For questions about the evaluation of finite products, or their properties. For infinite ones, use "infinite-products" tag.

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23
votes
4answers
1k views

What is to geometric mean as integration is to arithmetic mean?

The arithmetic mean of $y_i ... y_n$ is: $$\frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=1}^n~y_i $$ For a smooth function $f(x)$, we can find the arithmetic mean of $f(x)$ from $x_0$ to $x_1$ by taking $n$ samples and using ...
21
votes
2answers
600 views

Compute $\lim\limits_{n\to\infty} \prod\limits_2^n \left(1-\frac1{k^3}\right)$

I've just worked out the limit $\lim\limits_{n\to\infty} \prod\limits_{2}^{n} \left(1-\frac{1}{k^2}\right)$ that is simply solved, and the result is $\frac{1}{2}$. After that, I thought of calculating ...
20
votes
4answers
593 views

Trying to prove that $\sum_{j=2}^\infty \prod_{k=1}^j \frac{2 k}{j+k-1} = \pi$

How could one prove that: $$\sum_{j=2}^\infty \prod_{k=1}^j \frac{2 k}{j+k-1} = \pi$$ This is about as far as I got: $$\prod_{k=1}^j \frac{2 k}{j+k-1} = \frac{2^j j!}{(j)_j} \implies$$ ...
19
votes
3answers
426 views

Finding $ \prod_{n=1}^{999}\sin\left(\frac{n \pi}{1999}\right)$

I would appreciate if somebody could help me with the following problem. How can we find the product $$ \prod_{n=1}^{999}\sin\left(\frac{n \pi}{1999}\right)$$
18
votes
2answers
3k views

Prove that $\prod_{k=1}^{n-1}\sin\frac{k \pi}{n} = \frac{n}{2^{n-1}}$

Using n_th root of unity $$\Large\left(e^{\frac{2ki\pi}{n}}\right)^{n} = 1$$ Prove that $$\prod_{k=1}^{n-1}\sin\frac{k \pi}{n} = \frac{n}{2^{n-1}}$$
17
votes
4answers
2k views

Finding Value of the Infinite Product $\prod \Bigl(1-\frac{1}{n^{2}}\Bigr)$

While trying some problems along with my friends we had difficulty in this question. True or False: The value of the infinite product $$\prod\limits_{n=2}^{\infty} \biggl(1-\frac{1}{n^{2}}\biggr)$$ ...
16
votes
3answers
864 views

A “fast” way for computing $ \prod \limits_{i=1}^{45}(1+\tan i^\circ) $?

Which is the fastest paper-pencil approach to compute the product $$ \prod \limits_{i=1}^{45}(1+\tan i^\circ) $$
16
votes
0answers
592 views

When is an infinite product of natural numbers regularizable?

I only recently heard about the concept of $\zeta$-regularization, which allows the evaluation of things like $$\infty !=\mathop{\hat{\prod}}_{k=1}^\infty k = \sqrt{2\pi}$$ and $$\infty ...
15
votes
1answer
527 views

Prove that the product of some numbers between perfect squares is $2k^2$

Here's a question I've recently come up with: Prove that for every natural $x$, we can find arbitrary number of integers in the interval $[x^2,(x+1)^2]$ so that their product is in the form of ...
14
votes
5answers
700 views

Evaluating the infinite product $\prod_{k=2}^{\infty }\left ( 1-\frac{1}{k^2} \right ).$

Evaluate $$\lim_{ n\rightarrow\infty }\prod_{k=2}^{n}\left ( 1-\frac{1}{k^2} \right ).$$ I can't see anything in this limit , so help me please.
13
votes
3answers
349 views

$ \tan 1^\circ \cdot \tan 2^\circ \cdot \tan 3^\circ \cdots \tan 89^\circ$

How can I find the following product using elementary trigonometry? $$ \tan 1^\circ \cdot \tan 2^\circ \cdot \tan 3^\circ \cdots \tan 89^\circ.$$ I have tried using a substitution, but nothing ...
13
votes
1answer
304 views

A question about $\prod_{x\in \mathbb{R}^{*}}{x}$

When I was an elementary school student, I encountered some puzzles like "What's product of numbers of hair of each people in the world?", which answer was zero, because there's people with no ...
13
votes
2answers
2k views

Why is there no explicit formula for the factorial?

I am somewhat new to summations and products, but I know that the sum of the first positive n integers is given by: $$\sum_{k=1}^n k = \frac{n(n+1)}{2} = \frac{n^2+n}{2}$$ However, I know that no ...
12
votes
2answers
769 views

Infinite products - reference needed!

I am looking for a small treatment of basic theorems about infinite products ; surprisingly enough they are nowhere to be found after googling a little. The reason for this is that I am beginning to ...
12
votes
2answers
438 views

proof of $\sum\nolimits_{i = 1}^{n } {\prod\nolimits_{\substack{j = 1\\j \ne i}}^{n } {\frac{{x_i }}{{x_i - x_j }}} } = 1$

i found a equation that holds for any natural number of n and any $x_i \ne x_j$ as follows: $$\sum\limits_{i = 1}^{n } {\prod\limits_{\substack{j = 1\\j \ne i}}^{n } {\frac{{x_i }}{{x_i - x_j }}} } ...
12
votes
1answer
535 views

How does one calculate the product of $\tan 1^{\circ} … \tan 45^{\circ}?$

I have seen a question asked on yahoo asking to find the value of $\tan 1^{\circ} \cdot \tan 2^{\circ} \cdot \dots \cdot \tan 45^{\circ}$ (in degrees) I have seen various results concerning ...
10
votes
7answers
577 views

Is there a sequence in $(0,1)$ such that the product of all its terms is $\frac{1}{2}$?

I am trying to construct a sequence $\{x_{n}\} \in (0,1)$ such that such that the product of all its terms is $\frac{1}{2}$. Please can I have any clue to solve my problem? Thanks.
10
votes
3answers
287 views

Product of two algebraic varieties is affine… are the two varieties affine?

Let $X_1$ and $X_2$ two algebraic varieties such that their product $X_1\times X_2$ is affine. Are $X_1$ and $X_2$ affine then? If this is not true, could you give a counterexample?
10
votes
2answers
266 views

Prove $\sum_{k=0}^n \binom{n}{k}(-1)^k \frac{x}{x+k} = \prod_{k=1}^n \frac{k}{x+k}$ and more

The current issue (vol. 120, no. 6) of the American Mathematical Monthly has a proof by probabilistic means that $$\sum_{k=0}^n \binom{n}{k}(-1)^k \frac{x}{x+k} = \prod_{k=1}^n \frac{k}{x+k} $$ for ...
10
votes
1answer
315 views

How to prove that $\frac{\sin \pi x}{\pi x}=\prod_{n=1}^{\infty}(1-\frac{x^2}{n^2})$ [duplicate]

How to prove that $$\frac{\sin \pi x}{\pi x}=\prod_{n=1}^{\infty}\left(1-\frac{x^2}{n^2}\right)$$ I tried it with the Taylor series of $\sin(x)$ but I failed. Is there any help?
9
votes
4answers
1k views

Evaluating the product $\prod\limits_{k=1}^{n}\cos\left(\frac{k\pi}{n}\right)$

Recently, I ran across a product that seems interesting. Does anyone know how to get to the closed form: $$\prod_{k=1}^{n}\cos\left(\frac{k\pi}{n}\right)=-\frac{\sin(\frac{n\pi}{2})}{2^{n-1}}$$ I ...
9
votes
3answers
380 views

Prove this product

How to prove this product? $$\prod\limits_{k=2}^ n {\frac{k^2+k+1}{k^2-k+1}}=\frac{n^2+n+1}{3}$$
9
votes
2answers
199 views

Is $ \prod\limits_{k=0}^\infty \left(1 + \frac{1}{k!}\right) = \mathrm e^2 $?

I was playing around and I came up with this product, which I believe to be equal to $\mathrm e^2$. $$ \prod_{k=0}^\infty \left(1 + \frac{1}{k!}\right) \stackrel{?}{=} \mathrm e^2 $$ After ...
8
votes
5answers
812 views

Definition of the Infinite Cartesian Product

(1) If $X$ and $Y$ are two sets, we define the Cartesian product $X \times Y$ as the set of ordered pairs $(x,y)$, such that $x \in X$ and $y \in Y$. (2) On the other hand [Folland, Real Analysis, ...
8
votes
2answers
231 views

How to find finite trigonometric products

I wonder how to prove ? $$\prod_{k=1}^{n}\left(1+2\cos\frac{2\pi 3^k}{3^n+1} \right)=1$$ give me a tip
8
votes
0answers
181 views

How to find the the product $\left(1 - \frac{1}{a}\right)\left(1-\frac{1}{a^{2}}\right)\left(1-\frac{1}{a^{3}}\right)\ldots$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Result of the product $0.9 \times 0.99 \times 0.999 \times \dots$ How to find the product $$\left(1 - ...
7
votes
1answer
505 views

Evaluation of a product of sines [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Prove that $\prod_{k=1}^{n-1}\sin\frac{k \pi}{n} = \frac{n}{2^{n-1}}$ I am looking for a closed form for this product of sines: \begin{equation} \sin ...
7
votes
2answers
426 views

Proving an infinite product formula

I have found this formula and I am trying to prove it , but I have not any idea how to deal with it: $$e^{ax}-e^{bx} = ...
7
votes
2answers
203 views

Showing an indentity with a cyclic sum

Let $n\geqslant2$, and $k\in \mathbb{N}$ Let $z_1,z_2,..,z_n$ be distinct complex numbers Prove that $$ \sum_{i=1}^{n}\frac {{z}_{i}^{n-1+k}} { \prod \limits_{\substack{j = 1\\j ...
7
votes
1answer
208 views

Which is the Abel's theorem invoked in the context of convergence of this infinite product?

Motivation: As I wrote in this answer the following product is evaluated in Proposition 5 of Jean-Paul Allouche and Jeffrey Shallit's paper The ubiquitous Prouhet-Thue-Morse sequence ...
7
votes
1answer
136 views

Zeros in the complex plane and convergence

I'm doing some number theory which requires some work in $\mathbb{C}$, but unfortunately my complex analysis is a little rusty. A text I am reading states the following: ...and given that ...
6
votes
4answers
121 views

What does $\prod_{n\geq2}\frac{n^4-1}{n^4+1}$ converge to?

What does $\prod_{n\geq2}\frac{n^4-1}{n^4+1}$ converge to? As far as I can tell, this has no closed-form solution (not saying much, I don't know much math), but a friend of mine swears he saw a ...
6
votes
3answers
228 views

Question about Euler's approach to find $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac1{n^2}=\frac{\pi^2}6$

For a freshman calculus project, I used Euler's approach to find $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac1{n^2}=\frac{\pi^2}6$, and noted from Wikipedia's explanation that the infinite product representation of ...
6
votes
3answers
245 views

How to find the value of $\sqrt{1\sqrt{2\sqrt{3 \cdots}}}$?

I thought up this question recently, and I think I've figured out the partial sum: $$ S_n := \left(n\prod_{k=2}^{n-1} k^{2^{n-k}}\right)^{2^{-k}}. $$ But I don't even quite know if I'm on the right ...
6
votes
2answers
816 views

How was Euler able to create an infinite product for sinc by using its roots?

In the Wikipedia page for the Basel problem, it says that Euler, in his proof, found that $$\begin{align*} \frac{\sin(x)}{x} &= \left(1 - \frac{x}{\pi}\right)\left(1 + \frac{x}{\pi}\right)\left(1 ...
6
votes
1answer
279 views

Generalization of the series for $\frac{\pi^2}{6}$? Is there a more elementary proof?

In the same vein as: $ \frac{\pi ^2}{6} = 1 + \frac{1}{4} + \frac{1}{9} + \frac{1}{25} \cdots $ Starting with: $ \displaystyle \prod_{n=1}^{\infty} \left( 1 -\frac{q^2}{n^2} \right) = ...
6
votes
3answers
132 views

closed-form expressions for product of 3n+k where k = 1 or 2

There are some easy products that can be written in closed form in terms of factorials: $ 2 \times 4 \times 6 \times ... 2n = n! \times 2^n$ $ 1 \times 3 \times 5 \times ... (2n-1) = {{(2n)!} ...
6
votes
1answer
131 views

Is there another way to write the product $\prod_{k=0}^n\left(k+\alpha\left(-1\right)^{k+1}\right)$?

I have the following expression $$ \prod_{k=0}^n \left(k + \alpha(-1)^{k+1}\right), $$ which is, for example, $(0-\alpha)(1+\alpha)(2-\alpha)$ for $n = 2$. Is there a way to write this using ...
6
votes
1answer
224 views

Uncountable product in the category of metric spaces.

I need to prove that category $\mathrm{Met}$ of metric spaces and continuous maps doesnt possess uncountable product of non-one point spaces. Definition. A pair $(X,\{\pi_\nu:\nu\in\Lambda\})$ where ...
6
votes
0answers
56 views

Olympiad problem: Erdos-Selfridge

The following problem is a special case of Erdos-Selfridge theorem: http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.ijm/1256050816 Problem: Prove that for any positive integer $n$, the product $(n+1)(n+2)...(n+10)$ ...
5
votes
5answers
2k views

Can the limit of a product exist if neither of its factors exist?

Show an example where neither $\lim\limits_{x\to c} f(x)$ or $\lim\limits_{x\to c} g(x)$ exists but $\lim\limits_{x\to c} f(x)g(x)$ exists. Sorry if this seems elementary, I have just started my ...
5
votes
5answers
98 views

Showing that $\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{1\cdot 3\cdot 5\cdots (2n-1)}{(2n)^n} = 0$

Ok, so I want to show that $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{1\cdot 3\cdot 5\cdots (2n-1)}{(2n)^n} = 0.$$ Here is what I have tried so far: \begin{align} \notag \lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{1\cdot 3\cdot 5\cdot ...
5
votes
1answer
308 views

When is $\displaystyle \prod_i \prod_j a_{i} a_{j} = \Bigl(\prod_i a_i\Bigr)^2$

In statistical mechanics, I used to use the procedure that if $a_{ij}=a_i a_j$ $$\prod_i\; \prod_j a_{i}a_{j} = \biggl(\prod_i a_i\biggr)\vphantom{\Bigr)}^2$$ However, today I noticed, $$\prod_i\; ...
5
votes
3answers
125 views

Expressing $\prod_{k=1}^n \left( k - \frac{1}{2} \right)$ using the gamma function

I want to express $$\prod_{k=1}^n \left( k - \frac{1}{2} \right)$$ using the gamma function. I think this is equivalent to $\left(k-\frac{1}{2}\right)!$ so I set $a=k-1$ and then used the identity ...
5
votes
2answers
55 views

Evaluating $\prod_{r=1}^{n} (2r+1)$

Could someone please help me as to how I'd go about evaluating: $$\prod_{r=1}^{n} (2r+1)$$ I have that written out, it is: $$1 \cdot 3 \cdot 5 \cdots (2n-1) \cdot (2n+1)$$ furthermore: ...
5
votes
2answers
218 views

Is there a known closed form number for $\prod\limits_{k=2}^{ \infty } \sqrt[k^2]{k}$

$f(x)=\sum\limits_{k = 2 }^ \infty e^{-kx} \ln(k) $ $\int\limits_0^{\infty}\int\limits_x^{\infty}\, f(\gamma)\, d\gamma dx=\sum\limits_{k = 2 }^ \infty \frac{1}{k^2} \ln(k) $ ...
5
votes
1answer
280 views

Showing $\sum\limits^N_{n=1}\left(\prod\limits_{i=1}^n b_i \right)^\frac1{n}\le\sum\limits^N_{n=1}\left(\prod\limits_{i=1}^n a_i \right)^\frac1{n}$?

If $a_1\ge a_2 \ge a_3 \ldots $ and if $b_1,b_2,b_3\ldots$ is any rearrangement of the sequence $a_1,a_2,a_3\ldots$ then for each $N=1,2,3\ldots$ one has $$\sum^N_{n=1}\left(\prod_{i=1}^n b_i ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Proving the AM:GM inequality

I am doing past exam papers preparing for the finals and I came across this questions about three times: Prove that: $$\frac{a_{1}+a_{2}+\cdots+a_{n}}{n}\geq \sqrt[n]{a_{1}.a_{2}...a_{n}}$$ ...
5
votes
1answer
128 views

Evaluate $\prod_{x=2}^\infty\frac{x^4-1}{x^4+1}$

Difficult question from some test somewhere (I forget). $$\prod_{x=2}^\infty\frac{x^4-1}{x^4+1}$$ $x$ is, of course, an integer.
5
votes
1answer
181 views

Continuous maps from products of topological spaces

Let $X,Y,Z$ be topological spaces. It is well-known that if $F:X\times Y\to Z$ is a continuous map, we can define a map $$\overline{F}:X\to C(Y,Z) \\\overline{F}(x)(y)=F(x,y)$$ where $C(Y,Z)$ is the ...