Questions about the properties of functions of the form $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}a_n x^n$, where the $a_n$ are real or complex numbers, and $x$ is real or complex (or more generally an element of a Banach algebra).

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1answer
191 views

Applications of higher powers of trigonometric functions

I am after a reference (book, papers etc) about the practical applications of trigonometric functions raised to higher powers. An example is one that I have been using in my own studies: $\cos^4 ...
1
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1answer
550 views

The coefficients in the inverse of unit lower triangular Toeplitz matrix

I have a question about the inverse of lower triangular Toeplitz matrix. There is a matrix $Q$ which can be infinite-dimensional. $$ Q=\left[\begin{array}{ccccc} 1\\ -k_{1} & 1\\ -k_{2} & ...
0
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1answer
163 views

What's the limit of coefficient ratio for a reciprocating power series?

I have a question about the coefficient in the inverse of the power series. Assume $$ f=1-\sum_{i=1}^{\infty}(ck_i)x^i, $$ where $c$ and $k_i$ are positive and $0<ck_i<1$ for any $i>0$. ...
0
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2answers
88 views

Trying to revert a series with problematic log term

I'm stuck on a problem which I'm not sure has a solution. I have the first few terms of a series I want to invert, $y(x)=\ln(x)+a_0+\frac{a_1}{x}+\frac{a_2}{x^2}+\cdots$ I know the inverse exists ...
-2
votes
1answer
46 views

Find the interval of convergence for these 3 power series

I believe I need to use the root test and ratio test. I've solved the first two, but I'm not too sure I fully understand how to do these, so was hoping someone else could work them out so I could ...
8
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4answers
326 views

Asymptotic behavior of $\sum\limits_{k=1}^n \frac{2^k}{k}$

I'm looking for an asymptotic equivalent of $$\sum_{0 < k \le n} \frac{2^k}{k}$$ as $n \to \infty$. A plausible candidate seems to be $\frac{2^{n+1}}{n+1}$ (WolframAlpha plot, and the intuitive ...
7
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1answer
103 views

How to derive this interesting identity for $\log(\sin(x))$ [duplicate]

I saw on SE that: $$\log(\sin x)=-\log(2)-\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{\cos(2nx)}{n} \phantom{a} (0<x<\pi)$$ This is an extremely useful identity, as it helps solve: $$\int_{0}^{\pi} ...
4
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2answers
144 views

the sum of $1-\frac{1}{5}+\frac{1}{9}-\frac{1}{13}+…$

I thought this was the real part of the series: $\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{i^n}{1+2n}$, with $i=\sqrt{-1}$. When taking the real part I am left with: $\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{\cos(n\pi/2)}{1+2n}$. I ...
4
votes
1answer
135 views

Convergence of the power series $\sum \left(\frac{n^n}{n!} x^n \right)$

Find the convergence radius of the serie $$\sum \frac{n^n}{n!}x^n $$ and analyze the absolute convergence and/or uniform. What I've done: It is easy to show that the radius of convergence of this ...
3
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1answer
69 views

Is my proof that $\frac{\pi}{4}=\sum\limits_{n\geq 0}(-1)^n \frac{1}{2n+1}$ correct?

Respected All I was trying to prove that $$\sum_{n\geq 0}(-1)^{n} \frac{1}{2n+1}=\frac{\pi}{4}$$ What I tried to show like this. We know $$\frac{1}{1+x^2}=(1+x^2)^{-1}=\sum_{n\geq 0}(-1)^nx^{2n}, ...
3
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0answers
50 views

Find a series solution to $(x^2-2)y''+6xy'+4y=0$.

Find a series solution to $(x^2-2)y''+6xy'+4y=0$. A. Find the recurrence relation to $a_n$: My answer is $a_{n+2}=a_n\cdot \frac{n+4}{2(n+2)}$ which is correct. B. Using A, write two independent ...
3
votes
4answers
429 views

Expansion of $(1-z)^{-m}$

Expand $(1-z)^{-m}$, $m$ a positive integer, in powers of $z$. Since $\dfrac{1}{1-z}=1+z+z^2+\ldots$, we can find $$\dfrac{1}{(1-z)^2} = (1+z+z^2+\ldots)(1+z+z^2+\ldots) = 1+2z+3z^2+\ldots.$$ ...
3
votes
4answers
234 views

Show that $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty} nx^n=0$ for $x\in[0,1)$.

Show that $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty} nx^n=0$ for $x\in[0,1)$.
3
votes
2answers
623 views

Why is Taylor series expansion for $1/(1-x)$ valid only for $x \in (-1, 1)$?

After finding an expansion of $$ \frac{1}{1-x} = 1 + x + x^2 + x^3 + \ldots$$ a quick test of various values for $x$ reveals that this expansion is not valid for $\forall x \in \mathbb{R}-\{1\}$. ...
3
votes
3answers
212 views

Power Series $0^{0}$

My textbook explains that the power series: $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} x^{n}/n!$ converges for $x=0$ because the terms of the series get the value 0. My problem with this argument is the first term, ...
3
votes
4answers
472 views

Question Regarding The Power Series For $e^x$

Currently I'm reading Higher Engineering Math by John Bird and under exponential function he talks about obtaining the value of $e$. He begins by saying The value of $e^x$ can be calculated to ...
3
votes
7answers
344 views

how to find this generating function

this is the power series: $$\sum_{i=0}^\infty n(n-1)^2 (n-2) z^n.$$ how can I find a generating function from it? I could use the third derivative but the $n-1$ is squared so I don't know what to ...
3
votes
2answers
1k views

Formal Proof of Exponential rule

I tried to prove this, but was unsuccessful for a long time.. Any ideas? Prove that $(\exp(x))^y=\exp(xy)$ using the identities, $$\exp(x)=\sum_{n\geq0} \frac{x^n}{n!}, \quad ...
2
votes
2answers
159 views

Solution to ODE using Power Series

I'm currently trying to wrap my head around how to solve an ODE with series. The problem I am working on is this: Find the indicated coefficients of the power series solution about x=0 of the ...
2
votes
1answer
99 views

If $f$ is analytic, prove that $\overline{f(\overline{z})}$ is also analytic

Let $f$ be an analytic function in an open set $U \subseteq \mathbb{C}$. Let $V=\{z\in\mathbb C:\overline z\in U\}$. Define $g$ on $V$ by $g(z)=\overline{f(\overline{z})}$. Show that $g$ is analytic ...
2
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2answers
36 views

Analyticity: Uniform Limit

Problem Consider a uniformly bounded sequence over the real line: $$f_n:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{C}:\quad|f_n(x)|\leq L$$ Suppose they have analytic continuations with common domain: ...
2
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1answer
109 views

Evaluate $ \int_0^1 \sum_{k=0}^\infty (-x^4)^k dx = \int_0^1 \frac{dx}{1+x^4} $

I have read this thread and I found in some comments the above named equality. I couldn't follow the transformation, which are done to get from the left to the right side at that point in particular. ...
2
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1answer
54 views

Does n power of e grow much more faster than its Maclaurin polynomial? [duplicate]

I wonder how to calculate the following limit: $$ \lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\frac{1+n+\frac{{}n^{2}}{2!}+\cdots +\frac{n^{n}}{n!}}{e^{n}} $$ In the first sight, I think it should be zero, because ...
2
votes
1answer
110 views

What's $\sum{\frac{x^n}{n^3}}$?

What's $\displaystyle f(x)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty{\frac{x^n}{n^3}}$? Note its derivative: $$\displaystyle f'(x)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty{\frac{x^{n-1}}{n^2}}$$ and the next derivative: $$\displaystyle ...
2
votes
0answers
111 views

Abel's Theorem, alternate proof

I'm trying to solve: Suppose $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_n$ converges. Prove that: $$ \lim_{r\to1^-}\sum_{n=1}^\infty r^n a_n = \sum_{n=1}^\infty a_n. $$ Hint: Sum by parts. In class, I have seen a ...
2
votes
2answers
73 views

How can i evaluate this power series?

$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty }\frac{1}{2n+1} \left (\frac{1}{3} \right )^{n}\left ( -1 \right )^{n} $ it's solved by power series of arctan. is it possible the answer written by real number?
2
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3answers
54 views

A power series from $\frac{x}{9+x^2}$

I need to make power series from $\frac{x}{9+x^2}$, and I don't have any idea how. The only thing I know is how to make power series from $\frac{1}{1-q}$. Thank you!
2
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0answers
100 views

Are there other power series for the Lambert W function than this one?

Are there other known power series for the Lambert W function, other than this one: $$W(x) = x-x^2+\frac{3 x^3}{2}-\frac{8 x^4}{3}+\frac{125 x^5}{24}-\frac{54 x^6}{5}+\frac{16807 ...
2
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0answers
129 views

Irreducible polynomials as formal power series

I'm studing the ring of formal series with complex coefficients $\mathbb{C}[[x]]$. I proved that the polynomial $y^2-x^3-x^2$ is irreducible in $\mathbb{C}[x,y]$ but reducible in $\mathbb{C}[[x,y]]$. ...
2
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1answer
219 views

Definite Sum of Confluent Hypergeometric involving power function

I find it difficult to evaluate the following definite sum: $$ \sum _{k=1}^K \frac{_1F_1[k,1,x]} {2^k} $$ Thank you for your time
2
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3answers
134 views

Explicit formula for the series $ \sum_{k=1}^\infty \frac{x^k}{k!\cdot k} $

I was wondering if there is an explicit formulation for the series $$ \sum_{k=1}^\infty \frac{x^k}{k!\cdot k} $$ It is evident that the converges for any $x \in \mathbb{R}$. Any ideas on a formula?
2
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2answers
76 views

An approximate solution to an ODE

I am interested in the ODE: $x^\prime = x^2 + t^2$ $x(0)=0$ The power-series method is not (easily?) applicable here. Do you have any suggestions how to solve it?
2
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3answers
207 views

Showing that $R(x)$ is a proper subset of $R((x))$ if R is a field

I would like to show that if $R$ is a field, then $R(x)$ is a proper subset of $R((x))$, where $R(x)$ is the ring of rational functions, and $R((x))$ is the ring of formal Laurent series. If $f \in ...
2
votes
2answers
925 views

${a_n}$ series of Fibonacci numbers. $f(x)=\sum_{0}^{\infty}a_nx^n$, show that in the convergence radius: $f(x)= \frac{1}{1-x-x^2}$

I'd really like your help with this following problem: Let ${a_n}$ be a Fibonacci series $a_1=a_0=1$ and $a_{n+2}=a_n+a_{n+1}$ for every $n \geq 0$. Let $f(x)=\sum_{0}^{\infty}a_nx^n$, I need to find ...
1
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1answer
124 views

Radius of convergence of a power serise involving the Fibonacci sequence.

Consider the power series $$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}a_nz^n.$$ where, $a_0=0$ , $a_1=1$ , $a_n=a_{n-1}+a_{n-2}$. Find the radius of convergence of the power series. MY Attempt : Clearly $\{a_n\}$ is a ...
1
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0answers
67 views

Infinitely nested radicals

In a recent paper is is stated ( and maybe proved) that we can solve any polynomial equation with nested radicals. Here "nested radicals" means expression such as: $$ ...
1
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1answer
30 views

Exponential of a complex number converges absolutely

$$\operatorname{exp}(z)=\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{z^n}{n!}$$ This converges absolutely for every $z\in \Bbb C$. What does this mean to a layman?
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1answer
50 views

Finding the coefficients of $h(z)$ laurent series

Consider: $$h(z) = \frac{\psi(-z)}{(z+1)(z+2)^3}$$ Find the coefficients $a_n$ of the Laurent Series of $h(z)$ centered at $z=-2$ I got this from the approach here: Infinite sum complex analysis ...
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3answers
87 views

If $\sum_{n=0}^\infty c_n x^n$ is convergent for $x=-3$, what can be said about convergence at $x=2$ and $x=3$?

Problem: Is the following True or False: If $\sum_{n=0}^\infty c_n x^n$ is convergent for $x=-3 \implies:$ a) $\sum_{n=0}^\infty c_n 2^n$ converges. b) $\sum_{n=0}^\infty c_n 3^n$ converges. ...
1
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1answer
164 views

Calculating the power series expansion about $\pi/2$ of $g(z)=\tan(z/2)$

Calculate the power series expansion about $\pi/2$ of $g(z)=\tan(z/2)$. Now calculate the expansion about $0$. I'm having trouble doing this. I'm not even sure which is the best way to approach ...
1
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4answers
98 views

power series for square root matrix

Suppose I have a matrix of the form $$U\ =\ (I+z\thinspace X)^{\frac{1}{2}}$$ where $I$ is the $n\times n$ identity matrix, $z\in\mathbb{C}$ and $X$ is a $n\times n$ arbitrary complex matrix with ...
1
vote
2answers
76 views

Matrix Inversion Test ( Sum of Matrix series)

Friends,I have a set of matrices of dimension $3\times3$ called $A_i$. , Following are the given conditions a) each $A_i$ is non invertible except $A_0$ because their determinant is zero. b) ...
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0answers
33 views

Somehow “mirroring” the Taylor-expansion of some $g(x)$

In proceeding with an older discussion of a summation-procedure for divergent series using the matrix of Eulerian numbers I came to a rather general formulation but cannot/do-not-know-how-to make ...
1
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1answer
73 views

Moving Center of Power Series

Given a power series: $$\lim_{N\to\infty}\sum_{k=0}^N A_k (z-a)^k$$ I expand the powers: $$\lim_{N\to\infty}\sum_{l=0}^N(\sum_{k=l}^N A_k \binom{k}{l}(-1)^{k-l}a^{k-l})z^l$$ But here I face the ...
1
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1answer
89 views

Is the completion of $(k[x,y]/f)_\mathfrak{m}$ isomorphic to $k[[x]][y]/f$?

Let $k$ be an algebraically closed field and let $f\in k[x,y]$ be an irreducible polynomial with no constant term that is not a polynomial in $x$ alone. Is it the case that the completion of the ...
1
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1answer
207 views

Introduction to Analysis: Multiplication Theorem for Series

I've been stuck on this problem over the weekend so I decided to ask for some direction. The problem reads: "The multiplication theorem for series requires that the two series be absolutely ...
1
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0answers
62 views

Solving ODE with negative expansion power series [duplicate]

I am solving a series of ODE, such that each DE is equal to some degree of term that I'm expanding to. For instance, one DE is this: $\xi^r\partial_r g_{rr}+2g_{tt}\partial_t\xi^t=\mathcal{O}(r)$ ...
1
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1answer
116 views

Modelling ellipsoid-like surface with equations

In my numerical simulation, I would often have to generate the failure surface of some materials. Often, the failure surface will take a ellipsoid-like ball such as this: Of course, the surface ...
1
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2answers
156 views

Identity with Bernoulli numbers: $\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}k^p=\frac{1}{p+1}\sum\limits_{j=0}^{p}\binom{p+1}{j}B_j n^{p+1-j}$

How I can prove that $$\sum_{k=1}^{n}k^p=\frac{1}{p+1}\sum_{j=0}^{p}\binom{p+1}{j}B_j n^{p+1-j},$$ where $B_j$ is the $j$th Bernoulli number? I hope to find the answer. Thanks for help.
1
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2answers
74 views

What is the function given by $\sum_{n=0}^\infty \binom{b+2n}{b+n} x^n$, where $b\ge 0$, $|x| <1$

For a nonnegative integer $b$, and $|x|<1$, what is the function given by the power series $$ \sum_{n=0}^\infty \binom{b+2n}{b+n} x^n. $$ For $b=0$, this post shows $$ \sum_{n=0}^\infty ...