This tag is used for both basic and advanced questions on polynomials in any number of variables. Including, but not limited to: solving for roots, factoring, checking for irreducibility. This tag is rarely used as the only tag for a question.

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46
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1k views

Is $ f_n=\frac{(x+1)^n-(x^n+1)}{x}$ irreducible over $\mathbf{Z}$ for arbitrary $n$?

In this document on page $3$ I found an interesting polynomial: $$f_n=\frac{(x+1)^n-(x^n+1)}{x}$$ Question is whether this polynomial is irreducible over $\mathbf{Q}$ for arbitrary $n \geq 1$ ? In ...
38
votes
0answers
1k views

On the problem of polynomial bijection from $\mathbb Q\times\mathbb Q$ to $\mathbb Q$

The question titled "Polynomial bijection from $\mathbb Q\times\mathbb Q$ to $\mathbb Q$" which was posed on MathOverflow attracted quite a lot of attention (and may be the question with most wrong ...
22
votes
0answers
337 views

Irreducibility of $~\frac{x^{6k+2}-x+1}{x^2-x+1}~$ over $\mathbb Q[x]$

The Artin—Schreier polynomial $~x^n-x+1~$ is always irreducible over $\mathbb Q[x]$, unless $n=6k+2$, in which case it seems to have only two factors, one of which is always $x^2-x+1$. The ...
18
votes
0answers
789 views

The radical solution of a solvable 17th degree equation

(The question is at the bottom of the post.) Here's a "natural" solvable 17-th deg eqn with small coefficients: $$\begin{align*} x^{17}-6 x^{16}&-24 x^{15}-42 x^{14}-31 x^{13}-23 x^{12}-7 x^{11}...
13
votes
0answers
157 views

On the order of $\mathbb{Z}[X]/(f,g)$ and the resultant $R(f,g)$.

I suspect that $\#\mathbb{Z}[X]/(f,g)=|R(f,g)|$ holds for any two non-constant polynomials $f,g\in\mathbb{Z}[X]$, where $R(f,g)$ is the resultant of $f$ and $g$. I am however unable to prove it. I'd ...
12
votes
0answers
127 views

If polynomials are almost surjective over a field, is the field algebraically closed?

Let $K$ be a field. Say that polynomials are almost surjective over $K$ if for any nonconstant polynomial $f(x)\in K[x]$, the image of the map $f:K\to K$ contains all but finitely many points of $K$. ...
12
votes
0answers
204 views

Polynomial in the components of the curvature tensor

Consider a closed Riemannian manifold $(M,g)$ of dimension n and let $K(t,x,y)$ be its heat kernel. Then it is known that the heat kernel has an asymptotic expansion as $t\downarrow 0$: $$K(t,x,x)\...
11
votes
0answers
212 views

When does a polynomial fixing a subring imply its coefficients are in that subring?

Let $S$ be a subring of $R$. If $p$ is a polynomial with coefficients in $S$, then $p$ fixes $S$ (as a function, that is, $p(s)\in S$ for all $s\in S$). A converse statement is: If $p$ is a ...
11
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0answers
358 views

Is $\bigl(X(X-a)(X-b)\bigr)^{2^n} +1$ an irreducible polynomial over $\mathbb{Q}[X]$?

Let $a, b \in \mathbb{Q}$, with $a\neq b$ and $ab\neq 0$, and $n$ a positive integer. Is the polynomial $\bigl(X(X-a)(X-b)\bigr)^{2^n} +1$ irreducible over $\mathbb{Q}[X]$? I know that $\bigl(X(...
10
votes
0answers
142 views

When is a polynomial contained in the ideal generated by its partial derivatives?

Let $R = k[x_1,\dots,x_n]$ be a multivariate polynomial ring over a field $k$ of characteristic zero, and let $f\in R$. Is there an easy-to-test necessary and sufficient condition on $f$ such that ...
10
votes
0answers
202 views

On the maximum number of polynomials in a certain subspace

I've already asked this question on mathoverflow, but no one answered. So I put this problem also here. Sorry for that. Let $\mathbb F_q$ be a finite field and let $e, k$ be positive integers with $...
9
votes
0answers
91 views

Integer polynomials with roots in every $\mathbb{Z}_p$ but no rational roots.

I want to find polynomials in $\mathbb{Z}[x]$ with degree as small as possible such that these polynomials have no rational roots but have a root in the $p$-adic integers $\mathbb{Z}_p$ for every ...
9
votes
0answers
834 views

How to prove this polynomial inequality?

How can we prove the following? If $\frac{dP_{n}}{dz}|_{z=z_{0}}=0$ then $|P_{n}(z_{0})|<2$ for all $n>1$, where $P_{n}(z)\equiv P_{n-1}^{2}+z$ and $P_{1}\equiv z$ $z$ is in the complex plane. ...
9
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395 views

How to simplify this combinatorial expression?

Find \begin{eqnarray} \sum_{j\in\mathbb{N}}(n-2j)^k\binom{n}{2j-m} \end{eqnarray} Note that this question is a generalization of this one. I tried to imitate the steps in the answer given in that ...
9
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0answers
191 views

Bounds on derivative of real positive coefficient polynomial satisfying certain properties

While thinking about this question of Clin, I wanted to consider the polynomial: $P(z) = 1+x_1z+x_2z^2+\cdots+x_nz^n$, satisfying: (I) $1\geq x_{1}\geq x_2\geq\cdots\geq x_{n}\geq0$ and $\...
9
votes
0answers
281 views

On the continuation of a polynomial

This exrcise is from the first section of Marden: Exercise 12. Let the interior of a piecewise regular curve $C$ contain the origin $\cal O$ and be star-shaped with respect to $\cal O$. If the ...
8
votes
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136 views

Find the least possible value of $n$ such that there exist $P(x), Q(x) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$

Find the least possible value of $n, n \geq 2015$ such that there exists polynomial $P(x)$ with degree $n$, integer coefficients, the coefficient of the term $x^n$ is positive and polynomial $Q(x)$ ...
7
votes
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51 views

If $A[X] \cong B[X]$ as rings, are the degrees of irreducible polynomials the same in $A$ and in $B$?

First, I ask my question and then I add some explanations: Suppose that $A$ and $B$ are two commutative rings such that $A[X] \cong B[X]$ as rings. Denote by $D_A$ the set of all positive integers ...
7
votes
0answers
190 views

When is the polynomial $\prod\limits_{i=1}^n\,\left(x-a_i\right)+1$ reducible in $\mathbb{Z}[x]$?

This post is inspired by Prove that the polynomial $\prod\limits_{i=1}^n\,\left(x-a_i\right)-1$ is irreducible in $\mathbb{Z}[x]$.. (A) Find all positive integers $n$ and integers $a_1,a_2,\...
7
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77 views

$\mathbb C[X_1, \ldots, X_n]$ is a free module over $\mathbb C[X_1, \ldots, X_n]^G$

Let $G$ be finite subgroup of $GL_n( \mathbb C )$. Let $\mathbb C[X_1, \ldots, X_n]^G$ be the set of all G-invariant polynomials of $\mathbb C[X_1, \ldots, X_n]$. Is there any rule by which we can ...
7
votes
0answers
74 views

Can we express the roots of all polynomials in terms of roots of some special polynomials?

We can describe the roots of quadratic equations in terms of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and the square-root function $\sqrt a$ which computes a root of the special polynomial $x^...
7
votes
0answers
106 views

Does it follow that any element of $J(A)$ is necessarily nilpotent?

Let $A[x]$ be the algebra of polynomials with coefficients in a $k$-algebra $A$. Assume that, for any simple $A[x]$-module $M$, one has $\text{End}_{A[x]}M = k$. Does it follow that any element of $J(...
7
votes
0answers
426 views

Fejer-Riesz Lemma

I'm trying to apply the Fejer-Riesz Lemma constructively. The lemma says that for a Laurent polynomial $a(z) = \sum_{-n}^na_jz^j$ with $a_j = \bar a_{-j}$ and $a(e^{i\theta})\geq0$ on the complex unit ...
7
votes
0answers
149 views

If $F(a_1,\ldots,a_k)=0$ whenever $a_1,\ldots,a_k$ are integers such that $f(x)=x^k-a_1x^{k-1}-\cdots-a_k$ is irreducible, then $F\equiv0$

I'm trying to understand a proof of the following theorem (from section II of Hall's paper An Isomorphism Between Linear Recurring Sequences and Algebraic Rings): If $F(a_1, \ldots, a_k)$ is a ...
7
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0answers
732 views

Gauss-Lucas Theorem (roots of derivatives)

Gauss-Lucas Theorem states: "Let f be a polynomial and $f'$ the derivative of $f$. Then the theorem states that the $n-1$ roots of $f'$ all lie within the convex hull of the $n$ roots $\alpha_1,\ldots,...
6
votes
0answers
105 views

Product of two random polynomials

Let $\alpha,\beta$ be two polynomials of the form $$\alpha(X)=\sum_{i=0}^{n}\alpha_iX^i,\quad \quad \beta(X)=\sum_{j=0}^n\beta_jX^j$$ where each coefficient is $1$ with a probability of $p$ and $0$ ...
6
votes
0answers
78 views

Fixed point of a polynomial mapping - what's the relation between the two views

Let $\sigma : \Bbb{C}^3 \to \Bbb{C}^3$ be a polynomial mapping. Let $P:= \Bbb{C}[x,y,z]$ denote the space of polynomial in 3 variables. Then $\sigma$ induces a (linear) mapping $\tilde{\sigma} : P\...
6
votes
0answers
149 views

The cubic equation $x^3 - 4 x^2 + x + 1 =0$

The cubic polynomial $P(x) =x^3 - 4 x^2 + x + 1$ has discriminant $\Delta = 169 = 13^2$ which tells us that the extension $\mathbb{Q}(a)/\mathbb{Q}$ is normal, where $a$ is any root of the equation $...
6
votes
0answers
71 views

Is there a polynomial $p$ such that it is bijective and $ p: \mathbb{Q}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{Q}$ for $ n>1$ ??

Let us define a polynomial $p$ defined as follow $$p: \mathbb{Q}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{Q}.$$ I acrossed this question in mind. Is there a polynomial $p$ such that it is bijective and $p: \mathbb{Q}...
6
votes
0answers
218 views

Reducing multivariate rational fractions to lowest terms

I wish to simplify multivariate rational fractions to a canonical form. Thanks to some very helpful mathematically inclined people who verified that my understanding of Wikipedia was correct, I'm now ...
6
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0answers
137 views

Isomorphism between finite fields adjoining a root

Let $p(x)=x^3+x^2+1$ and $q(x)=x^3+x+1$ be polynomials over the field $\mathbb{Z}_2$. Let $\alpha$ be a root of $p(x)$ and $\beta$ be a root of $q(x)$. Now let $K=\mathbb{Z}_2(\alpha)$ and $F=\mathbb{...
6
votes
0answers
199 views

Elementary proof of irreducibility criterion

From ``Problems from the Book'' by Andreescu and Dospinescu, the following irreducibility criterion is presented: Let $f$ be a monic polynomial with integer coefficients and let $p$ be a prime. If $...
6
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0answers
164 views

Generating Functions, Recursive Polynomials

At the CMFT international conference in Turkey (2009), the following open problem was given: Show that $$p_n(x):=\sum_{k=0}^n \frac{(n-k)^k}{k!}x^{n-k}$$ has only real simple zeros for every $n$. ...
6
votes
0answers
492 views

Runge's phenomen: interpolation error using Chebyshev nodes oscillates

We're trying to approximate the Runge function $f(x) = \dfrac{1}{1+25x^2}$ using Chebyshev nodes. When calculating the interpolation error, using different degrees ranging from 0 to 50, we get the ...
6
votes
0answers
128 views

Check my proof of the polynomial uniqueness

Problem 169 from the book I.M. Gelfand, "Algebra". "Assume that $x_1, \ldots , x_{10}$ are different numbers, and $y_1 , \ldots , y_{10}$ are arbitrary numbers. Prove that there is one and only one ...
6
votes
0answers
153 views

Generalized conjugation of polynomials with coefficients in an associative algebra

Suppose $\mathcal{A}$ is an associative algebra over $\mathbb{R}$. Furthermore, let $f(x_1, \dots , x_n) \in \mathcal{A}[x_1, \dots , x_n]$. Preliminary Question: Is it possible to find $g(x_1, \...
6
votes
0answers
152 views

relationship between solution of quintic in terms of $_{4}F_{3}$ hypergeometric function and theta functions

There is one approach (Bring radical/method of differential resolvents) to the general solution to the quintic that gives the solution for a particular root $v\in\{v_{1},v_{2},v_{3},v_{4},v_{5}\}$ in ...
5
votes
0answers
72 views

How to find area of a polygon built on the roots of a given polynomial?

How to find the area of a (maximum area convex) polygon, built on the roots of a given polynomial in the complex plane? For example, consider the equation: $$2x^5+3x^3-x+1=0$$ It has one real and ...
5
votes
0answers
68 views

Show that $\sum_{d\mid f} \varphi(f/d) a^{|d|} \equiv 0 \pmod f$

This equation is correct when $f$ and $a$ are any integers. I want to show that this holds for $f,a\in K[x]$ where $K$ is any finite field. In the equation $\varphi(f)$ is defined as $|(K[x]/(f))^\...
5
votes
0answers
66 views

The GCD of a Univariate Integer-Valued Polynomial over a Set

Let $\mathcal{I}[X]$ denote the subring of $\mathbb{Q}[X]$ consisting of all integer-valued polynomials (i.e., $f(X)\in \mathbb{Q}[X]$ such that $f(k)\in\mathbb{Z}$ for all $k\in\mathbb{Z}$). For $f(...
5
votes
0answers
105 views

Similar Triangle dissections

Andrzej Zak found that a triangle with sides based on powers of the root $d^6-d^2-1=0$, $(d=1.15096...)$ that can replicate itself with 6 differently sized copies. The numbers are powers of $d$. The ...
5
votes
0answers
84 views

The probability that a random (real) cubic has three real roots

We can formalize the notion of the probability that a randomly selected quadratic real polynomial has real roots as follows: Suppose $R > 0$, and suppose the random variables $a, b, c$ are (...
5
votes
0answers
56 views

“gapped” polynomial leads to ring-shaped roots

Given a polynomial $$P(z)=\sum_{n=0}^N a_n z^n$$ with real coefficients distributed as a gaussian curve $a_n=\frac{1}{\sigma\sqrt{2\pi}}e^{(n-b)^2/2\sigma}$ ($b>0$). The sum of all the polynomial ...
5
votes
0answers
92 views

An integral to prove that $\log(2n+1) \ge H_n$

Dalzell integral The equation $$ \int_0^1 \frac{x^4(1-x)^4}{1+x^2}dx=\frac{22}{7}-\pi $$ proves that $\frac{22}{7}-\pi>0$ because the integrand is positive. Some Dalzell-type integrals for $\log(...
5
votes
0answers
315 views

proof that $\frac{x^p - 1}{x-1} = 1 + x + \dots + x^{p-1}$ is irreducible

I am reading the group theory text of Eugene Dickson. Theorem 33 shows this polynomial is irreducible $$ \frac{x^p - 1}{x-1} = 1 + x + \dots + x^{p-1} \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$$ He shows this polynomial ...
5
votes
0answers
125 views

The smallest non-zero integer $c$ such that $\sum\limits_{n=1}^m\pm(x+n)^6 = c$?

We have the neat equalities, I. Group 1 For $k=2,3,4,5,\dots$ $$\sum_{n=1}^{2^k}\epsilon_n(x+n)^k = 2^{\frac{k(k-1)}{2}}k! = 4,\;48,\;1536,\;\color{brown}{122880},\dots$$ for appropriate $\...
5
votes
0answers
77 views

Can we find the GCD of two polynomials in $\mathbb Q[x]$ by representing the coefficients as vectors?

Can we find the GCD of two polynomials in $\mathbb Q[x]$ by representing the coefficients as vectors? For example: $f=x^5+3x^4+x^3+4x^2+1$, and $g=x^5+3x^4+4x^3+3x+1$ Can we represent these ...
5
votes
0answers
61 views

Does this simple problem using Vieta's formulas have deeper connections to elliptic curves?

A friend posed the following question to me: Suppose $p(x)=x^3+ax+b$ has one real root, $x_1$, and two non-real roots, $x_2$ and $x_3$. Compute $x_1$ in terms of $x_2$. By Vieta's formulas, $x_1+...
5
votes
0answers
42 views

A question about cyclotomic polynomials.

Let $F$ be the smallest subfield of $\mathbb{C}$ which contains $i$ and which, for every positive integer $n$, contains the unique non-negative $n$th root of every non-negative real number that it ...
5
votes
0answers
316 views

A problem with sign of coefficients of a polynomial expression

Let $f$ be a real coefficient homogeneous polynomial in $n$ undeterminates, such that $f(x_1,\cdots,x_n)>0$ whenever $x_1,...,x_n$ are non-negative real numbers, not all $0$. Then how to show ...