Use this tag only if your question is about the modern theoretical footing for probability, for example probability spaces, random variables, law of large numbers, and central limit theorems. Use [tag:probability] instead for specific problems and explicit computations. Use ...

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Martingale convergence without $L^p$ boundedness

I read the following example in the book titled "COUNTEREXAMPLES IN PROBABILITY AND REAL ANALYSIS" (by GARY L. WISE, and ERIC B. HALL): Does anyone know simpler examples? I do have one! I would be ...
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1answer
13 views

Question about “integrable” random variable

I was reading the definition of Markov's Inequality on Wikipedia and it says If $X$ is any nonnegative integrable random variable and $a > 0$, then $\mathbb{P}(X \geq a) \leq ...
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2answers
20 views

Convergence in law of sample means of random variable

Let $\{X_n | n \in \mathbb{N} \}$ be a sequence of independent identically distributed random variables with density function: $$f_X(x) = e^{\theta - x}I_{(\theta, \infty)}(x)$$ with $\theta > ...
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0answers
31 views

Probability of an unbalanced coin [on hold]

Let's say i find a coin on the ground and i flip it 100 times getting 99 heads, what is the probability that the coin is unbalanced?(in particular that the probability of getting head is higher than ...
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1answer
24 views

Sigma-fields and probability

I'm unsure what this question asks of me. For (i) I have given a power set with 16 elements in terms of a,b,c and d. I don't understand what I need to do for (ii). I believe (iii) is fairly ...
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0answers
31 views

ODE for the normal distribution [on hold]

The normal density function $\phi(x)=\tfrac{1}{2\pi}e^{-\frac{x^2}2}$ can be described via the ODE $$\phi^\prime(x) = -x \phi(x)$$ under the condition $\int_{-\infty}^\infty \phi(x) = 1$. Is there ...
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0answers
26 views

How to demonstrate the pdf of $P_{\sigma} (t)=\lambda_c e^{- \lambda_c t} / (1 - e^{- \lambda_c T})$

In $t_c$, there are $n$ expirations of $T$ and the remnant $\sigma$ seen from the above figure. Let the time $t_c$ forms the exponential distribution with parameter $\lambda_c$. How to demonstrate ...
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19 views

Dominated Convergence Theorem.

Dominated Convergence Theorem "Suppose $X_{n}\rightarrow X$ a.s., and there is a random variable $Y$ with $E[Y]<\infty$ such that $|X_{n}|<Y$ for all $n$. Then $E[lim_{n \to ...
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1answer
35 views

A Seemingly Trivial but Computationally Complicated Probability Problem

Suppose $X,Y$ are independent $Uniform(-1,1)$ random variables. Determine the distribution of $Z=X-Y$. I do not really think I should add my work here because whatever I have tried until now, has ...
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0answers
20 views

Limit definition of Sets.

Proposition 1.32 $X_{n}\xrightarrow{a.s.} X$ if and only if for any $\epsilon>0$ $P( | X_{n}- X |<\epsilon, \; \forall n\geq m )\rightarrow1$ $as$ $ m\rightarrow\infty$ Proof. Suppose first ...
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1answer
20 views

ways to choose 4 people including two or more male from N people with 1/3 male 2/3 female

A sample of four people is randomly drawn from a population of N > 4 people.Assume that 1/3 of the total population is male, and 2/3 is female. (To simplify things, let’s assume that N is always ...
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0answers
14 views

How to prove stochastic dominance? [on hold]

Consider the set of constant vectors $p_i$ and $\tilde{p}_i$, such that $p_i \succeq \tilde{p}_i \succ \mathbb{0}\; \forall i$ (component wise inequality) and define: $M \triangleq ...
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1answer
21 views

Doob-Kolmogorov Inequality

Denote by $(X(t),t\ge 0)$ a standard Brownian motion, i.e random variables with the following properties: $X(0)=0$. With probability 1, the function $t\mapsto X(t)$ is continuous on $[0,\infty)$. ...
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1answer
14 views

Determining density involving scaled beta distribution

Suppose $Y \sim \mathrm{Beta}(2,1)$. If $X = \theta{Y}$ (for some $\theta > 0$) how do I determine the joint density $f(x, \theta)$? Edit: the density for $Z$ is $2z$. Would it be correct to say, ...
2
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1answer
13 views

Showing that the union of two algebras will give us a disjoint finite union of sets.

Suppose we have a space $X$ that could be anything and $\mathcal{A}_{1}$, $\mathcal{A}_{2}$ are algebras. How would I show that that algebra generated by $\mathcal{A}_{1} \cup \mathcal{A}_{2}$ ...
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1answer
28 views

Law of total probability explanation

What is the intuition behind the law of total probability? http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_total_probability
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1answer
23 views

Independent events and Kolmogorov

Suppose we have a probability space $(\Omega, \mathfrak{F}, P)$, and independent events $(E_n)_n$. Consider $$M_n = \sum_{k=1}^n I_{E_k}$$ Is it correct to say that by the Kolmogorov $01$ law $M_n$ ...
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2answers
24 views

Need a Probability Theory book that also focusses on Analysis

I am in search for a Probability Theory book which also contains elements and proofs from Analysis. A non-Measure Theoretic approach is most desirable. I have gone through great books like Ross but I ...
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0answers
7 views

Approximation of objective based on statistical distance

I am a computer science researcher (mostly theoretical) currently in midst of statistics and not able to figure out how to proceed. At an abstract level, I have a hypothesis for an unknown ...
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0answers
27 views

Poisson Process Alterations

If we have a Poisson process of rate $\lambda$, do the following alterations still result in a Poisson process? 1) Deleting every alternate point 2) Inserting points at times $1, 2, 3, ...$ 3) ...
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2answers
37 views

Convergence a.e. of the series $\sum_{i=1}^{n^2} \frac{X_i}{n^2}$

Let $(X_n)_{n\geq 1}$ be independent random variables with expected value $m$ and $\sup_n Var(X_n)\leq K < \infty$, and they are uncorrelated. Then $1)$ $$\sum_{i=1}^n \frac{X_i}{n} $$ ...
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1answer
35 views

Martingale with respect to a decreasing filtration

I am trying to solve problem 2.16 from the book "Continuous Martingales and Brownian Motion" by Revuz and Yor. There are two things that confuse me from the exercise so hopefully someone can shed some ...
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1answer
40 views

Probability of a nonnegative submartingale converging to zero [on hold]

Suppose that $\{X_k\}$ is a nonnegative submartingale, and $\Pr(X_1 = 0) = 0$. Then could we conclude that $\Pr(\liminf X_k=0) = 0$? What about $\Pr(\lim X_k=0) = 0$? Thanks a lot. Some background ...
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2answers
30 views

In Markov chains a limit distribution is invariant

Suppose we have a Markov chain $(X_n)_{n \geq 0}$ with state space $S$. Suppose that $(\pi_i)_{i \in S}$ is a limit distribution. Then is $(\pi_i)_{i \in S}$ an invariant distribution ? I know the ...
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0answers
28 views

The Derivation of the Ito-Wentzell Formula

Is there a good derivation of the Ito-Wentzell Formula which is a generalization of the Ito's Lemma? Here are some unsatisfactory references to the Ito-Wentzell Formula: ...
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1answer
4 views

Random Variable Modeling

I am trying to understand how to model a random variable. So using a biased coin with $P(Head) = q$. If I am to generate a random variable $Y$ that is equally likely to be either a or b depending on ...
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0answers
28 views

How to obtain a certain expression as an expectation

I have a probability space $(\Omega, M, \mathbb{P})$, where each $\omega \in \Omega$ is a random subset of natural numbers (i.e. This is a probability space of sequence of natural numbers sometimes ...
3
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2answers
49 views

Show that $P(X > \lambda) \geq \frac{(EX - \lambda)^2}{EX^2}$

Question: Let X be a nonnegative random variable and $0 < \lambda \leq EX$. Show that $P(X > \lambda) \geq \frac{(EX - \lambda)^2}{EX^2}$ At first glance I thought I could use some ...
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0answers
18 views

Uniform integrability of specific sequence of RV

I am investigating the following limit $$ \lim_{n \to \infty} E \left[ n \ln^-\left(1 - 2 \frac{\sigma}{n} [{\cal N}]_1 + \frac{\sigma^2}{n^2} \underbrace{ \| {\cal N} \|^2}_{\chi^2 \mbox{ ...
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1answer
23 views

Dyadic expansion

I'm reading the appendix in Billingsley book "Probability and measures" and I can't understand the following. If $$\sum_{i=1}^n\frac{d_i(\omega)}{2^i} < \omega \leq ...
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1answer
14 views

Semimartingale jumps question

I am reading a statement which contains $\Delta X \cdot Y$ where $X$ is a semimartingale and $Y$ is a finite variation process and the notation means the lebesgue stieltjes integral. My problem is ...
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1answer
9 views

Smallest (sub-) Sigma algebra of a null set

Given a probability space ($\Omega,\mathcal{A} ,P$) and $N \in \mathcal{A}, N \ne \emptyset$ with $P(N) = 0$ What is the smallest sub-sigma algebra of $\mathcal{A}$ containing $N$. I'm kind of ...
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0answers
25 views

Billingsley 2.5a) [on hold]

The field $\mathfrak{F}(\mathcal{D})$ generated by a class $\mathcal{D}$ of subsets of $N$ is defined as the intersection of all fields over $N$ containing $\mathcal{D}$. (a) Show that ...
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1answer
23 views

argument technique to prove convergence of random variable

I witness a lemma in my class note and I think the proof is not quite clear. Could anybody give me some ideas about argument technique to prove the lemma? The lemma 3 in the beginning of the text: ...
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1answer
17 views

Exponential of Brownian motion with negative drift

I am reading a text on Brownian motion and don't understand the following: Let $X_t = \exp \{ W_t - \frac{t}{2} \}$, where $W$ is a standard Brownian motion on $\mathbb{R}$. Let $T_n = \inf \{ t \geq ...
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1answer
21 views

Why is $P(a < x < b) = P(a < x) - P(x < b)$?

Why is $P(a < x < b) = P(a < x) - P(x < b)$? This is an oversimplified version of a statistics problem I am doing, but I cannot remember why this is true. I know that this works and will ...
1
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1answer
23 views

Does the Strong Law of Large Numbers imply the following?

The Strong Law of Large Numbers in my Probability textbook is given as follows. Let $X_n$ be a sequence of identically distributed pairwise independent $\mathbb{R}$-valued random variables. Let $S_n$ ...
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1answer
35 views

Showing That Two Normal-Based Random Variables Have the Same Distribution

Above is my question. $\overline X$ has distribution $N(0,1/n)$ - that's fine to work out. Similarly, $X_n / \sqrt{n}$ has distribution $N(0,1/n)$. These follow from the general relation $$ ...
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0answers
12 views

Entropy of the Random Energy Model

I need to show that $$\text{lim}_{N \to \infty}\frac{1}{N}\text{log}\mathcal{N}(\epsilon, \epsilon + \delta) = \text{sup}_{x \in [\epsilon, \epsilon + \delta]}s_a(x).$$ We have that ...
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0answers
12 views

HOW TO PLOT DAG (DIRECTED ACYCLIC GRAPH) in BNT toolbox for matlab.

I have used markov chain monte carlo (MCMC) in BNT toolbox for matlab, from which i have got one output "sampled_graphs " which is cell array. Now how to plot DAG (Directed acyclic graph ) from ...
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1answer
27 views

Equality of two conditional expectations

I would like to show that for any random variable $X$ and $Z$ such that $X$ and $Z$ are independent and for any measurable functions $f$ and $g$, $$ \mathbb E \left[ f(g(X),Z) | g(X) \right] = ...
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2answers
39 views

How do you calculate P(A/B), when event B occurred after event A?

There's really only one question I can't begin to handle when it comes to probability, literally. It's not the only type of question I struggle with, though it's the type of question where I can't ...
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0answers
17 views

Which properties are stable under convergence in distribution?

I'm currently looking at convergence in distribution (i.e. weak convergence) of random variables. A question is bothering me since quite a while and I hope I could express it properly: Given weak ...
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0answers
56 views
+50

analytic solution of a definite integral

Integrate the following $$\int_0^\infty \alpha\,\beta\, c\, k\, x^s\, x^{c-1} (1+x^c)^{k-1} \left[(1+x^c)^k-1\right]^{-\beta-1} \left[1+\gamma ...
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0answers
16 views

Two random vectors converge does this mean that the entries converge?

Suppose you are given the following two equalities $\mathbf{\delta }^{n}=\left( \begin{array}{ccccccc} \delta _{n,1} & \delta _{n,2} & \cdots & \delta _{n,n} & 1 & 1 & ...
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0answers
35 views

Multiplication rule and regular conditional probability

I've been studying the conditions of existence of the regular conditional probability and have a question about it. Let's $(\Omega, \mathcal{B}, P)$ be a product probability space, and let's say the ...
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0answers
30 views

$E(X_T; T < \infty) \leq E(X_0)$ with $T$ stopping time

I'm doing this exercise: $(X_n)$ is a non-negative supermartingale and $T$ a stopping time, then $$E(X_T; T < \infty) \leq E(X_0)$$ My attempt: $(X_n)$ is a negative supermartingale, and so ...
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4answers
69 views

Difference between $E[X^2]$ and $E[X^3]$

Hope to ask a dumb question. $Y = aX$,with $a \in N_+$. Here, we know the correlation coefficient is 1. Now, suppose $X \sim N(0,1)$. Here, we know $X, Y$ are not independent. Cov($X,Y$) = ...
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0answers
12 views

marginal likelihood survivor function [on hold]

Suppose ($x_1$,…,$x_m$) and ($y_1$,…,$y_n$) are drawn from survivor function $S(x;e^{θ/2}) $ and $S(y;e^{-θ/2}) $ respecitively , where $S$ is a defined above. (i) The form of the marginal ...
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0answers
20 views

How to compute the covariance matrix of a random variable uniformly distributed in an ellipsoid

Suppose that x is a random variable uniformly distributed in an ellipsoid \begin{equation} x^{T}Mx\leq\delta, \end{equation} where $x\in \mathbb{R}^{n}$. Clearly, the mean of $x$ is zero. The ...