3
votes
0answers
31 views

Evaluating sums and integrals using Taylor's Theorem

Taylor's theorem states that $$f(x)-\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{f^{(k)}(a)}{k!}x^k = \int_a^x \frac{f^{(n+1)} (t)}{n!} (x - t)^n \, dt $$ This could be used to evaluate partial sums using knowledge of the ...
1
vote
2answers
23 views

Series Coefficient Convergence implies Uniform Convergence

Trying to find a reference for the following. Define the entire functions, $$f_n(x)=\sum_{k=0}^\infty a_{n,k}x^k\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ f(x)=\sum_{k=0}^\infty a_kx^k.$$ If for each $k$, ...
0
votes
2answers
16 views

Radius convergence of a power series…

"Suppose that $\sum_{n=0}^{+\infty}a_nx^n$ has convergence radius $R$, $R>0, \text{or }R=+\infty$. Proof that the convergence radius of $\sum_{n=0}^{+\infty}na_nx^{n-1}$ is also $R$." This seems ...
1
vote
2answers
42 views

Conditions for convergence of $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty{a^nf(n)}$

assume $a>0$, and for all $n$ we have $0 \leq f(n) \leq 1$. Is there a necessary and sufficient condition on the series $f(n)$ for which $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty{a^nf(n)}<\infty$ ? Thanks!
1
vote
4answers
29 views

Function as a series :

Let $f(x)=\sum_{n=0}^{+\infty}\dfrac{x^n}{n!}$. Verify that $$\int_0^xf(x)dt=f(x)-1$$ This is the exercise 3 of the section $7.4$, of Guidorizzi's Calculus, Vol. 4. What I have tried: By the ratio ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

$f_1 \in L^1_{loc}(\mathbb{R})$ and $f_{n+1} (x)= \int_0^x f_n(t) dt$, What is $\sum_n f_n$?

$f_1 \in L^1_{loc}(\mathbb{R})$ and $f_{n+1}(x) = \int_0^x f_n(t) dt$, What is $\sum_n f_n$? (and converges in what sense?) My attempt: Suppose $f_1$ is bounded, define the continuous linear ...
0
votes
1answer
59 views

How does one obtain the expansion of $e^{-x^2}$ in a power series?

So I know that the Power Series $y = \displaystyle\sum_{m=0}^\infty\displaystyle\frac{(-1)^m}{m!} x^{2m}$ is equivalent to $e^{-x^2}$. Could someone show me why this is?
13
votes
2answers
337 views

Ramanujan's approximation for $\pi$

In 1910, Srinivasa Ramanujan found several rapidly converging infinite series of $\pi$, such as $$ \frac{1}{\pi} = \frac{2\sqrt{2}}{9801} \sum^\infty_{k=0} \frac{(4k)!(1103+26390k)}{(k!)^4 396^{4k}}. ...
0
votes
2answers
28 views

Find the Taylor series and prove it converges using the defintion

I'm studying for the FE Exam. A simple walk-through would be appreciated to help my understanding of how to solve similar problems. Find the Taylor series about $x=2$ for the function $f(x) = x^5 - ...
0
votes
2answers
37 views

Interval of convergence using ratio test on the series ln(1 - x)

I have to find the series expansion and interval of convergence for the function ln(1 - x). For the expansion, I have gone through the process and obtained the series: -x - (x^2/2) - (x^3/3) - . . . ...
4
votes
1answer
91 views

'Deriving' the Laplace Transform from the $z$ Transform: Missing a $\Delta t$

Textbooks normally give the following 'derivation' (or justification, if you prefer) of the z-Transform from the Laplace Transform. Let $x(t)$ be a signal defined on $t\geq 0$, and write a discretized ...
2
votes
2answers
61 views

Find the first 5 coefficients of the series $\frac{6x}{x+9} = \sum_{n=0}^\infty C_n x^n$

I rewrote the equation series as $$ \frac69 \sum_{n=0}^\infty \left(\frac{-1}{9}\right)^n x^{n+1} $$ And therefore have coefficients of $C_0 = 6/9, C_1 = \left( 6/9 \right) ...
0
votes
0answers
13 views

abstract conceptual usage of power series, advice on how to approach similar problems

This problem is a bit strange, I have the solution for this particular one, I just think that it a very ambiguous question. How would you go about solving it? My answer is that b is larger because ...
0
votes
2answers
30 views

Convergence, interval, radius of power series, conceptual explanation please [closed]

Could someone explain how to solve the problem. A very basic and broad understanding is what I am looking for so that if I were to have to approach this problem with different numbers I would know ...
0
votes
1answer
68 views

Taylor Series Theorem

So I see the argument presented in taylor series, that $$\sum c_n (x-a)^n = \sum \frac{f^{(n)}(a)}{n!} (x-a)^n$$ or $c_n = f^{(n)}(a)/n!$ if $x=a$ the question is, since the above only holds when ...
1
vote
4answers
62 views

Why does $\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \frac {(-1)^{k-1}}{k}$ converge conditionally?

Why does it converge conditionally? $$\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \frac {(-1)^{k-1}}{k}$$
0
votes
1answer
47 views

Function whose power series coefficients contain logarithms

Is there a function that can be expressed as a power series $$f(x)=\sum_{n=0}^\infty a_n x^n$$ whose coefficients $a_n$ are expressions containing $\log n$ or something similar?
1
vote
1answer
43 views

Finding radius of convergence using root test

Find the radius of convergence of the following power series $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{2^n + 1}{n} x^n.$$ Using the ratio test, I have found that the radius of convergence is $R = \frac{1}{2}$. I ...
0
votes
2answers
29 views

Find power series representation of $ x/(x^{2}+9)^{2}$

I'm not sure how to do it since the entire bottom term is squared. Is there a geometric series I should use? Or differentiation?
1
vote
2answers
65 views

Find a power series for function

I'm having some difficulty with this problem even while noting the hint. I expressed the function as $(1/2)\frac{1}{1-(-3x/2)}$ and then thought I would work with $1/2$ of the infinite sum of ...
0
votes
0answers
55 views

sum of the series $\sum_{k=0}^{\infty}(k+1)(x_n)^k.$

Let $x_n$ be a sequence of real numbers such that $x_n\in(0,1).$ Find the sum of the series $\sum_{k=0}^{\infty}(k+1)(x_n)^k.$ My answer is $\frac{(x_n)'}{(1-x_n)^2}.$ But the term $(x_n)'$ make me ...
2
votes
2answers
43 views

How to compute power series by composition

Is it possible to compute the power series of every function (e.g. around $0$) just by composing of the power series of its arguments? For example: The power series of $\sin(x^2)$ around $0$ is the ...
4
votes
3answers
53 views

Radius of $\sum a_n b_n x^n$ via radii of $\sum a_n x^n$ and $\sum b_n x^n$

Series $\sum a_n x^n$ and $\sum b_n x^n$ have radii of convergence of 1 and 2, respectively. Then radius of convergence R of $\sum a_n b_n x^n$ is 2 1 $\geq 1$ $ \leq 2$ My ...
3
votes
1answer
45 views

$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} a_n x^n$ and $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} a_{n^2} x^n$ with different radii of convergence

Could you give an example of $$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} a_n x^n$$ and $$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} a_{n^2} x^n$$ that have different radii of convergence?
-1
votes
1answer
37 views

How do you represent f(x+h) and f(x−h) as a Taylor series using the taylor series formula?

I know the answers are below, however i am not quite sure what to substitute as the "a" in the Taylor series formula. $f(x+h)=f(x)+f′(x)⋅h+\frac 12f′′(x)\cdot h^2+\cdots+\frac 1{n!}f^{(n)}(x) \cdot ...
1
vote
0answers
63 views

Can there be a power series with interval of convergence $[k, \infty)$?

My answer : NO Because Interval of convergence is of the form $(a-R, a+R)$ Where $a$ is centre of convergence. If there exists a power series with Interval of convergence $[k, \infty)$ $ $ We ...
1
vote
1answer
45 views

Finding the power series representation for $\ln(1 -10x)$ via integration.

I'm trying to find the power series representation for $ \ln(1-10x) $ Attempt at solution: $$ \ln(1-10x) = \int {-10\over1-10x} \ dx = -10 \int \sum_{n=0}^\infty (10x)^n dx $$ $$ = -10 ...
2
votes
2answers
189 views

Solution to curious infinite series

How exactly does one find a closed form to: $$ \sum_{i=0}^{\infty}\left[\frac{1}{i!}\left(\frac{e^2 -1}{2} \right)^i \prod_{j=0}^{i}(x-2j) \right]$$ When expanded it takes on the form $$1 + ...
-1
votes
3answers
78 views

Can there be more than one power series expansion for a function.

I guess the answer is NO, for polynomials. I know that there are more than one series expansion for every function. But I am talking about power series here. All Ideas are appreciated
7
votes
1answer
123 views

Find the power series of $x\ln(1-x)$.

So the exercise I had to do was: Find the power representation of $x\ln(1-x)$. The way to go was finding the power series representation of $\ln(1-x)$ and then multiply it with $x$. But why can't you ...
0
votes
0answers
32 views

Convergence of two power series

I just wanted to know, whether my results are correct. I should find the radius of convergency in both cases: $\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{z^{2n}}{n^23^{n}}$ with a quotient criterion ...
1
vote
2answers
111 views

Using series find $\int_0^1 \sqrt{1+x^4}\hspace{1mm} dx$ up to $2$ decimal places

I cannot figure out an aesthetic way to do this. Can someone give a beautiful solution to this ugly question? This is what I have tried yet. I used the fact that $$x = ...
0
votes
1answer
19 views

Find the radius of convergence of $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} (3^n + (-5)^n) x^{7n}$

I have to find the radius of convergence of the series $$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} (3^n + (-5)^n) x^{7n}$$ I know that I will have something like $|x^7|<\frac{1}{L}$. I tried finding $R$ with ...
0
votes
1answer
39 views

Taylor Series expansion and first four terms of $7x^2 e^{-4x}$

As the series I got $$ \sum_{n=0}^\infty (-1)^n(4x)^n/n! $$ which I think is right. However, I am not sure how to get the first four non zero terms.
1
vote
2answers
33 views

Meaning of interval of convergence when approximating functions

Let's say I have a Taylor series approximation, $p(x)$, of a function $f(x)$ at $a$: $$ p(x)=\sum_{n=0}^\infty{\frac{f^{(n)}(a)}{n!}(x-a)^n} $$ And that this Taylor series has a radius of ...
3
votes
2answers
210 views

Why is the domain of convergence of a power series a perfect disk?

I've been going over power series in my Differential Equations class for approximating solutions, and one thing that's been fascinating me is the statement that there is a radius of convergence, ...
3
votes
2answers
125 views

Calculate the value of $\sum\limits _{n=1}^{\infty }\:\dfrac{n}{2^n}$ [closed]

In a previous question it is asked to represent $f(x)=\dfrac{x}{1-x^2}$ as a power series. It gave me $\displaystyle\sum _{n=1}^{\infty \:}x\left(2x^2-x^4\right)^{n-1}$. Then they ask to use the last ...
0
votes
1answer
42 views

The power series $\sum_0^\infty2^{-n}z^{2n}$ converges, if

The power series $\sum_0^\infty2^{-n}z^{2n}$ converges, if a) |$z$| $\le$ 2. b) |$z$| $<$ 2. c) |$z$| $\le$ $\sqrt{2}$. d) |$z$| $<$ $\sqrt{2}$. Please anyone give me the answer. I think ...
3
votes
4answers
96 views

Sum the following $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac {(-1)^n}{4^{4n+1}(4n+1)} $

Evaluate: $$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac {(-1)^n}{4^{4n+1}(4n+1)} $$ I rewrote the sum as $$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac {1}{4^{8n-7}(8n-7)} - \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac {1}{4^{8n-3}(8n-3)}$$ Now, I ...
-1
votes
2answers
37 views

Find the sequence $\{c_n\}$ for $c_n = \alpha \cdot c_{n-1} + {\alpha}^{\beta-n}$

Let $\alpha$ and $\beta$ be two given constants, how to find the sequence $\{c_n\}$ for $c_n = \alpha \cdot c_{n-1} + {\alpha}^{\beta-n}$, where $c_0 = {\alpha}^{\beta}$.
0
votes
4answers
67 views

Testing the convergence of a series [closed]

Does the following series converge? $$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{1}{n+3}$$ Please explain with any convergence test you used.
4
votes
1answer
79 views

Is there a generalization of the fundamental theorem of algebra for power series?

Given the similarity between polynomials and power series, I was wondering if there is any generalization of the fundamental theorem of algebra for power series. I understand that it doesn't make much ...
1
vote
2answers
34 views

a series derived from a holomorphic function converges implies that the coefficients converge to $0$

Let $D=\{z\in\mathbb{C}\mid |z|<2\}$. Let $f:D\setminus\{\frac{i}{2}\}\longrightarrow \mathbb{C}$ be holomorphic with $f(z)=\sum_{n=0}^\infty a_nz^n$ for any $|z|<\frac{1}{2}$. Suppose $a_n\neq ...
0
votes
2answers
41 views

Where does the series converges $\sum^\infty_{n=1} (-5)^n \sqrt[5]{\frac{(2n-1)!!}{(2n)!!}}x^{3n}$Is the solution OK?

So guys I want you to tell me is the solution OK. I'm terribly sorry for the not so detailed solution, but the writing in Latex is just too much for me. The calculations aren't that hard so it ...
3
votes
1answer
43 views

Finding the power-series of $\frac{1}{(2-x)^2}$

I am going through some old Calculus-tasks in preparation for an upcoming exam, and a seemingly simple task is being stubborn with me. We are simply to find the power-series of the function ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

$|a_{n}| \leq C e^{-|n|} \implies \sum_{n\in \mathbb Z} a_{n} e^{in(x+iy)} $ converges absolutely for $|y|<1$?

Suppose $\{a_{n}\} \subset \mathbb C$ with $|a_{n}| \leq C e^{-|n|}, n\in \mathbb Z$ and fix $C >0.$ My Question is: How to show the series, $$\sum_{n\in \mathbb Z} a_{n} e^{in (x+iy)}; (x, ...
2
votes
1answer
54 views

Power series - Calculate radius of convergence

Let $$\sum {n\over{n+1}} \cdot \left({{2x+1} \over x}\right)^n$$ I was asked to calculate the radius of convergence. We can write the series as: $$\sum {n\over {n+1}}\cdot \left(2+{1\over ...
0
votes
0answers
40 views

Order of differentiation on a power series

I encountered something strange to me just now. Say we have $$f(x)=\ln(1+x^3)$$ Now, I want to find the power series expansion for $f'(t^2)$. I get two different answers for when I take the ...
0
votes
5answers
63 views

How to create alternating series with happening every two terms

I'm looking for a technique for creating alternating negatives and positives in a series. Specifically: when n=1, the answer is +, n=2 is +, n=3 is -, n=4 is -... etc. I have every other part of the ...
0
votes
2answers
49 views

Intervel of Convergence of a Power Series

Can anyone explain how to do this problem? I think you might be able to approach it with the ration test but I'm unsure. Any help is greatly appreciated! $$\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{(2x-3)^n}{n \ ...