Use this tag when you want to determine the thinking that is needed to solve a certain type of problem, as opposed to looking for a specific answer to a question.

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Finding the number of solutions satisfying an equation?

Given one condition $x_1+x_2+x_3=n$ where n is known number. Given a set of data X={$a_1,a_2....a_n$}. Can you help me find all possible cases satisfying the above condition $x_1+x_2+x_3=n$ ???
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2answers
32 views

Solving two systems with two unknown?

Let's say if we are giving the following two equations: $$ 1= X/(X^2 +Y^2) $$ $$ 2= Y/(X^2 +Y^2) $$ How are we going to solve for X and Y [ by HAND ] ? Why would Summing the squares of the two ...
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4answers
47 views

Challenge: “Dividing” a number above 0 and ending up with the same, or a greater number (creative task)

Here's a question/challenge for those of you who know quite a bit about math, or enjoy to be creative with what you do know (just for reference: I'm virtually illiterate when it comes to any math more ...
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5answers
70 views

$|x| + |x-1| = 3$ how come its cases?

$$|x| + |x-1| = 3$$ in my textbook, they say that for this equation, there are 3 cases: $x\geq1$, $0 \leq x < 1$ and $ x < 0$ where do these come from and why? i thought, there are 4 cases ...
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2answers
28 views

$5-3|x-6|\leq 3x -7$

I have this inequation: $$5-3|x-6|\leq 3x -7$$ i solved this this way: i said, for $x\geq6$ is the modulus positive, so I made 2 cases in which the modulus gives + or - : 1) for $x\geq6$ ...
0
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1answer
23 views

Word problem with $p$

In the year 2000, there are $p$ penguins. After $t$ years, the number of penguins is given by $$ 2500 \times 1.02^t$$ Calculate the number of penguins in the year $2000$. I tried to substitute random ...
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1answer
29 views

Manipulating series

I have come across this in a solution for a BMO problem where you have to find $a_{2013}$ for: $a_n$ = $\frac{n+1}{n-1}$($a_1 + a_2 + ... + a_{n-1}$) where $a_1$ = 1. It says that you manipulate it ...
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1answer
38 views

Find a graph with at least two vertices and no self-loops in which all vertices have different degrees

I am an high-school senior interested in Graph Theory, on a web forum a CS teacher teased me with ("an easy but non-trivial") a terrific Graph Theory problem: Find a graph with at least two ...
2
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2answers
60 views

Olympiad Modulo Problem

I have begun preparing for the British Mathematical Olympiad and hope to do well. However, I have been working on the first problem in the book: A Mathematical Olympiad Primer by Geoff Smith, captain ...
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3answers
808 views

Improving concentration and stamina when solving difficult problems.

I am trying to improve my problem solving skills by solving olympiad problems (Putnam, IMO, etc). So far, I have discovered that problem solving is somewhat like panning for gold: you think of all the ...
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1answer
18 views

Vector force application problem

I'm having trouble starting off this question. Any help would be appreciated! "Lisa is trying to hold on to her toy car. Her sister Ruby is pulling with a force of 8 N on a bearing of 023° and her ...
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2answers
117 views

why is $\int_{\pi/2}^{5\pi/2}\frac{e^{\arctan(\sin x)}}{e^{\arctan(\sin x)}+e^{\arctan(\cos x)}}=\pi$?

I cannot make progress on the definite integral $$\int_{\pi/2}^{5\pi/2}\frac{e^{\arctan(\sin x)}}{e^{\arctan(\sin x)}+e^{\arctan(\cos x)}}\,dx=\pi$$ I know the result is $\pi$ from numerical ...
6
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1answer
67 views

Tricky Integral equation - where to start?

How would you go about solving this? $$p(x,t)=C\exp\left[-x+\int_0^t\int_0^\infty y\,p(y,\tau)\,\mathrm{d}y\,\mathrm{d}\tau\right]$$ Here $p(x,t)$ is the time-dependent probability distribution of a ...
1
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0answers
40 views

bounding the sum of squares of lengths of a quadrilateral inscribed in a unit square

Consider this nice little problem: if $ABCD$ is a quadrilateral inscribed in a unit square, then $$2\leq AB^2+BC^2+CD^2+DA^2\leq4$$ (Evidently this is problem 1 on paper 1 of the 1989 Irish ...
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2answers
75 views

How many $a$-nary sequences of length $b$ never have $c$ consecutive occurrences of a digit?

Let $S(a,b,c): = \#\{a$-nary sequences of length $b$ without $c$ consecutive occurrences of a digit$\}$. For example, $S(2,n,3)$ would be the number of binary sequences of length $n$ without $3$ ...
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2answers
46 views

How to solve this equation or system of equations?

I want to solve the equation $$(5 x-4) \cdot\sqrt{2 x-3}-(4 x-5)\cdot \sqrt{3 x-2}=2.$$ I tried. Put $a = \sqrt{2 x-3}\geqslant 0$ and $b =\sqrt{3 x-2}\geqslant 0 $. Suppose $$5x-4=m(2x-3)+n(3x-2)$$ ...
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0answers
36 views

Find the solution of this differential equation

I want to solve $\dot{\xi}(s)=\sqrt{\frac{(n-2)^2}{4}\xi(s)^2-\frac{n-2}{n}\xi(s)^{\frac{2n}{n-2}}}$ with the condition $\xi(0)=\biggl(\frac{n(n-2)}{4}\biggl)^{\frac{n-2}{4}}$. I know that ...
9
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2answers
161 views

Computing $\int {\dfrac{\csc^{2014}x-2014}{\cos^{2014}x} dx}$

I don't know how to compute: $$\int {\dfrac{\csc^{2014}x-2014}{\cos^{2014}x} dx}$$ I have tried substituting $t=\tan ^{2} x$ but got nothing out of it. I know there's some trick involved, but ...
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0answers
46 views

A problem related to Vectors.

A few days ago I posted an answer to a question on Phys.SE. The question is: Three particles $A,B$ and $C$ are at the vertices of an equilateral trinagle $ABC$. Each of the particle moves with ...
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2answers
36 views

How can I find $x$ such that $ax \equiv 1 \pmod{bx+c}$, given $a,b,c$?

Everything I've read about modular arithmetic generally concerns doing things in some "mod m" world where "m" is some constant. But I'm perplexed how to tackle modular arithmetic problems where the ...
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3answers
61 views

Equilateral triangle inscribed in a ellipse

"Given any point on a ellipse, is it always possible to inscribe an equilateral triangle, with a vertex coincident with that point, in the ellipse?" I thought I could use analytical geometry, but ...
1
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4answers
41 views

Find the minimum value of this expression with absolute values

The expression is $$|x-3| + |x-1| + |x| + |x+2| + |x+4|$$ I know that the minimum values for this expression is when x = 0 but is there any algebraic way to find this out? I did it on the ...
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1answer
61 views

Calculating completed percentage of a jigsaw puzzle

At first I thought the solution for this problem was simple…maybe to you it will be, but it evades me at present. I need to figure out how to calculate the completed percentage of a jigsaw puzzle. ...
0
votes
1answer
76 views

Acceptable Arrangements

A flagpole has spaces for seven colored flags arranged in a vertical line. Two of the flags are yellow, two are green, one is red, one is orange, and one is brown. Flags are to be placed on the pole ...
0
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1answer
48 views

Expected number of swaps required to get a palindrome out of a given string

Given a string, you keep swapping any two characters in the string randomly till the string becomes a palindrome. What is the expected number of swaps you will make? There will always be at least ...
3
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2answers
77 views

How do I evaluate this integral by hand?

TL;DR how do I evaluate $\int_0^{2 \pi } \frac{1}{\cos ^2(\theta )+1} \, d\theta$ by hand? I'm trying to solve this problem: Find the volume of the region defined by $x^2+xy+y^2+yz+z^2\le1$. ...
5
votes
4answers
594 views

Complicated but easy problem solving?

I'm going to be in the UKMT Team Challenge in a few days and revising some questions used in the previous year. The questions are really bugging my mind. I know it may seem like a lot and quite easy ...
0
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1answer
69 views

Soccer Team- Venn Diagram

If I could get help with this problem, it would be greatly appreciated. I have been trying using Venn diagram, but can't seem to understand it with four circles. On a soccer team there are four ...
0
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1answer
28 views

Probability problem regarding rooks on a chessboard

Eight rooks are placed in distinct squares of an 8 x 8 chessboard, with all possible replacements being equally likely. Find the probability that all the rooks are safe from one another.
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1answer
37 views

Finding/approximating 2 unknowns using one equation

I’m doing experimental data in a chemistry lab and I have faced this mathematical problem at a point of my work. Hope you guys can help me with that. What would be the best way to find two constants m ...
0
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1answer
56 views

Troubles with understanding the answer

I don't understand the proof. Where did they get the first line from? 21x11=1+5x46? Fermat's theorem in my view is a^46=_1mod47
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6answers
296 views

Which is larger $\sqrt[99]{99!}$ or $\sqrt[100]{100!}$

Which is larger $\sqrt[99]{99!}$ or $\sqrt[100]{100!}$ I know that it is the $\sqrt[100]{100!}$ but is there a formula to figure this out instead of doing it all out by hand?
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3answers
119 views

How exactly does the response “infintely many” answer the question of “how many”?

I admit that the level of this question is roughly about middle school, but this is what the question asks: The ratio of nickels to dimes to quarters is 3:8:1. If all the coins were dimes, the ...
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0answers
15 views

Can you find a method of moments of Gaussian AR(1)?

This is an exercise from Mathematical Statistics: Basic ideas and Selected topics, Bickel&Doksum, page 141. Gaussian AR(1) model; $X_i = \mu + e_i, i=1, \cdots,n$ $e_i = \beta e_{i-1} ...
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0answers
34 views

A question on combinations of a set of numbers

I have the set of the first $n$ primes $\{2,3,5,\ldots,p_n\}$. There are $n^n$ ways of selecting $n$ numbers from this set. Each combination has a number ($C_k$) associated with it and it is the ...
1
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1answer
61 views

Routes to a house

In this city, all the streets that run North and South have lettered names (A,B,C, etc.) and all the streets that run East-West have numbered names (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.). As you drive East, the ...
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2answers
60 views

Olympic problem on irreducible fraction

Prove that the fraction $\frac{21n+4}{14n+3}$ is irreducible for every natural number $n$.
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1answer
12 views

Multiplying non-decreasing sequences

Let $(a_n)$ and $(b_n)$ be non-decreasing sequences of positive terms (i.e. $a_n\gt0$ and $b_n\gt0$ for all $n\ge1$). Prove that the sequence $(c_n)$ is non-decreasing, where $c_n=a_nb_n$ for all ...
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1answer
169 views

Math Olympiads: GCD of terms in a sequence equals GCD of terms in other sequence

Recently, someone asked for a proof of a problem from the Russian Mathematical Olympiad, 1995. Math Olympiads: GCD of terms in a sequence equals GCD of their indices. The problem was to show that if ...
5
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2answers
160 views

Math Olympiads: GCD of terms in a sequence equals GCD of their indices.

The sequence $a_1 ,a_2 ,a_3 ,...$ of positive integers satisfies $\text{gcd}(a_i ,a_j ) = \text{gcd} (i, j)$ for $i \neq j$. Prove that $a_i = i$ for all $i$. Source: Russian Mathematical Olympiad, ...
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2answers
47 views

Real Life Rounding Phenomena When Solving for Variables

I have a question that I've been thinking a long time about without being able to come up with an answer and would appreciate some help: I am attempting to subtract two distinct fees from a total ...
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2answers
34 views

Deck of playing cards

Been going through an previous exam question and came across this: 5 cards are drawn from a deck of playing cards. What is the probability of drawing 3 aces? How do you calculate it using the C(n,r)? ...
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3answers
36 views

Programming Help - Solving for e(n)

I've been wrestling with this issue for a week and I just need some guidance on the math part of it. If I could just understand the math behind it I could piece together the functions to make it ...
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0answers
33 views

How to prove the relation of coefficents of a system of equations?

Consider the system of equations $$\begin{cases} a_1x^2+b_1y^2 + c_1xy+d_1x + e_1y+f_1=0,\\ a_2x^2+b_2y^2 + c_2xy+d_2x + e_2y+f_2=0. \end{cases}$$ I want to find the Real number $k$ so that the ...
3
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1answer
30 views

Maximum likelihood to throw exactly two 6s

One throws a dice $n$ times. For which value of $n$ is maximum the probability to obtain exactly two 6s? I get $$n=11 \text{ or } n=12.$$ My solution: the probability to obtain exactly two 6s in ...
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2answers
27 views

Simple Word problem question with boxes and bottles

Bottles are either packed in boxes of 6 *OR* 12. The number of small boxes must atleast be half the number of big boxes. If 240 bottles need to be packed, what's the minimum mumber of boxes needed? ...
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4answers
78 views

Contest problem involving primes and factorization

Prove that for any nonnegative integer $n$, the number $$5^{5^{n+1}}+ 5^{5^{n}}+1$$ is not prime. I want only some hints and the method to follow, but I don't need the full solution. Thanks.
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1answer
16 views

Competion Problem in graph theory

How can I prove that every graph has two vertices which are endpoints of the same number of edges? Any hints?
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1answer
32 views

Problem solving involving time

You have from 10 pm to 11:30 pm to do a project. At 10:34 what fraction of the project remains? I keep getting stuck and I don't know why. There is an hour and a half to do the project and at 10:34 ...
2
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2answers
39 views

Solve an equation in positive integers

Does $$x^2+y^2=3(z^2+ u^2)$$ have solutions in positive integers? I was assigned this problem, but I am struggling to find a solution. I guess that a proof by contradiction is required.