Prime numbers are natural numbers not divisible by any smaller number other than 1. This tag is intended for questions about, related to, or involving prime numbers.

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Summation of a series of Positive Prime numbers

Is there a way to find the sum for a set of positive prime numbers (e.g., the first $25$ prime numbers) without just arbitrarily adding them up shorthand?
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Out of all the proofs of the PNT, which one is the most accessible?

I have been studying the continuation of the Riemann zeta function $\zeta(s)$ for the past while. I can prove that all the zeroes must lie in the critical strip.I am currently in the process of using ...
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Is (73, 37) the only pair of reversible primes (p, q), s.t. p=2q-1?

In addition to being probably the only Sheldon Cooper prime, $73$ is a reversible prime $p$ (or emirp), such that its reverse is $q=(p+1)/2$. It is not hard to see that all other reversible primes ...
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Do the sum of all prime reciprocals with the digit $3$ converge or diverge?

$$\frac{1}{3}+\frac{1}{13}+\frac{1}{23}+\frac{1}{31}+\frac{1}{37}+\frac{1}{43}\cdots$$ Intuitively, I feel that this sum converges, but I really don't know why, (or if I am correct). Can I have a ...
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Prime divisors in Andy Loo's proof…

http://arxiv.org/pdf/1110.2377v1.pdf I have one more question related to that proof. Look at the definition of the symbol ${s \brace r}$ (page 4). Why if $\frac{3n}{4}<p\le \frac{4n}{5}$, then $p$ ...
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$a^4+b^4+c^4+d^4 \neq 2^{2011}$

Prove (elementary, meaning no high level theorems used) that there can not exist 4 prime numbers a,b,c,d $\geq$ 7 such that \begin{equation}a^4+b^4+c^4+d^4=2^{2011}\end{equation} I tried the ...
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1answer
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Quadratic polynomials describe the diagonal lines in the Ulam-Spiral

I'm trying to understand why is it possible to describe every diagonal line in the Ulam-Spiral with an quadratic polynomial $$2n\cdot(2n+b)+a = 4n^2 + 2nb +a$$ for $a, b \in \mathbb{N}$ and $n \in ...
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For $n$ an even number and $p$ a prime, does $\lfloor {\frac {n}{4}} \rfloor= \frac{1}{\pi (n)-\pi (n/2)} \sum_{n/2<p<n} p-\frac {n}{2}$ hold?

I was playing around with prime numbers and I noticed that for $n$ an even number, the average of the distance between all primes between $n/2$ and $n$ and $n/2$ is equal to $\lfloor {\frac {n}{4}} ...
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33 views

Distribution of primes and product of primes

I know for large numbers $\le N$, the distribution of primes is about $N / \ln(N)$. I want to know thet distribution for primes and the product of unique primes ($p_0, ..., p_0 p_1, ..., p_0 p_1 ...
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Analytic continuation of primality function

(There is my initial question, but by advice of @Charles I'm splitting it) For integers we have a primality function: $$ isprime(n)=\begin{cases}1,&\text{$n$ is prime}\\0,&\text{$n$ is not ...
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A few questions about Andy Loo's proof of existence of primes between 3n and 4n…

I have a few questions about Andy Loo's proof (get it here): why, for example, if $2n<p\le3n$, then $p$ does not divide $\binom{4n}{3n}$? Same situation for $\frac{4n}{3}<p\le\frac{3n}{2}$... ...
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Prove for $2p +1$ divides $2^p + 1$

The following theorem is well known and already proven by Lagrange 1775 Let $p = 3$ (mod $4$) be prime. $2p+1$ is also prime if and only if $2p+1$ divides $2^p - 1$. But how can we prove this: Let ...
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Intersection between the sums of the first integers, primes and non primes

Conjecture : $$\left\{\sum\limits_{\begin{array}{c}k=1\\k\in\mathbb{Z}\end{array}}^nk \ |\ n\in\Bbb Z\right\} \cap \left\lbrace ...
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Is there a systematic way of referring to a prime?

Is there a systematic scheme for identifying primes? For small numbers, it is easy to simply reproduce the whole prime, but for larger numbers, it seems like it could get cumbersome. For instance, ...
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How many $2$-Sylow subgroups in $G$ with $|G| = 2^2\cdot 3$?

I have a group $G$ with $|G| = 2^2\cdot 3$. I also know it has $4$ Sylow-$3$ subgroups. I need to show that there is $1$ Sylow-$2$ subgroup. (This is all I have left from the full question.) Any ...
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Does the set of $m \in Max(ord_n(k))$ for every $n$ without primitive roots contain a pair of primes $p_1+p_2=n$?

I have made the following observation: for those n even numbers that do not have primitive roots modulo n ,$Pr(n)$, the set $M(n)$ of those $k$ having a maximum multiplicative order $ord_n(k)$ ...
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66 views

Sum of primes at minimal $\gt t!$

$$2+3+5+17+97+599\cdots a_t \gt t!$$ What does that mean? Well it is a sum that follows specific rules. For one, the number of terms in the sequence is $t$. Similarly, $a_t$ represents the $t$'th ...
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1answer
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Solutions of $(2x-1)^x\equiv1\mod\ p$ [closed]

Has the equation $(2x-1)^x\equiv 1\mod{p}$, for $p=1+6qx$, where $p$, $q$ are primes, $x$ is an odd integer and $x<p$ any solutions except $x=1$? Many thanks.
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Weierstrass factorization theorem and primality function

I'm interested in application of the Weierstrass factorization theorem to the primality function. Let $np(x)\colon \mathbb N\to \mathbb N$ is a "not-prime" function: $$ np(x) = \begin{cases}1, & ...
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Using a sieve and Mertens' theorem to show a formula for $\pi(x)$ - Does this work?

When I was younger, just starting highschool, I loved tinkering with prime sieves. I still have notes that I took. I had written down that $$\pi(x)\sim x\prod_{n=1}^m\frac{p_n-1}{p_n}+m-1.$$ ...
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A congruence for the prime counting function in Wolfram.What does it actually say?

I saw today in functions.wolfram.com a congruence for the prime counting function which says $\binom {2prime(k)-1} {prime(k)-1} \pmod{prime(k)^3}=1$ (the third congruence at the bottom). What does ...
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On primality of the numbers of the form $10^{2k} - 10^{(k+1)} -1$

Has anyone seen proof that numbers of the form $10^{2k} - 10^{k+1} - 1 \space \forall k \ge 2$ are prime?
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Is there a quicker way to generate integers which are hard to factor than multiplying two large primes?

An easy way to generate an integer which is hard to factor is to find two large primes and multiply them. As a bonus, you know the factors. I'm interested in whether it's possible to find integers ...
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140 views

Is this statement equivalent to Goldbach's conjecture

Given a number $n\ge 3$, then one of these is true: \begin{equation} \begin{cases}2n = (6m-1)+P, \ \ \ P \in \mathbb P, \ 6m-1 \in \mathbb P, \ 6m+1 \in \mathbb P \ \ \ \ (1) \\ 2n-1 \in \mathbb P, \ ...
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68 views

Number of primes from $n!+1$ to $n!+n$

Why aren't there any primes between $n!+1$ and $n!+n$ for all $n>1$? This question was on AHSME 1969 #23, but the question is trivial because it's multiple choice. However, I have no idea how to ...
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If for almost all $p \equiv 1$ (mod a) it holds that $p \equiv 1$ (mod m), then…

Let $a,m\in \mathbb N$ Suppose that for almost all primes $p \equiv 1$ (mod a) we have that $p \equiv 1$ (mod m) Can we say something about $a$ and $m$? For example $m$ divides $a$ or vice versa? I ...
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Statistical observations about primes

Are there statistical observations about prime numbers showing that primes are not random? For example obviously primes are $1$ or $-1$ mod $6$, but are these remainder distributed equally? What I ...
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Is there a known mathematical equation to find the nth prime?

I've solved for it making a computer program, but was wondering there was a mathematical equation that you could use to solve for the nth prime?
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Is it known whether there are ever infinitely many primes of the form $\prod_i p_i^{n_i} + 1$ where the $p_i$ are fixed primes but the $n_i$ can vary?

So if we fix finitely many primes $p_i$, where one $p_i$ is $2$, but let the powers $n_i$ on the $p_i$ vary, is it known whether it is ever possible to have infinitely many primes of the form $\prod_i ...
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Comparing $\pi(x)$ and $\pi^{(k)}(x)$

We say a k-almost prime is an integer that results as the product of k prime, counting repetition. For example, $12$ is a $3$-almost prime as $12= 3 \times 2 \times 2$. Additionally, we define ...
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Convenient goedel numbering for finite register machines?

Overview I'm trying to find a goedel numbering for finite register machines, which is convenient in two ways: when ordering machines by their numbering, simple machines shall come first, i.e. ...
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How do computers generate primes so quickly?

From what I understand, when a computer encrypts a file using an encryption standard like RSA, one of the steps is to generate two large primes, and multiply them together. I have created RSA keys on ...
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Primes with a very special form [duplicate]

This question is related to the power cyclic and congruences. Does there exist a prime of the form 2^3^5^7^11^13^....^p(n-1)^p(n)+ p(n)^p(n-1)^p(n-2)^....^11^7^5^3^2 where p(n) is the n-th prime ...
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A problem about $e^{2\pi i \alpha_1}+e^{2\pi i \alpha_2}+\cdots+e^{2\pi i \alpha_N}=0$

Let $\alpha_i\in [0,1),\; i\in \{1,\cdots,N\}$ for some positive integer $N$, such that $$e^{2\pi i \alpha_1}+e^{2\pi i \alpha_2}+\cdots+e^{2\pi i \alpha_N}=0$$ and if for any non-empty proper subset ...
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40 views

Time complexity of a simple factoring algorithm?

This has puzzled me for a little. I start off with a list of primes that is sufficiently large. For my number $n$, I do trial division of primes in ascending order until I reach a prime that divides ...
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Distribution of decimal repunit primes

The prime number theorem describes the distribution of prime numbers in positive integers. Is there a similar theorem describing the distribution of primes among positive integers of the form ...
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1answer
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Find all numbes $1\le a\le n-1$ which are prime to n and they are not witness Fermat of compositeness of n

Given the number $n=35$.Find all numbes $1\le a\le n-1$ which are prime to n and they are not witness Fermat of compositeness of n I found this problem on internet and i am trying to find a solution ...
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Finding Gaussian Primes along Lines in $\mathbb Z[i]$

I am trying to prove the following statement: For all positive integers $a$ does there exists a positive integer $b$ such that $a^2 + b^2$ is prime? (If so, can we provide such a $b$?) Given the ...
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Using The Riemann Zeta Functional Equation

Riemann was able to establish the following link between the Riemann zeta function and the weighted prime counting function $J(x)$. $$\ln(\zeta(s))=s\int_1^\infty J(x)x^{-s-1}dx$$ Using the Mellin ...
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Probability number is divisible by half the square of a prime?

Let $p$ be a prime. What is the probability that a number of the form $\left \lceil \frac{p^2}{2} \right \rceil$ divides a random positive integer $n$. I have a solution that involves the Riemann-Zeta ...
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Distribution of the sum reciprocal of primes $\le 1$

$$\frac{1}{2}+\frac{1}{3}+\frac{1}{7}+\frac{1}{43}+\cdots \le 1 $$ This is an interesting infinite summation. This is very closely resembling my other problem with has to do with the distribution of ...
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what is the greatest integer that divides $p^4-1$ for every prime number p greater than 5

what is the greatest integer that divides $p^4-1$ for every prime number p greater than 5(this is a gre subject math problem) I think that $p^4-1=(p^2+1)(p-1)(p+1)$,so 8 must divide all the $p^4-1$ ...
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109 views

The asymptotic of the first Chebyshev function, using the Prime Number Theorem [closed]

Using the prime number theorem, show that: $\vartheta (x) \sim x$ Where $\vartheta (x) := \sum_{p \le x} \log p$ Any help on this would be great, thanks in advance.
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Is there a way to estimate the number of positive integers less than or equal to $n$ that have a given prime $p$ as a least prime factor

The probability that an integer $p$ divides an integer $x$ is $\dfrac{1}{p}$. From this article on almost prime numbers, the number $\pi_k(n)$ of positive integers less than or equal to $n$ with at ...
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What is the summatory function of the number of (not necessarily distinct) prime factors?

In the Math World article on Merten's Constant, a related constant $B_2$ is mentioned which "appears in the summatory function of the number of (not necessarily distinct) prime factors." I am very ...
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Do prime numbers have prime factors?

(This is a somewhat trivial question). Do prime numbers have prime factors, i.e. itself? For example is 7 a prime factor of 7? The reason I ask this is because there is a statement in my lecture ...
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Is it true that $(pq,(p-1)(q-1)) =1 \iff (pq,\operatorname{lcm}(p-1,q-1))=1$?

Notation: $(a,b) = \gcd(a,b)$ If $p,q$ are distinct odd primes, is it true that $$(pq,(p-1)(q-1)) =1 \iff (pq,\operatorname{lcm}(p-1,q-1))=1\;?$$
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Find all numbers that have 30 factors and have 30 as one of their factors.

Find all numbers that have 30 factors and have 30 as one of their factors. Thank you. Note: please show way if possible.
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Why does symmetry happen in reset-based random walks?

I am studying the basic concepts about random walks / brownian motion, and based on the idea of a Möbius-based walk in Wolfram's website, I wanted to try my own version of it in Python to compare it ...
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How do I show that:if$p$ is prime $>5$ then $p^4-20p^2+19$ is always divisible by $180$.?

Is there someone who can show me How do i show that :If $p$ is a prime number greater than $5$ then : $$p^4-20p^2+19$$ is always divisible by $180$. Note : i think should factor $p^4-20p^2+19=$ ...