For questions about the evaluation of finite products, or their properties. For infinite ones, use "infinite-products" tag.

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3
votes
0answers
111 views

Asymptotic solutions of a sparsely perturbed recurrence relation

Recurrence relation I am trying to find approximate solutions $T(n)$ of the recurrence relation $$ p\ T(n-1) - \left[p+q+\overline{S} + \varepsilon \tilde{S}(n)\right]T(n) + q\ T(n+1) = 0,\\ \text{...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Graphical intuition of function multiplication?

Reading up on convolution and though something that I haven't properly thought this far, What is the general heuristic for visualizing what the product of two or more function looks like? E.g. $$\...
3
votes
3answers
83 views

how to estimate $\prod_{k=2}^n \log(k)$?

I wonder if I can estimate $\prod_{k=2}^n \log(k)$ as $a^l$ for some a. I know that it is bounded by $e^{n^2}$, but I would like to get something finer.
0
votes
2answers
34 views

Proving $\prod_{i=2}^{i=n} \left(1-\frac{1}{i^2}\right) = \frac{n+1}{2n}$ by induction

So I have to prove the following using induction. ${\displaystyle \prod_{i=2}^{i=n} \left(1-\frac{1}{i^2}\right)} = \frac{n+1}{2n}$ I showed the basis step that if $n=i=2$, then the two functions ...
0
votes
2answers
59 views

Find the product of $(1+\frac{1}{5^{2^n}})$ for $n=0$ to $6$

i.e. $(1+\frac{1}{5})(1+\frac{1}{25})(1+\frac{1}{625})...(1+\frac{1}{5^{64}})$ I have no idea or clue to this problem. Is there a general trick/procedure to this kinds of problem?
0
votes
0answers
67 views

Is this a finite product describing the partial harmonic series sums?

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/EulerProduct.html In the second last line, it gives a product P(n). Is this supposed to be describing the finite terms of the harmonic series sum? I don't see how it does....
4
votes
2answers
139 views

Good example showing why limits must exist in limit product rule

I'm looking for a way to show my calc 1 students not to use the limit laws without knowing that the individual limits exists. I could use $$\lim_{x\to 0} x^{2} \sin(1/x),$$ but by doing it wrong, one ...
0
votes
1answer
38 views

For $n \in \mathbb{N}$, find and prove a formula for $\sum_{i=1}^n \frac{1}{i(i+1)}$, plus related question.

I was fairly easily able to obtain and prove this formula for the sum: $$S(n)=\frac{n}{n+1}$$ by typical means of computing the partial sums, observing the pattern, and proving by induction. My ...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

$(C \times D) \cap (A \times B) \neq \emptyset \implies C \cap A \neq \emptyset$ and $D \cap B \neq \emptyset$

If $C$ and $D$ are open sets, and $(C \times D) \cap (A \times B) \neq \emptyset$, then why is it necessarily true that $C \cap A \neq \emptyset$ and $D \cap B \neq \emptyset$?
1
vote
1answer
92 views

Why $(\mathbb Q\times\mathbb Q)/(\mathbb Z\times{=})$ is not homeomorphic to $(\mathbb Q/\mathbb Z)\times(\mathbb Q/{=})$?

Let $\mathbb Q$ be the set of rationals with induced euclidian topology, let $\sim_1$ be the relation on $\mathbb Q$ which identifies all the integers, and let $\sim_2$ be the identity relation on $\...
7
votes
1answer
504 views

Can we express sum of products as product of sums?

I've got an expression which is sum of products like: $$a_1 a_2 + b_1 b_2 + c_1 c_2 + \cdots,$$ but the real problem I'm solving could be easily solved if I could convert this expression into ...
4
votes
4answers
116 views

How is $0\cdot\infty= -1$?

It is known that the product of slopes of two perpendicular lines is equal to $-1$ ($m_1*m_2=-1$ for $m_1$ and $m_2$ being the slopes of the perpendicular lines $l_1$ and $l_2$). The slope of $x$-axis ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Average weighted by inverse distance to median equal to median?

Problem Statement I have a set of $N$ ordered elements such that $x = \{x_1, x_2, ..., x_q, x_p, ..., x_N\}$ where $x_q \le x_m \le x_p$ and $x_m$ is the median of the set $x$. I define a particular ...
0
votes
1answer
25 views

Equation with cos and product

How is it possible to prove that the multiplication from 0 to n of $$\cos{(x/2^k)}$$ with $x=\pi / 4$ is $$\dfrac{\sqrt{2}}{2} \times \dfrac{\sqrt{2+\sqrt{2}}}{2} \times \dfrac{\sqrt{2+\sqrt{2 + \sqrt{...
0
votes
1answer
47 views

Is this infinite product for zeta(2) trivial?

I have crafted an infinite product for zeta(2) shown here. Euler's prime product is the only one I'm aware of. In checking Math World, I don't see any products. Is that because they are trivial?
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Solving for $n$ in this equation

I have this next equation: $c=\left( p^n\cdot c_0\right)\cdot \prod_{j=0}^{n-1}f(j)$ where: $c, p, c_0$ are known constants. $n$ is to be determined from this equation. The function $f(j)$ is ...
9
votes
1answer
82 views

Prove that a given expression is always an integer [duplicate]

Given integers $x_1, x_2, \dotsc, x_n$, prove that the expression $$ \prod \limits_{1\leq i<j\leq n}\frac{x_i - x_j}{i-j} $$ is always an integer. I think induction should work, but I ...
1
vote
2answers
78 views

Conversion from sum of product to product of sum

I do not understand how did he convert from this to this. Source :http://cs229.stanford.edu/notes/cs229-notes1.pdf Page 18
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Is the value of $c$ in $\prod_{i=1}^{n}\frac{p_i}{p_i-1}<e^c \cdot (\log p_n) \cdot(1+\frac{1}{\log_2p_n})$ known?

I Recently read this paper by Rosser and Schoenfeld (http://projecteuclid.org/download/pdf_1/euclid.ijm/1255631807) In Theorem 8, corollary 1, they state: $$\prod_{i=1}^{n}\frac{p_i}{p_i-1}<e^c \...
2
votes
2answers
55 views

Mathematical formalism for the “dot product” of three vectors

I know that the dot product of two vectors is the sum of element-wise multiplication. Using pseudo-MATLAB notation: (x,y) = sum(x.*y). I'm interested in ...
0
votes
1answer
24 views

Calculating better value products.

The special promotion tins of 300g cost 0.80$. The soup can also be bought in larger tin of 500g that cost 1.12$. Is it better value to buy the 500g tin or the special promotion tin? Show your ...
6
votes
2answers
47 views

How to get to this equality $\prod_{m=1}^{\infty} \frac{m+1}{m}\times\frac{m+x}{m+x+1}=x+1$?

How to get to this equality $$\prod_{m=1}^{\infty} \frac{m+1}{m}\times\frac{m+x}{m+x+1}=x+1?$$ I was studying the Euler Gamma function as it gave at the beginning of its history, and need to solve ...
3
votes
1answer
90 views

Question about Meijer-G definition and identity

I'm trying to wrap my mind around computation involving the Meijer $G$ function, as defined here. (Edit: I'm actually using a somewhat mixed notation using the definitions from MathWorld and the ...
3
votes
2answers
82 views

Prove that $\frac{1}{1999} < \prod_{i=1}^{999}{\frac{2i−1}{2i}} < \frac{1}{44}$

Prove that $$\dfrac{1}{1999} < \prod_{i=1}^{999}{\dfrac{2i−1}{2i}} < \dfrac{1}{44}$$ from the 1997 Canada National Olympiad. I have been able to prove the left half of the inequality using ...
3
votes
2answers
230 views

Matrix product notation

My lecturer has used some notation that I've never seen before: it is a (matrix) product symbol with a left-to-right arrow over the top. Does anybody know what this means? Thanks in advance. Edit: ...
5
votes
2answers
165 views

Closed form for $(2^1-1)(2^2-1)…(2^k-1)$?

Is there closed form for $\prod_1^{i=k}(2^i-1)$ ? I found that it is the product of the terms of the following arithmetico-geometric sequence : $$\{u_1=1,u_{n+1}=2u_n+1\}$$ I found nothing with ...
2
votes
1answer
36 views

If $\ne: X \times X \to S$ is continuous, is X hausdorff?

The Sierpiński space is defined like so: $$S = (\{\top, \bot\}, \{\emptyset, \{\top\}, \{\top, \bot\}\})$$ (A nice way to visualize is to take [0, 1], and glue 0 on $\bot$ and (0,1] onto $\top$.) Now,...
3
votes
0answers
44 views

Polynomial products [duplicate]

This problem $$ \large \displaystyle\prod \limits^{14}_{k=1}\cos \left( \frac{k \pi }{15} \right) =\ ? $$ I solved it in this way $$ x = \displaystyle \prod \limits^{14}_{k=1}\cos \left( \frac{k\pi }...
-1
votes
1answer
67 views

Difficult product problem $\prod \limits^{2014}_{k=1}\left( 1-\frac{1}{k^{2}} \right)$ [duplicate]

Evaluate the product $$\prod \limits^{2014}_{k=1}\left( 1-\frac{1}{k^{2}} \right)$$ Any help will appreciated!
6
votes
2answers
124 views

Calculate $\sum_{i = 0}^{n}\ln\binom{n}{i}\Big/n^2$

Calculate $$\sum_{i = 0}^{n}\ln\binom{n}{i}\Big/n^2$$ I can only bound it as follows: $$\binom{n}{i}<\left(\dfrac{n\cdot e}{k}\right)^k$$ $$\sum_{i = 0}^{n}\ln\binom{n}{i}\Big/n^2<\dfrac{1}{n}\...
5
votes
2answers
286 views

Inequality involving a product over the primes

Is there someone who is able to prove the following statement? $$\prod_{m=1}^n \dfrac{p_m-1}{p_m} \leq \dfrac{1}{\ln(n)}$$ for all integers $n >1$ where $p_m$ is the $m$-th prime number.
2
votes
0answers
28 views

Existence of formulae for sines/cosines of products of angles in terms of sines/cosines of original angles? [duplicate]

There was something that I was getting a little curious about. We know that there are the so-called compound-angle formulae for calculating sines and cosines of sums of angles in terms of those of the ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

Evaluate products and sums

Did I evaluate the following terms correctly? Does the set notation in example b) allow me to chose the order of the terms? $$ a) \sum_{i=1}^6 ix^{i+1} = x^2+2x^3+3x^4+4x^5+5x^6+6x^7 \\ b) \prod_{i \...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

Can $\dfrac{b_0}{a_0} + \dfrac{b_1}{a_1} + \dfrac{b_2}{a_2} + \dfrac{b_3}{a_3} + … + \dfrac{b_n}{a_n}$ be represented as …

Is this correct? (Last step $\rightarrow$ After taking L.C.M.) $\large \dfrac{b_0}{a_0} + \dfrac{b_1}{a_1} + \dfrac{b_2}{a_2} + \dfrac{b_3}{a_3} + ... + \dfrac{b_n}{a_n} = \sum\limits_{k=0}^{n} \Big(\...
1
vote
1answer
60 views

On a step of a proof of the Borel-Cantelli lemma.

This is an excerpt taken from Probability with Martingales by Williams. The framework is probability theory. Why is the equation being discussed true if condition $\{ n \ge m \}$ is replaced ...
0
votes
0answers
34 views

Product of n uniformly distributed RVs

Let $X_j \sim U(a,b)$. What is the PDF of $\prod_{j=1}^n X_j$? I have seen some with $X_j \sim U(0,1)$ but I was wondering what the general form of the solution is for any $a$ and $b$.
4
votes
2answers
64 views

Closed form expression for products

How can I find a closed form expression for products of the following form $$\prod_{k=1}^n (ak^2+bk+c)\space \text{?}$$
0
votes
1answer
15 views

Evaluate and simplify multiplication of exponents with base e; polar forms

$$2e^{(i×\pi/4)}×3e^{(i×\pi/6)}$$ How would I evaluate and simplify the above, and then express it in polar form? I understand $re^{i\theta} = r(\cos\theta+i\,\sin\theta)$. The question is to find ...
2
votes
2answers
100 views

Product of the first $N$ factorials

I'm trying to find a formula for the product of factorials: $$\prod _{n=1}^{N}n!=\; ?$$ Now using a kind of "brute force", I believe that I can prove that $$\prod _{n=1}^{N}n!=\prod _{n=1}^{N}{n}^{N-n}...
23
votes
7answers
800 views

Product of cosines: $ \prod_{r=1}^{7} \cos \left(\frac{r\pi}{15}\right) $

Evaluate $$ \prod_{r=1}^{7} \cos \left({\dfrac{r\pi}{15}}\right) $$ I tried trigonometric identities of product of cosines, i.e, $$\cos\text{A}\cdot\cos\text{B} = \dfrac{1}{2}[ \cos(A+B)+\...
1
vote
3answers
122 views

Product of Uniform Distribution and $\Gamma(2,1)$ Distribution

I ran into an old exercise but I seem to have messed up somehow. Can you tell me what went wrong? Let $U \sim \mathrm{Unif}(0,1)$ and $V \sim \Gamma(2,1)$ with $U,V$ independent. Show that $UV$ has ...
2
votes
1answer
36 views

independence of random objects when forming product spaces

Suppose we have two probability spaces $(\Omega_1, \mathscr{F}_1, \{\mathcal{F}^1_t\},\mathbb{P})$ and $(\Omega_2, \mathscr{F}_2, \{\mathcal{F}^2_t\},\mathbb{P}_2)$, if we take product space $$\Omega ...
3
votes
1answer
59 views

Split Factorial of n

How can I split integers up to n into two groups such that the difference of the product of each group is as low as possible? Is there a way to optimize the selection for each group in order to ensure ...
0
votes
2answers
62 views

Proof of associativity of polynomials product (infinite variables)

The product of polynomials in $R[X_i]_{i\in I}$ where $I$ is not necessarily finite is associative ($R$ commutative ring), but I can't find any detailed proof of this fact. Either it is left in ...
1
vote
3answers
116 views

Product limit with exponentials

Find an explicit formula for the limit: $$\lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} n \prod_{k=2}^{n} (2 - e ^ {\frac 1 k})$$ I am not asking for convergence proof since I know the sequence is decreasing and ...
2
votes
3answers
693 views

Change from product to sum

We know that : $$a \times b = \underbrace{a + a + a + ... + a}_{\text{b times}}$$ That's how we convert from a product to a sum. So what happens if we go a little further? That is : $$\prod\limits_{...
2
votes
1answer
68 views

What is this (unusual) matrix/vector operation called?

A typographical error let to an unexpected (but, for me, potentially useful) result: $$ \left\{\begin{array} & a & b & c\\ d & e & f \\ g & h & i \end{array}\right\}\left\{...
1
vote
0answers
44 views

Product of Dependent Bernoulli variables

Let $B_{i,n}$ with $i=1,...,n$ be the triangular Bernoulli array defined as $$ B_{i+1,n} = B_{i,n}\,R_{i+1,n}+\left(1-R_{i+1,n}\right)\,F_{i+1,n}, $$ where $R_{i,n}$ and $F_{i,n}$ are iid Bernoulli ...
1
vote
3answers
95 views

Expansion of $x^n-y^n$

Studying polynomials I couldn't find a way to expand $x^n-y^n$ as a product of other polynomials. Now of course we know that $$x^4-y^4=(x^2+y^2)(x^2-y^2)=(x^2+y^2)(x+y)(x-y)$$ and I came up with this: ...
2
votes
1answer
30 views

Product of Bernoulli variates

I am stuck with something that looks very simple but I am not able to find where I am wrong. Let $\xi_k$ with $k=1,...,n$ be $n$ iid Bernoulli random variables such that $$ \mathbb{P}\left[\xi_k=1\...