Questions about the properties of functions of the form $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}a_n x^n$, where the $a_n$ are real or complex numbers, and $x$ is real or complex (or more generally an element of a Banach algebra).

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5
votes
1answer
840 views

How does a complex power series behave on the boundary of the disc of convergence?

Until recently, I thought my math teacher had said in his real analysis class that on the boundary of the disc of convergence, a complex power series has at least one point at which it does not ...
5
votes
3answers
377 views

A deceiving Taylor series

When we try to expand $$ \begin{align} f:&\mathbb R \to \mathbb R\\ &x \mapsto \begin{cases} \mathrm e^{-\large\frac 1{x^2}} &\Leftarrow x\neq 0\\ 0 &\Leftarrow x=0 ...
4
votes
1answer
90 views

How to write $1-x-x^3+x^4+x^5+x^6-x^7 \cdots$ as a power series representation

How can I write $1-x-x^3+x^4+x^5+x^6-x^7 ....$ as a power series representation (i.e., a neat fraction such as $\frac{1}{1-x}$. This stems from $\binom{\text{number of partitions of }n}{\text{into an ...
4
votes
2answers
315 views

Graphical interpretation of infinite power series?

Can someone please give me a graphical interpretation/sense of infinite power series? Some functions such as exponentials, sines, and cosines are infinite power series, but what does that mean and ...
4
votes
2answers
145 views

What's the background of this exercise?

I found this interesting exercise on a calculus book (Stewart) Let $$ u=1+\frac{x^3}{3!}+\frac{x^6}{6!}+\cdots $$ $$ v=x+\frac{x^4}{4!}+\frac{x^7}{7!}+\cdots $$ $$ ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

Finding closed forms for $\sum n z^{n}$ and $\sum n^{2} z^{n}$

Using the identity $\frac{1}{1-z} = 1 + z + z^2 + \ldots$ for $|z| < 1$, find closed forms for the sums $\sum n z^n$ and $\sum n^2 z^n$. My solution: Because $\displaystyle1 + z + z^{2} + ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

Generalised Binomial Theorem Intuition

It was not until recently (why don't they teach it in secondary school?) that I've come across the Generalised Binomial Theorem, which from what I can tell is basically the same as the regular ...
4
votes
2answers
223 views

Proving the equivalence of a sum and a double integral

Based on "Certain Subclass of Starlike Functions" journal by Chun-Yi and Shi-Qiong Zhou in 2007 (Science Direct), I found difficulties to understand the proof in Theorem 3 where they have verified: ...
4
votes
3answers
252 views

Mathematical reason for the validity of the equation: $S = 1 + x^2 \, S$

Given the geometric series: $1 + x^2 + x^4 + x^6 + x^8 + \cdots$ We can recast it as: $S = 1 + x^2 \, (1 + x^2 + x^4 + x^6 + x^8 + \cdots)$, where $S = 1 + x^2 + x^4 + x^6 + x^8 + \cdots$. This ...
3
votes
4answers
67 views

First four terms of the power series of $f(z) = \frac{z}{e^z-1}$?

Attempt: $$ e^z = \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{z^n}{n!}$$ $$ e^z - 1 = \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{z^n}{n!} -1$$ $$ e^z - 1 = z\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{z^n}{(n+1)!} $$ Thus $$ \frac{z}{e^z-1} = ...
3
votes
1answer
272 views

How to properly translate the coefficients of a Taylor series?

Given a Taylor series $$f(z) = \sum_{k=0}^\infty c_k^{(a)}\frac{(z-a)^k}{k!}$$ of a meromorphic function $f$ in $\mathbb C$ (i.e. analytical except for a set of isolated points) around some value ...
3
votes
2answers
657 views

Why does the taylor series of $\ln (1 + x)$ only approximate it for $-1<x \le 1$?

I'm looking for an intuitive understanding instead of a formal proof. Thanks for the help.
3
votes
2answers
565 views

How to bound the truncation error for a Taylor polynomial approximation of $\tan(x)$

I am playing with Taylor series! I want to go beyond the basic text book examples ($\sin(x)$, $\cos(x)$, $\exp(x)$, $\ln(x)$, etc.) and try something different to improve my understanding. So I ...
3
votes
2answers
523 views

How to compute coefficients in Trinomial triangle at specific position?

I need to compute coefficients of $i$-th power of $x$ from simplifying of $$(x^2 + x + 1)^n$$ From that site i know about trinomial triangle. But how can compute coeficients of $i$-th element at ...
3
votes
5answers
409 views

Calculate sum of an infinite series

I have been struggling with this functional series. $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{(-1)^{n-1}n^2x^n}$$ I need to calulate the sum.Any tips would be appreciated.
2
votes
2answers
203 views

Evaluation morphisms of formal power series and nilpotent elements

Given a commutative ring $A$, and a finitely presented (associative) $A$-algebra $B$, show that a morphism of $A$-algebras $A[[x]] \longrightarrow B$ is given by evaluation at an nilpotent element $ ...
2
votes
0answers
142 views

Algorithm for reversion of power series?

Given a function $f(x)$ of the form: $$f(x) = x/(a_0x^0+a_1x^1+a_2x^2+a_3x^3+a_4x^4+a_5x^5+...a_nx^n)$$ Let $A$ be an arbitrary (any) infinite lower triangular matrix with ones in the diagonal: $$A ...
2
votes
1answer
340 views

Show that some $C^\infty$ real function is analytic

Consider the function $f:(a,b) \rightarrow \Bbb R $, which is $C^\infty$ class. It is required to show that if the function $f$ satisfies: $\forall_{n\in\Bbb N_+} \forall_{x\in(a,b)} f^{(n)}(x) \ge 0 ...
2
votes
2answers
553 views

Help on differential equation $y''-2\sin y'+3y=\cos x$

$y''-2\sin y'+3y=\cos x$ I'm trying to solve it by power series, but I just can't find the way to get $\sin y'$. Is there any special way to find it?
1
vote
3answers
90 views

Series expansion of $\frac{1}{(1+x)(1−x)(1+x^2)(1−x^2)(1+x^3)(1−x^3)\cdots}$?

How would I find the series expansion $\displaystyle\frac{1}{(1+x)(1−x)(1+x^2)(1−x^2)(1+x^3)(1−x^3)\cdots}$ so that it will turn into an infinite power series again??
1
vote
2answers
450 views

Show that $\sum_{n=0}^\infty r^n e^{i n \theta} = \frac{1- r\cos(\theta)+i r \sin(\theta)}{1+r^2-2r\cos(\theta)}$ [closed]

Show that $$\sum_{n=0}^\infty r^n e^{i n \theta} = \frac{1- r\cos(\theta)+i r \sin(\theta)}{1+r^2-2r\cos(\theta)},$$ where $0\leq r <1$. Using this, prove that $\sum_{n=0}^\infty r^n ...
1
vote
1answer
156 views

Applications of higher powers of trigonometric functions

I am after a reference (book, papers etc) about the practical applications of trigonometric functions raised to higher powers. An example is one that I have been using in my own studies: $\cos^4 ...
1
vote
1answer
478 views

The coefficients in the inverse of unit lower triangular Toeplitz matrix

I have a question about the inverse of lower triangular Toeplitz matrix. There is a matrix $Q$ which can be infinite-dimensional. $$ Q=\left[\begin{array}{ccccc} 1\\ -k_{1} & 1\\ -k_{2} & ...
0
votes
1answer
158 views

What's the limit of coefficient ratio for a reciprocating power series?

I have a question about the coefficient in the inverse of the power series. Assume $$ f=1-\sum_{i=1}^{\infty}(ck_i)x^i, $$ where $c$ and $k_i$ are positive and $0<ck_i<1$ for any $i>0$. ...
0
votes
2answers
88 views

Trying to revert a series with problematic log term

I'm stuck on a problem which I'm not sure has a solution. I have the first few terms of a series I want to invert, $y(x)=\ln(x)+a_0+\frac{a_1}{x}+\frac{a_2}{x^2}+\cdots$ I know the inverse exists ...
9
votes
4answers
309 views

Asymptotic behavior of $\sum\limits_{k=1}^n \frac{2^k}{k}$

I'm looking for an asymptotic equivalent of $$\sum_{0 < k \le n} \frac{2^k}{k}$$ as $n \to \infty$. A plausible candidate seems to be $\frac{2^{n+1}}{n+1}$ (WolframAlpha plot, and the intuitive ...
8
votes
1answer
636 views

Deriving Maclaurin series for $\frac{\arcsin x}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}$.

Intrigued by this brilliant answer from Ron Gordon, I was attempting to find the Maclaurin series for $$f(x)=\frac{\arcsin x}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}=g(x)G(x)$$ with $g(x)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{1-x^2}}$ and $G(x)$ ...
4
votes
3answers
138 views

the sum of $1-\frac{1}{5}+\frac{1}{9}-\frac{1}{13}+…$

I thought this was the real part of the series: $\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{i^n}{1+2n}$, with $i=\sqrt{-1}$. When taking the real part I am left with: $\sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{\cos(n\pi/2)}{1+2n}$. I ...
4
votes
1answer
114 views

Convergence of the power series $\sum \left(\frac{n^n}{n!} x^n \right)$

Find the convergence radius of the serie $$\sum \frac{n^n}{n!}x^n $$ and analyze the absolute convergence and/or uniform. What I've done: It is easy to show that the radius of convergence of this ...
4
votes
2answers
1k views

Proof of the “Radius of Convergence Theorem”

I can't figure out how it is valid to invoke the Absolute Convergence Theorem, whose hypothesis is "Let the power series have radius of convergence R", to establish case c of the Radius of Convergence ...
3
votes
4answers
232 views

Show that $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty} nx^n=0$ for $x\in[0,1)$.

Show that $\displaystyle\lim_{n\to\infty} nx^n=0$ for $x\in[0,1)$.
3
votes
1answer
2k views

Frobenius Method to solve $x(1 - x)y'' - 3xy' - y = 0$

So, Im trying to self-learn method of frobenius, and I would like to ask if someone can explain to me how can we solve the following DE about $ x = 0$ using this method. $$ x(1 - x)y'' - 3xy' - y = 0 ...
3
votes
2answers
514 views

Why is Taylor series expansion for $1/(1-x)$ valid only for $x \in (-1, 1)$?

After finding an expansion of $$ \frac{1}{1-x} = 1 + x + x^2 + x^3 + \ldots$$ a quick test of various values for $x$ reveals that this expansion is not valid for $\forall x \in \mathbb{R}-\{1\}$. ...
3
votes
3answers
204 views

Power Series $0^{0}$

My textbook explains that the power series: $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} x^{n}/n!$ converges for $x=0$ because the terms of the series get the value 0. My problem with this argument is the first term, ...
3
votes
4answers
418 views

Question Regarding The Power Series For $e^x$

Currently I'm reading Higher Engineering Math by John Bird and under exponential function he talks about obtaining the value of $e$. He begins by saying The value of $e^x$ can be calculated to ...
3
votes
7answers
340 views

how to find this generating function

this is the power series: $$\sum_{i=0}^\infty n(n-1)^2 (n-2) z^n.$$ how can I find a generating function from it? I could use the third derivative but the $n-1$ is squared so I don't know what to ...
3
votes
2answers
941 views

Formal Proof of Exponential rule

I tried to prove this, but was unsuccessful for a long time.. Any ideas? Prove that $(\exp(x))^y=\exp(xy)$ using the identities, $$\exp(x)=\sum_{n\geq0} \frac{x^n}{n!}, \quad ...
2
votes
1answer
104 views

Evaluate $ \int_0^1 \sum_{k=0}^\infty (-x^4)^k dx = \int_0^1 \frac{dx}{1+x^4} $

I have read this thread and I found in some comments the above named equality. I couldn't follow the transformation, which are done to get from the left to the right side at that point in particular. ...
2
votes
0answers
51 views

$f\in C^\omega ((a-R,a+R),\mathbb{R})$ [closed]

We discuss the following question in the field of real numbers . A a power series $f(x)= \sum_{n=0}^\infty a_n (x-a )^n$ converges in $(a-R,a+R).$ Prove: $$\forall x_0\in\left(a-R,a+R \right), ...
2
votes
1answer
104 views

What's $\sum{\frac{x^n}{n^3}}$?

What's $\displaystyle f(x)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty{\frac{x^n}{n^3}}$? Note its derivative: $$\displaystyle f'(x)=\sum_{n=1}^\infty{\frac{x^{n-1}}{n^2}}$$ and the next derivative: $$\displaystyle ...
2
votes
2answers
64 views

How can i evaluate this power series?

$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty }\frac{1}{2n+1} \left (\frac{1}{3} \right )^{n}\left ( -1 \right )^{n} $ it's solved by power series of arctan. is it possible the answer written by real number?
2
votes
3answers
52 views

A power series from $\frac{x}{9+x^2}$

I need to make power series from $\frac{x}{9+x^2}$, and I don't have any idea how. The only thing I know is how to make power series from $\frac{1}{1-q}$. Thank you!
2
votes
0answers
103 views

Irreducible polynomials as formal power series

I'm studing the ring of formal series with complex coefficients $\mathbb{C}[[x]]$. I proved that the polynomial $y^2-x^3-x^2$ is irreducible in $\mathbb{C}[x,y]$ but reducible in $\mathbb{C}[[x,y]]$. ...
2
votes
4answers
321 views

Expansion of $(1-z)^{-m}$

Expand $(1-z)^{-m}$, $m$ a positive integer, in powers of $z$. Since $\dfrac{1}{1-z}=1+z+z^2+\ldots$, we can find $$\dfrac{1}{(1-z)^2} = (1+z+z^2+\ldots)(1+z+z^2+\ldots) = 1+2z+3z^2+\ldots.$$ ...
2
votes
2answers
93 views

Understanding Power Series Multiplication Step

Working on Spivak's Calculus problems, I searched online, trying to understand the solution provided for Problem 4a of Chapter 2. I found the question I needed: Spivak's Calculus - Exercise 4.a of ...
2
votes
1answer
209 views

Definite Sum of Confluent Hypergeometric involving power function

I find it difficult to evaluate the following definite sum: $$ \sum _{k=1}^K \frac{_1F_1[k,1,x]} {2^k} $$ Thank you for your time
2
votes
3answers
125 views

Explicit formula for the series $ \sum_{k=1}^\infty \frac{x^k}{k!\cdot k} $

I was wondering if there is an explicit formulation for the series $$ \sum_{k=1}^\infty \frac{x^k}{k!\cdot k} $$ It is evident that the converges for any $x \in \mathbb{R}$. Any ideas on a formula?
2
votes
2answers
74 views

An approximate solution to an ODE

I am interested in the ODE: $x^\prime = x^2 + t^2$ $x(0)=0$ The power-series method is not (easily?) applicable here. Do you have any suggestions how to solve it?
2
votes
1answer
528 views

Power Series With Bernoulli Numbers

The exercise reads "Express the power series for $\large \frac{z}{\sin (z)} = \frac{2 i z}{e^{iz} - e^{-iz}} $ in terms of Bernoulli numbers." I am given in a previous exercise that the Bernoulli ...
2
votes
1answer
3k views

How to find the general solution of $(1+x^2)y''+2xy'-2y=0$. How to express by means of elementary functions?

Find the general solution of $$(1+x^2)y''+2xy'-2y=0$$ in terms of power series in $x$. Can you express this solution by means of elementary functions? I know that $y= ...