Projective geometry is closely related to perspective geometry. These types of geometry originated with artists around the 14th century.

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Open subscheme in special fiber

Let $X$ be a projective scheme over $R$ a discrete valuation ring with generic fiber irreducible. Can an open subscheme of $X$ be contained in the special fiber of $X$ ? Or is it true that every open ...
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29 views

Proximal operators on Balls (Projection)

I was following this tutorial, In section 21 it is given Proximal operator over a ball $B_\epsilon$ of radius $\epsilon$ as $$\text{Proj}_{B_\epsilon(y)}(u) = y + (u-y) \max({1 , ...
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83 views

Affine varieties over finite fields

I read in this paper (http://www.math.iitb.ac.in/~srg/preprints/Chandigarh.pdf) that the following set is an affine variety: $V_f=\{(t_0,...,t_N)\in \mathbb{F}_p^{N+1} : f(t_0,...,t_N)=0 \}$ where ...
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1answer
25 views

Three points are collinear iff the determinant of the matrix of their barycentric coordinates vanishes

Let $A,B,C\in \mathbb{R}^2$ be noncollinear points. Then we have that for every point $P\in\mathbb{R}^2$ there exist $\alpha_1,\alpha_2,\alpha_3\in\mathbb{R}$ such that $P=\alpha_1A+\alpha_2 ...
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What is the degree of the pull back of a line bundle?

Let $X=\mathbb{P}^2$, and let $(y_1,y_2,y_3)$ be homogeneous coordinates on $X$. Consider a map $\phi:\mathbb{P}^1\longrightarrow X$, given by $\phi(x_1,x_2)=(x_1^2,x_1x_2,x_2^2)$, where $(x_1,x_2)$ ...
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24 views

Intuitive argument for the transitivity of $PGL(n+1)$ acting on $\mathbb{P}^n$

In spherical geometry we can consider the action of $\operatorname{O}(n+1)$ on the unit sphere $\mathbb{S}^n$. It's easy to see that this action is transitive, because for any two points $x,y \in ...
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30 views

Complete intersection curve

I have two very basic questions/clarifications. Let $X=\mathbb{P}^n_k$, and let $Y$ be a subvariety of $\mathbb{P}^n_k$ of dimension $m$. Then we say that $V$ is a complete intersection variety if ...
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1answer
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Perspective projection of a sphere on a plane

I know the perspective projection of a sphere on a plane is an ellipse. How would I find the parametric equation for this ellipse? Say I have a camera at $(0, 0, z_2)$, a plane at $z=z_1$, and a ...
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145 views

Characterizations of the cross-ratio

$$ (z_1,z_2;z_3,z_4) = \frac{(z_1-z_3)(z_2-z_4)}{(z_2-z_3)(z_1-z_4)} $$ What are the most prominent or most interesting theorems of the following form? Theorem: The cross-ratio is the only function ...
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180 views

Image of a point reflected over $y=mx+b$ using dot product

So, I know that the image for a generic point is $$\left(\frac{1-m^2}{1+m^2}x + \frac{2m}{1+m^2}(y-b), \frac{2m}{1+m^2}x - \frac{1-m^2}{1+m^2}(y-b)+b\right)$$ when you reflect it over the line ...
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1answer
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The significance of the 3-dimensional plot from homogeneous coordinates of a 2-dimensional function

If $(x,y)$ are your standard Cartesian coordinates and $(X,Y,Z)$ are homogeneous coordinates, then $x=X/Z$ and $y=Y/Z$. So if we have a function $f(x,y)$ we can convert it to a function $F(X,Y,Z)$ by ...
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The simplest way to find a parametrization of the plane projective curve $XZ-Y^2=0$.

I have to explain to some first year math students that the projective algebraic set $\textbf{Z}(XZ-Y^2)\subset\mathbb P^2_k$ is $$V=\{(a^2_0:a_0a_1:a^2_1)\subset\mathbb P^2_k \,:\, \textrm{for}\; ...
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Weighted blow-ups

I would like to understand what's a weighted blow-up in a very simple case: $\mathbb{C}^2$ blown-up in the origin with weights $(a,b)$. In found some notes online saying that this is the surface $X$ ...
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36 views

Proof of the Inscribed Angle Theorem

I want to give a proof of the Inscribed Angle Theorem by using the Laguerre formula. Let $C$ denote the circle. Take three different points $A,B$ and $P$ on $C$. Write $a := \overline{AP}$ and $b:= ...
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A couple of doubts regarding the proof of the Desargues theorem

I've just seen the Desargues' theorem and its proof. Now I have a couple of doubts. In the 3D space when the triangles are not coplanar, it's obvious that if the lines intersect at a finite point, ...
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18 views

Projective space of a module

I'm studying projective geometry in a basic course of geometry. My question is: Is there an equivalent definition of projective space not of a vector space but of a module? I think the basic ...
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1answer
43 views

How does the multiplicative group of a finite field, considered as a vector space, act on subspaces?

Given that a finite vector space $V = \operatorname{GF}(p)^n$ corresponds to the finite field $F = \operatorname{GF}(p^n)$, I'm wondering about how the multiplicative subgroup of $F$, $F^*$, acts on ...
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1answer
51 views

Number of points reduced in projection

Several points in space are projected orthogonally on some three planes $\alpha$, $\beta$ and $\gamma$. Could it happen that in the three projections, plane $\alpha$ contains 3 points, plane $\beta$ ...
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25 views

Are projective transformation linear and why?

As the title, I would like to know: Are projective transformation linear and why? I'm talking about projective transformation, linear transformation in terms of homogeneous coordinates. I can prove ...
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145 views

are oblique projections one specific subdivision of trimetric projections?

So I've reaserched a while and come with this broad definitions a projection is the representation of a 3D object in 2D by the use of "imaginary proyectors"(cameras of some sort). it has 2 branches, ...
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1answer
27 views

The projective space of all lines through the origin

I have a question to the following example: Assume that $\mathbb{A}_2$ is an affine plane over a field $\mathbb{K}$, and we have fixed affine coordinates $x, y$ on $\mathbb{A}_2$. Let $\mathbb{P}$ be ...
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355 views

fixed point projective geometry

I am thinking about the following: Let $\sigma:\mathbb C P^n\rightarrow\mathbb C P^n$ be a projectivity with $\sigma\circ\sigma=id_{\mathbb C P^n}$. I define the set of all fix points by ...
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Application of projective duality

What are the applications of the projective duality principle in another scientific areas such as Physics and Chemistry?
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Camera calibration: how does checkerboard size/numbers/placement affect accuracy

I am trying to calibrate a camera using a checkerboard by the well known Zhang's method followed by bundle adjustment, which is available in both Matlab and OpenCV. There are a lot of empirical ...
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2answers
63 views

What kind of geometry is useful to study for mathematical competitions?

I'm bad in geometry but I would like to be better. What kind of geometry is useful to learn olympiad level geometry? I mean, can projective geometry solve more problems than geometry with complex ...
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Find the intersection of two lines entirely outside the given sheet of paper by straightedge alone

This is a problem from Courant:"Two straight lines entirely outside the given sheet of paper are each given by two pairs of straight lines intersecting at points of the lines outside the paper. ...
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1answer
57 views

How can I get a cohomology of hypersurfaces by using their equation?

While studying about complex projective hypersurfaces, I attempts to find a cohomology of this hypersurface : $$X_n=\{(x_0:x_1:x_2:x_3) \in \mathbb{C}\mathbb{P}^3~|~x_0^n+x_1^n+x_2^n+x_3^n=0\}$$ I ...
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1answer
32 views

Given a point $P$ and a hyperplane $H$ in $\mathbb{P}^n$ such that $P \in H$, there is $T$ linear such that $T(P)=(0:\cdots:0:1)$ and $H:X_0=0$

Show that given a point $P$ and a hyperplane $H \subseteq \mathbb{P}^n$ such that $P \in H$, there is a linear transformation $T$ such that $T(P)=(0:\cdots:0:1)$ and $H$ is given by the equation ...
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Projective conic generated by a set of tangent triangles.

I need to proof the following result: Let C be a real projective conic and P, Q two points interiors to C then there is another real projective conic such that every triangle inscribed on that conic ...
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48 views

Standard Cremona Involution

Let $\varphi$ be the standard Cremona involution on $\mathbb{P}^r$, which is defined as $[x_0,\dots,x_r]\mapsto [\frac{x_0\dots x_r}{x_0},\dots, \frac{x_0\dots x_r}{x_r} ]$. I came across to the ...
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1answer
44 views

Singular plane cubic curve birational to $\mathbb{P}^1$

Is it true that every singular plane cubic curve over an algebraically closed field is birationally equivalent to $\mathbb{P}^1$? I know that such a curve has to have only one singular point and that ...
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51 views

Show that any quadric in $\mathbb{P}^3$ is isomorphic to $\mathbb{P}^1 \times \mathbb{P}^1$

Show that any non-singular irreducible quadric in $\mathbb{P}^3$ is isomorphic to $\mathbb{P}^1 \times \mathbb{P}^1$ I know that every non-singular and irreducible quadric in $\mathbb{P}^3$ can ...
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Show that there exists a coordinate system in $\mathbb{P}^n$ such that $P_0=(1:0:\cdots:0),\ldots,P_n=(0:0:\cdots:1),P_{n+1}=(1:\cdots:1)$

Proposition: Let $P_0,\ldots,P_{n+1}$ be $n+2$ points in $\mathbb{P}^n$ such that every $n+1$ are in general position. There exists a coordinate system in $\mathbb{P}^n$ such that ...
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Preserving shapes in perspective projection

Perspective projection is very simple to perform, but when I tried to prove that certain geometric elements preserve their identity when projected I faced many difficulties though intuitively it seems ...
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Generalization of a Result Concerning Projective Planes

Let $\mathcal P$ denote the set of all possible orders of projective planes. For $q\in\mathcal P$, let $PG_2(q)$ denote the projective plane of order $q$. There is a theorem due to James Singler ...
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$3\mathrm D$ Projection Of $4\mathrm D$ Polyhedron

Can someone identify this shape? I think it is a $3\mathrm D$ projection of $4\mathrm D$ polyhedron. The body in the center seems to be a truncated octahedron, so as the body in the middle. The ...
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Method for Visualizing Projective Space

I've been trying to understand projective space as follows: Consider the plane at z=1 as the 2D affine plane, and for any curve in this affine plane, let the inclusion in projective space be the set ...
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43 views

How is it that dot product does projection but so does division?

Can anyone explain how it is that dot products can perform projection but so can division, and how the processes are related (or not)? With dot product, you can project one vector onto another ...
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Metric in $\mathbb{P}_2$

I have to prove that $\mathbb{P}_2$ with the function $\delta(P,Q)$ defined by "Sine of the angle between two vector in $\mathbb{R}^3$ such that they correspond respectively to P and Q" is effectively ...
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50 views

Visualizing projective closures - is it okay to just think of the affine case?

This question is quite general and has been discussed on MSE before, however my case is a little bit different and I'm wondering about the geometric interpretation of a specific example. I think that ...
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23 views

Computing the matrix that represents orthogonal projection,

There is a theorem that says if $U$ is an orthogonal matrix, i.e., its columns (or rows) form an orthonormal basis, then the action of $UU^T$ represents orthogonal projection of the vector space onto ...
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69 views

Intersection counting without Bézout

I am trying to solve the following problem: Let $C$ be a non-degenerate line (resp. conic) in $\mathbb{C}\mathbb{P}^2$ and $D$ a projective curve in $\mathbb{C}\mathbb{P}^2$ of degree $d$ such ...
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affine vs projective tranformation

I'm trying to grasp the difference between the affine and projective transformations...I got the point of the line at infinity but their matrix representation is not yet clear enough: ...
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Number of parameter of a quadric

Suppose for example that $S$ is an algebraic complex surface contained in $\mathbb{P}^6$. $S$ is the complete intersection of four quadrics in the six dimensional projective space. If i take a quadric ...
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Moduli space of algebraic surfaces Vs moduli space of curves

Define the surface $S$ as the complete intersection of four quadrics $Q_i$ with $i=1,2,3,4$ in $\mathbb{P}^6$ (complex six dimensional projective space) i.e. $$S=Q_1 \cap Q_2 \cap Q_3 \cap Q_4$$. Put ...
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Computing projective coordinates and equation of a plane.

The question We are given a vector space with basis $\{e_1,e_2,e_3\}$ and a projective frame, $\{ [e_1],[2e_1 + e_2],[e_2 - e_3] \}$ and a fixed point $[3e_1 + e_3]$. What is the coordinates for the ...
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Finding the transformation matrix of a projective transformation in RP^2

So I want to understand how to find the matrix that represents the projective transformation that sends 4 given points to 4 given images, I know that 4 points are necessary to determine it but I can't ...
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Equation for non-orthogonal projection of a point onto two vectors representing the isometric axis?

Suppose I have two vectors that are not orthogonal (let's say, an isometric grid) representing the new axis. Suppose I want to project a point onto these two vectors, how would I do it? Dot product ...
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1answer
119 views

Exercise about an algebraic surface

Let $\mathbb{P}^6$ the six-dimensional complex projective space. Suppose that $Q_{i}$ is a smooth quadric in $\mathbb{P}^6$ for $i=1,...,4$. Define $$S=Q_1 \cap Q_2 \cap Q_3 \cap Q_4 $$ as complete ...
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Variety of maximal isotropic subspaces

Suppose that $V$ is a complex vector space of even dimension $2n$. Let $Q:V \times V \rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ a bilinear, non degenerate, simmetric bilinear form over the field of complex number. Set ...