For questions about the evaluation of finite products, or their properties. For infinite ones, use "infinite-products" tag.

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5
votes
2answers
241 views

Inequality involving a product over the primes

Is there someone who is able to prove the following statement? $$\prod_{m=1}^n \dfrac{p_m-1}{p_m} \leq \dfrac{1}{\ln(n)}$$ for all integers $n >1$ where $p_m$ is the $m$-th prime number.
2
votes
0answers
26 views

Existence of formulae for sines/cosines of products of angles in terms of sines/cosines of original angles? [duplicate]

There was something that I was getting a little curious about. We know that there are the so-called compound-angle formulae for calculating sines and cosines of sums of angles in terms of those of the ...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

Evaluate products and sums

Did I evaluate the following terms correctly? Does the set notation in example b) allow me to chose the order of the terms? $$ a) \sum_{i=1}^6 ix^{i+1} = x^2+2x^3+3x^4+4x^5+5x^6+6x^7 \\ b) \prod_{i ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

Can $\dfrac{b_0}{a_0} + \dfrac{b_1}{a_1} + \dfrac{b_2}{a_2} + \dfrac{b_3}{a_3} + … + \dfrac{b_n}{a_n}$ be represented as …

Is this correct? (Last step $\rightarrow$ After taking L.C.M.) $\large \dfrac{b_0}{a_0} + \dfrac{b_1}{a_1} + \dfrac{b_2}{a_2} + \dfrac{b_3}{a_3} + ... + \dfrac{b_n}{a_n} = \sum\limits_{k=0}^{n} ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Product of n uniformly distributed RVs

Let $X_j \sim U(a,b)$. What is the PDF of $\prod_{j=1}^n X_j$? I have seen some with $X_j \sim U(0,1)$ but I was wondering what the general form of the solution is for any $a$ and $b$.
4
votes
2answers
45 views

Closed form expression for products

How can I find a closed form expression for products of the following form $$\prod_{k=1}^n (ak^2+bk+c)\space \text{?}$$
0
votes
1answer
7 views

Evaluate and simplify multiplication of exponents with base e; polar forms

$$2e^{(i×\pi/4)}×3e^{(i×\pi/6)}$$ How would I evaluate and simplify the above, and then express it in polar form? I understand $re^{i\theta} = r(\cos\theta+i\,\sin\theta)$. The question is to find ...
2
votes
2answers
65 views

Product of the first $N$ factorials

I'm trying to find a formula for the product of factorials: $$\prod _{n=1}^{N}n!=\; ?$$ Now using a kind of "brute force", I believe that I can prove that $$\prod _{n=1}^{N}n!=\prod ...
17
votes
6answers
370 views

Product of cosines: $ \prod_{r=1}^{7} \cos \frac{r\pi}{15} $

Evaluate $$ \prod_{r=1}^{7} \cos {\dfrac{r\pi}{15}} $$ I tried trigonometric identities of product of cosines, i.e, $$\cos\text{A}\cdot\cos\text{B} = \dfrac{1}{2}[ \cos(A+B)+\cos(A-B)] ...
1
vote
3answers
31 views

Product of Uniform Distribution and $\Gamma(2,1)$ Distribution

I ran into an old exercise but I seem to have messed up somehow. Can you tell me what went wrong? Let $U \sim \mathrm{Unif}(0,1)$ and $V \sim \Gamma(2,1)$ with $U,V$ independent. Show that $UV$ has ...
2
votes
1answer
24 views

independence of random objects when forming product spaces

Suppose we have two probability spaces $(\Omega_1, \mathscr{F}_1, \{\mathcal{F}^1_t\},\mathbb{P})$ and $(\Omega_2, \mathscr{F}_2, \{\mathcal{F}^2_t\},\mathbb{P}_2)$, if we take product space $$\Omega ...
3
votes
1answer
36 views

Split Factorial of n

How can I split integers up to n into two groups such that the difference of the product of each group is as low as possible? Is there a way to optimize the selection for each group in order to ensure ...
0
votes
2answers
43 views

Proof of associativity of polynomials product (infinite variables)

The product of polynomials in $R[X_i]_{i\in I}$ where $I$ is not necessarily finite is associative ($R$ commutative ring), but I can't find any detailed proof of this fact. Either it is left in ...
1
vote
2answers
93 views

Product limit with exponentials

Find an explicit formula for the limit: $$\lim_{n \rightarrow \infty} n \prod_{k=2}^{n} (2 - e ^ {\frac 1 k})$$ I am not asking for convergence proof since I know the sequence is decreasing and ...
2
votes
3answers
479 views

Change from product to sum

We know that : $$a \times b = \underbrace{a + a + a + ... + a}_{\text{b times}}$$ That's how we convert from a product to a sum. So what happens if we go a little further? That is : ...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

What is this (unusual) matrix/vector operation called?

A typographical error let to an unexpected (but, for me, potentially useful) result: $$ \left\{\begin{array} & a & b & c\\ d & e & f \\ g & h & i ...
1
vote
0answers
29 views

Product of Dependent Bernoulli variables

Let $B_{i,n}$ with $i=1,...,n$ be the triangular Bernoulli array defined as $$ B_{i+1,n} = B_{i,n}\,R_{i+1,n}+\left(1-R_{i+1,n}\right)\,F_{i+1,n}, $$ where $R_{i,n}$ and $F_{i,n}$ are iid Bernoulli ...
1
vote
4answers
71 views

Expansion of $x^n-y^n$

Studying polynomials I couldn't find a way to expand $x^n-y^n$ as a product of other polynomials. Now of course we know that $$x^4-y^4=(x^2+y^2)(x^2-y^2)=(x^2+y^2)(x+y)(x-y)$$ and I came up with this: ...
2
votes
1answer
15 views

Product of Bernoulli variates

I am stuck with something that looks very simple but I am not able to find where I am wrong. Let $\xi_k$ with $k=1,...,n$ be $n$ iid Bernoulli random variables such that $$ ...
2
votes
1answer
62 views

Show that $\prod _{i<j}(x_i-x_j)$ can be divided wihout remainder in $\prod_{i<j}(i-j)$ [duplicate]

Let $x_1,...,x_n$ be a natural numbers, show that $\prod _{i<j}(x_i-x_j)$ can be divided wihout remainder in $\prod_{i<j}(i-j)$ I know $\prod \left(x_i-x_j\right)$ is the result of ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

The product of distribution taken over Unions

I have a probability problem as follow: $\mathbb{P}\big[\mathop{\arg\sup}_{x \in \bigcup_{i\in \{1,2\}} \Phi_{k,i} } \mathcal{f}(x )\geq y \big] = 1-\mathop{\prod}_{x \in \bigcup_{i\in \{1,2\}} ...
0
votes
2answers
43 views

How to do multiplication (capital pi) in WolframAlpha?

How do i ask this in WolframAlpha: $$\prod_{i=0}^{i=10} \sin{(i)}$$ I used $\text{product}(...)$ and $\text{multiply}(...)$ or even $\text{multiplication}(...)$ but they don't seem to work. I am ...
1
vote
1answer
94 views

Proving formulas with products of Fibonacci numbers

While digging through my old notes, I stumbled upon some formulas involving multiplication of Fibonacci numbers that I discovered about 7 years ago (being fascinated with Fibonacci numbers at the ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

What do you need to perform Karatsuba multiplication?

Karatsuba multiplication is usually defined in $\mathbb{N} \times \mathbb{N}$ and computes $$(aB^m+b)(cB^m+d)=acB^{2m} +[(a+b)(c+d)-ac-bd]B^m+bd$$ (where B is the base, usually 10) in only three ...
1
vote
3answers
48 views

About $0!=1$ and $a^0=1$ as cases of empty product.

Some useful ''conventions'' as $0!=1$ or $a^0=1$ are particular cases of an empty product, i.e. a product between elements of the empty set. I know that such product is defined as a convention by: $$ ...
0
votes
2answers
54 views

Simplifying the product $\prod\limits_{k=1}^n \left(1-\frac1{k^2}\right)$ [duplicate]

Can we simplify the given product to a general law? $$\left(1-\frac{1}{4}\right)\left(1-\frac{1}{9}\right)\left(1-\frac{1}{16}\right)...\left(1-\frac{1}{n^2}\right)$$
1
vote
4answers
71 views

Evaluate $\lim\limits_{n\to\infty}\prod\limits_{k=2}^{n}\frac{k^2+k-2}{k^2+k}$

I can't find the product of a sequence. We have $$\frac{(2+2)(2-1)}{2(2+1)}\frac{(3+2)(3-1)}{3(3+1)}...\frac{(k+2)(k-1)}{k(k+1)}$$ I am stuck with $$P=\frac{2(n+2)}{n^2(n-1)}$$ but that isn't ...
0
votes
0answers
30 views

Product of Polynomials of Binary Variables: Linearization

I have the following term (in the context of mathematical programming): $$\prod_{p = 1}^P [1 - z_p(1 - \lambda_p)]$$ where $\lambda_p \in [0,1]$ is a parameter and $z_p \in \{0,1\}$ is a binary ...
0
votes
3answers
61 views

Find the product of a sequence

How to find the product of a sequence $$\frac{2-1}{2+1}{}\frac{3-1}{3+1}...\frac{n-1}{n+1}$$ The solution is $$P_{n}=\frac{2}{n(n+1)}$$ My question is can we approximate product with integration?
1
vote
1answer
21 views

Calculate new product value from known product, distance and shift

I have $p_1 = xy$ and the distance between $x$ and $y$ is $d = |x-y|$. I don’t know the values of $x$ and $y$ but I know the product and distance between them, I want to get new product $p_2$ after ...
28
votes
4answers
816 views

Why is the cartesian product so categorically robust?

The major "broad/natural" categories I encounter in daily life are: sets, groups, topological spaces, smooth manifolds, vector spaces over a fixed field $k$, $k$-schemes, rings, $A$-algebras for a ...
2
votes
1answer
78 views

Distribution of the product of a Normal and an Exponential random variable

What is the probability distribution of $M$, given $M=V*X/k$, where $X$ is Normal, $V$ is Exponential, $k$ constant? Or, in the real world, the probability distribution of (Cost/k) where ...
2
votes
1answer
37 views

for which values of the pair of integers $(n,k)$ is $p(n,k) =1+\frac{2^{k}-1}n$ is prime?

let $p(n,k)= 1+\frac{2^{k}-1}{n}$ for a positive integer $n,k$ -for which values of the pair of integers $(n,k)$ : $p(n,k)$ is prime ? Any help is very welcom .Thank you
1
vote
1answer
33 views

On finite sums and products

I'd like to get a good book on finite summations and products before I study infinite series more in depth next year. The book should cover geometric/ harmonic sums and prove different formulas for ...
0
votes
0answers
41 views

Sum of products of K numbers taken from N numbers in closed form

Let's say i have 5 numbers, $A,B,C,D,E$. I want to know the sum of all the possible products of some or all of these numbers each taken at most once. Instead of a lot of multiplications and additions ...
0
votes
0answers
46 views

Solving a ratio of summation

I have to solve the equation \begin{equation*} y = \frac{\sum_{j=1}^m a_j x'_j}{\sum_{j=1}^m a_j x_j} \end{equation*} We have $\sum_{j=1}^m a_j \frac{x'_j}{x_j} = 1$ and $\sum_{j=1}^m a_j = 1$ ...
0
votes
0answers
35 views

Optimizing the trace of a matrix product

I have a problem where I have a NxT matrix P (lets just assume full rank for now, where N>>T) and a TxN inclusion matrix S. Each column of S must contain exactly one 1 and the rest 0's i.e. 1_T*S = 1, ...
5
votes
2answers
54 views

A trigonometric product

I have to prove: $$\prod_{i=1}^6 \left(2\cos\left(\frac{2^{i}\pi}{13}\right)-1\right)=1$$ I really have no idea about starting with this one. With the help of Wolfram Alpha, I noticed that: ...
24
votes
11answers
2k views

Is there any way to define arithmetical multiplication as other thing than repeated addition?

Is there any way to define arithmetical multiplication as other thing than repeated addition? For example, how could you define $a\cdot b$ as other thing than $\underbrace{a+a+\cdots+a}_{b ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Link between two products

Could someone help me to solve this problem : Let's denote by $A_i$ the following product, $$ A_i = \prod_{\substack{k=1 \\ k\neq i}}^n (a_k - a_i) $$ Is there any link or simple formula between ...
10
votes
3answers
250 views

What is the probability that the product of $20$ random numbers between $1$ and $2$ is greater than $10000$?

Twenty random real numbers $a_1,a_2,\dots,a_{20}$ are chosen such that $1\le a_i \le 2$. What is the probability that their product is greater than $10000$? (By random, I mean each real number in the ...
4
votes
2answers
75 views

If $\prod\limits_{k=0}^5(5^{2^k}+6^{2^k})=6^x-5^y$, what is the value of $x-y$?

I think this might be a contest math question, so I'm tagging it as such. I don't know how to do something like this by hand (or if it's even possible, though I would presume it is if it's from a ...
1
vote
0answers
47 views

Uncountability of $\mathbb{R}^I$ if $I$ is uncountable

Prove that if $I$ is uncountable, then $\mathbb{R}^I$ with the product topology is not countable. Based on what I have read, a set is uncountable if there is a bijection from that set to ...
5
votes
1answer
102 views

Is the product of all objects of a finite category an initial object?

If the product of all objects in a finite category exists, is it an initial object? I presume so, but I'm still learning this subject and I can't make a proof go through. Advice welcome. (Not a ...
1
vote
1answer
31 views

Is the nth root of a product of n terms used in place of the average anywhere?

In applied usage we typically take the average of values or terms which is done by summing them and dividing by the number of terms (for simple average): $$\sum_{i=1}^n \frac{a_i}{n}$$ It dawned on ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

Double Product of a series

So in this proof (please don't ask about it, it's not important and it would take ages to explain) there's this step where they "switch" the values of the series of the double products in the ...
1
vote
1answer
136 views

How to minimize $a \times b$ where $a^b≥x$?

For example, if $x$ is 1 billion, the smallest possible $a \times b$ will be $3 \times 19 = 57$. This is because: $2^{30} \ge 1000000000$ $2 \times 30 = 60 $ $3^{19} \ge 1000000000$ $3 \times 19 ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

What does the power of an ideal *mean*?

I am stumped trying to understand Silverman's definition of $\operatorname{ord}_P(f)$, the (normalized) valuation on $\bar K[C]_P$ (which denotes the localization of a curve $C$'s coordinate ring at ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

proving $(1+\frac 1n)^{n} = 1 + \sum_{k=1}^n \{\frac 1{k!}\prod_{r=0}^{k-1}(1-\frac rn)\}$ using the binomial theorem

$(1+\frac 1n)^{n} = 1 + \sum_{k=1}^n \{\frac 1{k!}\prod_{r=0}^{k-1}(1-\frac rn)\}$ this exercise is taken from Apostol's Calculus I (page 45) and it's supposed to be proved by using the binomial ...
0
votes
1answer
18 views

Counting zeros in product of numbers

This is surprising a simple asked question... How many zeros does the product $25^5$,$150^4$ and $2008^3$ end with? (A)5 (B)9 (C)10 (D)12 (E)13 The problem is,I am not allowed to use calculator ...