Given a map between $\mathbb P^n_{\mathbb C}$ and itself, given by $$ [x_0:\dots:x_n] \mapsto [p_0(x):\dots:p_n(x)]$$ where $p_i$ are homogeneous polynomials of the same degree, how do I find the ...
2
votes
2answers
112 views

Exercise 6.5.F in Ravi Vakil's notes: Showing conic $x^2 + y^2=z^2$ in $\mathbb{P}_k^2$ is isomorphic to $\mathbb{P}_k^1$

I have been stuck on Exercise 6.5.F in Ravi Vakil's notes for a little while now, and I would greatly appreciate any hints/comments/solutions! Let $k$ be a field that is not of characteristic $2$. I ...
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0answers
37 views

Projective variety defined by a non-radical ideal.

In the context of the Exercise 5.3.D in Vakil's notes, I want to show that there are examples of a reduced graded ring $A$ and a non-radical homogeneous ideal $I$ such that $\text{Proj}(A/I)$ is a ...
2
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1answer
40 views

On projection $\mathbb{P}_A^n \rightarrow \mathbb{P}_A^{n-1}$

I am learning about rational maps at the moment, and the notes I am reading gives an example, the projection $\mathbb{P}_A^n \rightarrow \mathbb{P}_A^{n-1}$ given by $[x_0, ..., x_n] \rightarrow ...
2
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1answer
56 views

I need help in this proof of this exercise from Fulton's book

I'm reading Fulton's algebraic curves book. I'm trying to understand this solution which I found online of the question 4.17 on page 97. What I didn't understand is why $V(J_z)$ are exactly those ...
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1answer
77 views

$\operatorname{Proj}k[x,y,z]/(xz,yz,z^2)$ isomorphic to $\mathbb{P}^{1}_{k}$

While dealing with the Proj construction, I encountered with this seemingly-simple question, but somehow I can't get the point at this moment. Is the scheme ...
3
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0answers
44 views

Normal projective varieties and its coordinate ring

Let $k[X_0,...,X_n]$ be a polynomial ring over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero and $I$ an ideal of $k[X_0,...,X_n]$ generated by homogenous polynomials. Denote by $X$ the ...
0
votes
1answer
68 views

Linear Systems And invertible Sheaf

Hello Fellow Mathematicians/Algebraic Geometer , This is question has two parts one which is more conceptual and the other more straight forward: i) Let $X$ be a non-singular protective variety ...
1
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1answer
71 views

Exercise in R.Vakil 18.4.L: Ample line bundles and finite morphism

Here's the question: R.Vakil, Exercise 18.4.L: Suppose $\mathcal{L}$ is a base-point free invertible sheaf on a proper variety $X$, and hence induces some morphism $\phi: ...
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0answers
96 views

Dimension of the set of forms of degree $d$ in the homogeneous coordinate ring of $V$ (Fulton, Exercise 4.10)

I need help to solve the following problem that appears on page 55 of the book of William Fulton entitled Algebraic Curves. Exercise : Let $ R = k[X,Y,Z] $, $F \in R$ an irreducible form of degree ...
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0answers
31 views

Connection between Chladni Plates and Projective Geometry?

Does anybody know of a connection between Chladni Plates and Projective Geometry? Any published research on the subject? I am interested to know if Chladni Plates (or surfaces) can be ...
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2answers
141 views

Perfect complexes and the derived category of a smooth projective variety

I know that on a smooth projective variety any coherent sheaf has a finite locally free resolution. I read somewhere that this implies that any object in $D^b(X)$ for $X$ smooth projective is then ...
4
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2answers
138 views

Isomorphism of Proj schemes of graded rings, Hartshorne 2.14

This question is based on exercise $2.14$ of chapter $2$ of Hartshorne. Suppose $\varphi:S\rightarrow T$ is a graded homomorphism of graded (commutative, unital) rings such that $\varphi_d := ...
0
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1answer
64 views

How to see $\Gamma(\mathscr{O}_S,\operatorname{Proj} S)$ as a ring?

Let $S$ be a finitely generated graded $A$-algebra. For each homogeneous $f\in S_+$, we have a scheme structure $D(f)\cong \operatorname{Spec} S_{(f)}$ where $S_{(f)}$ denotes the zeroth piece of the ...
1
vote
1answer
99 views

Rational maps from noetherian $k$-scheme to projective $k$-scheme extend over regular codimension 1 sets

I am trying to solve and am currently stuck on Vakil's problem 16.5.B which is asked as follows: Suppose $X$ is a Noetherian $k$-scheme and $Z$ is a irreducible codimesion $1$ subvariety whose ...
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2answers
118 views

Understanding Hartshorne's proof that every projective morphism is proper.

In chapter $II$ of Hartshorne, theorem $4.9$ shows that every projective morphism is proper, using the valuative criterion for properness. I understand how the required morphism is constructed, but I ...
5
votes
1answer
179 views

Blow-up and base change

Consider a complex smooth (projective) surface $X$ and a blow-up $\epsilon:S\longrightarrow X$ at a point $x\in X$. Let $\sigma\in\text{Aut}(\mathbb C)$ be a field automorphism and moreover let ...
3
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1answer
61 views

“Twist” of $\mathbb P^n_K$ through a field automorphism.

This question is closely related to this recent one. Suppose that $s:X\longrightarrow\text{Spec}\, K$ is a variety over $K$ (i.e. a $K$ scheme, separated, proper and geometrically integral) and ...
2
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1answer
124 views

The importance of the structural morphism of a projective variety.

In scheme-theory, "The projective $n$-dimensional space over $k$" is defined as $\mathbb P^n_k:=\text{Proj}(k[T_0,\ldots,T_n])$. Moreover $\mathbb P^n_k$ is endowed with a structure of variery over ...
2
votes
1answer
76 views

What is the canonical morphism of $\mathbb{P}^n_A$ to $\text{Spec }A$?

On Liu's book Algebraic Geometry and Arithmetic Curves, he gives a general definition of the projective scheme $\mathbb{P}^n_A$, for $A$ a ring, as $Proj (B)$, for $B=A[x_0,\dots,x_n]$. Later, he ...
1
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2answers
74 views

Structure sheaf of $Proj \ S$ in terms of compatible stalks

Let $S$ be a graded ring. I was wondering if someone could please explain me how I can interpret structure sheaf of $Proj \ S$ in terms of compatible stalks? Thank you! Edit: This is Exercise 4.5.M. ...
4
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1answer
137 views

Compute the cohomology of projective schemes

In Hartshorne's book, Section 3.5, the cohomology of projective spaces is computed. How to compute the cohomology of projective schemes? Maybe the general case is complicated, please look at the ...
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0answers
39 views

What is the definition of $I(Z)$ when $Z \subseteq Proj S$

Let $S$ be a graded ring. In the notes of Ravi Vakil, he only says "define $I(Z) \subseteq S_+$", when $Z \subseteq Proj S$, where $S_+$ is all the elements in $S$ that are sum of positive degree ...
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0answers
60 views

Point at infinity of the scheme $\mathbb{P}^1$

Let $\mathbb{P}^1_k$ be the scheme defined as either $\text{Proj }k[t]$ or obtained by gluing two affine lines appropriately. What is the point at infinity which in topology usually is given by ...
2
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1answer
54 views

Confused about short exact sequence involving $\mathcal{O}_{\mathbb{P}^n}$ and $\mathcal{O}_Z$ for $\pi:Z\rightarrow \mathbb{P}^n$ closed embedding

If $\pi: Z\rightarrow \mathbb{P}^n$ is a closed embedding where $Z$ is the zero set of some degree homogeneous polynomial, we have: $$0\rightarrow \mathcal{O}_{\mathbb{P}^n}(-d)\rightarrow ...
0
votes
1answer
52 views

$(-1)$-curves and base change along a field automorphism.

Suppose that $E\subseteq S$ is a $(-1)$-curve inside a non-singular complex projective surface. By a $(-1)$-curve $E$, I mean that $E\cong\mathbb P^1_\mathbb C$ and $E^2=-1$. Now consider a field ...
0
votes
1answer
60 views

Notation in the Semicontinuity Theorem

In Hartshorne's book Algebraic Geometry in Chapter III Section 12 we have the following situation: $f\colon X\to Y$ is a projective morphism of schemes, $Y$ is the affine spectrume of a ring $A$ , ...
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vote
1answer
83 views

Does the canonical morphism commute with direct image functor?

I am trying to prove the representability of the Quotient functor. I have the following problem. Let $\phi \colon T \to S$ be a morphism of noetherian schemes and let $F$ be a coherent sheaf on ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Scheme theoretic dual of $\mathbb P^n_k$

Consider an algebraically closed field $k$, and define $\mathbb P^n_k:=\textrm{Proj}(k[T_0,\ldots,T_n])$. In some algebraic geometry books I see the notation ${(\mathbb P^n_k)}^\vee$ that is referred ...
2
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1answer
56 views

$\mathbb C$-isomorphism between two $\mathbb C$-schemes.

Consider a field automorphism $\sigma\in\textrm{Aut}(\mathbb C)$, and moreover consider the $\mathbb C$-scheme $p:\mathbb P^1_{\mathbb C}\longrightarrow\textrm{Spec}\,{\mathbb C}$ where $\mathbb ...
2
votes
2answers
349 views

Projective varieties and irreducibility

The "modern"(schematic) definition of a projective variety is the following: Let $k$ be an algebraically closed field. A projective variety over $k$ is a closed subscheme of $\mathbb ...
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1answer
361 views

Torsion sheaves on a curve

This is probably a silly question, but I'm a bit confused. Regarding exercises 6.11 and 6.12 of Chapter II of Hartshorne: Let $X$ be a nonsingular projective curve over an algebraically closed field ...
0
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1answer
54 views

The structure morphism of a projective variety induces a morphism of $k$-algeras

Suppose that $k$ is an algebraically closed field and that $X=\textrm{Proj}{\frac{k[T_1,\ldots,T_n]}{(f_1,\ldots,f_n)}}$ is a projective variety with a structural morphism $p:X\rightarrow\textrm{Spec} ...
2
votes
0answers
118 views

Local complete intersection scheme, conormal sheaves and differentials

Let $X$ be a smooth projective variety over $\mathbb{C}$ and $Z \subset X$ be a local complete intersection subscheme in $X$. Denote by $I_Z$ the ideal sheaf of $Z$ in $X$ and $\Omega^1_X$ the sheaf ...
4
votes
1answer
95 views

Degree of ample bundle over projective curve is positive

(From Vakil's notes, Exercise 18.4.K) If $C$ is an integral projective curve over a field $k$, and $\mathscr{L}$ is an ample line bundle on $C$, why is the degree of $\mathscr{L}>0$? If $C$ is ...
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1answer
80 views

Twisting relative proj (exercise from Vakil)

I'm stuck on another problem (17.2.G) from Vakil's notes, and I'm wondering if somebody could get me started. Specifically, we are given a scheme $X$, an invertible sheaf $\mathscr{L}$ on $X$ and a ...
2
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1answer
41 views

complex automorphisms acting on a projective variety

Consider a complex projective variety $X=\operatorname{Proj}\frac{\mathbb C[T_1,\ldots,T_n]}{(f_1,\ldots,f_n)}$ with $f_1,\ldots,f_n$ homogeneous polynomials. If $\sigma\in\operatorname{Aut}(\mathbb ...
5
votes
1answer
137 views

Closed subschemes of projective space

We work over the complex numbers. If $X$ is an integral closed subscheme of $\mathbb P^n$, then there exists a homogeneous ideal $I$ of $A=\mathbb C[x_0,\ldots,x_n]$ such that $X = V_+(I) =$ ...
1
vote
1answer
52 views

Structure sheaf of a divisor

I have heard that from a given divisor $D \hookrightarrow X$ (where $X$ is a projective scheme and $D = \sum n_i Y_i$ such that each $Y_i$ is smooth and $Y_i \hookrightarrow X$ is a closed immersion), ...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

Projective varieties are the common zeros of some homogeneous polynomials

definition: A projective variety over a field $k$ is a closed subscheme (over $k$) of $\mathbb P^n_k=\operatorname{Proj}(k[T_0,\ldots,T_n])$. Now it can be proved (I have done it) that if ...
3
votes
0answers
55 views

Associated projective bundle on a projective scheme

Suppose that $X$ is a quasi-projective $k$-scheme with a right $B$-action (where $B$ is a linear algebraic group or Lie group) and that the quotient $X/B$ exists. Let the canonical projection $X \to ...