Polynomials are expressions like $15x^3 - 14x^2 + 8$. Questions tagged with this concern common operations on polynomials, like adding, multiplying, polynomial long division, factoring and solving for roots.

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14
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2answers
372 views

Does this polynomial have all its roots both distinct and real?

Recently, I wondered about the following problem: let $n\geq 5$ and let $$ P_n(x)=(x-1)(x-2)\ldots (x-n)-1 $$ Is it true that $P_n(x)$ has $n$ distinct real roots for any $n\geq 5$ ? I checked it ...
14
votes
1answer
566 views

Is factoring polynomials easier than factoring integers? [duplicate]

I was reading the book Algebra: Chapter 0 , by Paolo Aluffi, and came across the following assertion, in page 290, Exercise 5.9: It is in fact much harder to factor integers than integers ...
14
votes
1answer
413 views

Existence of Irreducible polynomials over $\mathbb{Z}$ of any given degree

Question is to prove : Irreducibility of $(x-1)(x-2)\cdots (x-n)- 1$ over $\mathbb{Z}$ for all $n\geq 1$ Irreducibility of $(x-1)(x-2)\cdots (x-n)+ 1$ over $\mathbb{Z}$ for all $n\geq 1$ and ...
14
votes
3answers
201 views

Sum of $k$-th powers

Given: $$ P_k(n)=\sum_{i=1}^n i^k $$ and $P_k(0)=0$, $P_k(x)-P_k(x-1) = x^k$ show that: $$ P_{k+1}(x)=(k+1) \int^x_0P_k(t) \, dt + C_{k+1} \cdot x $$ For $C_{k+1}$ constant. I believe a proof by ...
14
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1answer
581 views

Multiplicative norm on $\mathbb{R}[X]$.

How to prove that : there is no function $N\colon \mathbb{R}[X] \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, such that : $N$ is a norm of $\mathbb{R}$-vector space and $N(PQ)=N(P)N(Q)$ for all $P,Q \in \mathbb{R}[X]$. ...
14
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1answer
859 views

Prove that the polynomial $(x-1)(x-2)\cdots(x-n) + 1$, $n\ne 4$, is irreducible over $\mathbb Z$

I try to solve this problem. I seems to come close to the end but I can't get the conclusion. Can someone help me complete my proof. Thanks Show that the polynomial $h(x) = ...
14
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2answers
177 views

Is a linear combination of minors irreducible?

Let $X=(X_{ij})_{1\le i,j\le n}$ be a matrix of indeterminates over $\mathbb C$. For choices $I,J\subseteq\{1,\ldots,n\}$ with $|I|=|J|=k$ denote by $X_{I\times J}$ the matrix $(X_{ij})_{i\in I,j\in ...
14
votes
1answer
426 views

Polynomials all of whose roots are rational

I have two questions about the class of integer-coefficient polynomials all of whose roots are rational. Q1. Is there some way to recognize such a polynomial from its coefficients $a_0, a_1, \ldots, ...
13
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2answers
788 views

Prove that a polynomial has at least one nonreal complex root

Prove that the polynomial below has at least one nonreal complex root $$x^5+\frac{x^4}2+ \frac{x^3}3+\frac{x^2}4+\frac x{24}+\frac 1{120}$$ I have tried to prove that there exist $k\in \Bbb R$, such ...
13
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3answers
461 views

Why is the difference of distinct roots of irreducible $f(x)\in\mathbb{Q}[x]$ never rational?

The way I understand it, is that if $f(x)$ is an irreducible polynomial in $\mathbb{Q}[x]$ of degree at least 2, then a difference of distinct roots $a_i-a_j$ is never rational for any of the ...
13
votes
4answers
502 views

When does the product of two polynomials = $x^{k}$?

Suppose $f$ and $g$ are are two polynomials with complex coefficents (i.e $f,g \in \mathbb{C}[x]$). Let $m$ be the order of $f$ and let $n$ be the order of $g$. Are there some general conditions ...
13
votes
1answer
227 views

Polynomial $P(x,y)$ with $\inf_{\mathbb{R}^2} P=0$, but without any point where $P=0$

Recently I've came across such problem: give a polynomial $P(x,y)$, with $\inf_{\mathbb{R}^2} P=0$, but there is no point on the plane where $P=0$. I couldn't solve it after a day, and seriously doubt ...
13
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4answers
522 views

Intriguing polynomials coming from a combinatorial physics problem

For real $0<q<1$, integer $n >0 $ and integer $k\ge 0$, define $$[k, n]_q \equiv -\sum_{m=1}^{n} q^{m(k+1)} (q^{-n}; q)_m = -\sum_{m=1}^{n} q^{m(k+1)} \prod_{l=0}^{m-1} (1-q^{l-n})$$ ...
13
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5answers
738 views

Irreducibility of Polynomials in $k[x,y]$

I'm working through some Hartshorne problems and have noticed that in order to do certain problems properly one must prove a given polynomial $f\in k[x,y]$ is irreducible. For example, in problem ...
13
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3answers
316 views

How to see that the polynomial $4x^2 - 3x^7$ is a permutation of the elements of $\mathbb{Z}/{11}\mathbb{Z}$

This is from Rotman's Group Theory book, although I don't have the specific reference right now, as the book is with a friend. He asks to show that $\alpha (x) = 4x^2 - 3x^7$ is a permutation of the ...
13
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1answer
202 views

Polynomial $P(a)=b,P(b)=c,P(c)=a$

Let $a,b,c$ be $3$ distinct integers, and let $P$ be a polynomial with integer coefficients.Show that in this case the conditions $$P(a)=b,P(b)=c,P(c)=a$$ cannot be satisfied simultaneously. Any hint ...
13
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4answers
2k views

showing that $n$th cyclotomic polynomial $\Phi_n(x)$ is irreducible over $\mathbb{Q}$

I studied the cyclotomic extension using Fraleigh's text. To prove that Galois group of the $n$th cyclotomic extension has order $\phi(n)$( $\phi$ is the Euler's phi function.), the writer assumed, ...
13
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2answers
965 views

Inverse function of $y=\frac{\ln(x+1)}{\ln x}$

I've been wondering for a while if it's possible to find the inverse function of $y=\frac{\ln(x+1)}{\ln x}$ over the reals. This is the same as finding the positive real root of $x^y-x-1$. I realize ...
13
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1answer
290 views

Annoying Polynomial Inequality

Suppose we have a polynomial satisfying $p+p''' \geq p'+p''$ for all $x$. Then $p(x)\geq 0$ for all $x$. I've been stuck on this problem for weeks. The best I can do is supposing there exists $x$ so ...
13
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2answers
287 views

Another polynomial game

I came across the following problem and I'm stumped. Players X and Y play the following game. For $n\geq 2$, they consider a monic polynomial with degree $2n$, with undetermined coefficients ...
13
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3answers
152 views

$\sum_i x_i^n = 0$ for all $n$ implies $x_i = 0$

Here is a statement that seems prima facie obvious, but when I try to prove it, I am lost. Let $x_1 , x_2 \dots x_k$ be complex numbers satisfying: $$x_1 + x_2 \dots + x_k = 0$$ $$x_1^2 + x_2^2 ...
13
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1answer
145 views

Natural density of solvable quintics

A recent question asked about the topological density of solvable monic quintics with rational coefficients in the space of all monic quintics with rational coefficients. Robert Israel gave a nice ...
13
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1answer
235 views

If polynomial with rational number is injective on rationals then it is injective on reals?

Let $p:\Bbb{R}\to\Bbb{R}$ is polynomial with rational coefficients. If restriction of $p$ to $\Bbb{Q}$ is injective, then $p$ is injective? I conjectured that $p$ is monotonic, but I don't know how ...
13
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2answers
456 views

Signed Multinomial Expansion Coefficients?

I've been spending probably an undue amount of time trying to compute the coefficients of polynomials of the form $p_n(x_1, ..., x_n) = \displaystyle\prod_{\sigma \in \{ -1 , 1 \}^{n-1} } (x_1 + ...
13
votes
2answers
383 views

Monotonic version of Weierstrass approximation theorem

Let $f\in\mathcal{C}^1([0,1])$ be an increasing function over $[0,1]$. Prove or disprove the existence of a sequence of real polynomials $\{p_n(x)\}_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$ with the properties: $p_n(x)$ ...
13
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1answer
376 views

Roots with equal fractional parts

Question. ¿Does there exist an integer $n>1$ such that there exist positive integers $a,b$ such that $\{\sqrt[n]{a}\}=\{\sqrt[n]{b}\},a\neq b$ and $a$ and $b$ aren't perfect n-th powers? ( $\{x\}$ ...
13
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1answer
295 views

Families of Polynomials Irreducible in $\mathbb{Z}$ but reducible in $\mathbb{Z}/p\mathbb{Z}$ for all primes $p$.

I am wondering if there exist classification of polynomials that are irreducible in $ \mathbb{Z}$ but reducible $\pmod p$ for all primes $p$. I am aware that $\Phi_n$ has this property if ...
13
votes
0answers
202 views

Irreducibility of $~\frac{x^{6k+2}-x+1}{x^2-x+1}~$ over $\mathbb Q[x]$

The Artin—Schreier polynomial $~x^n-x+1~$ is always irreducible over $\mathbb Q[x]$, unless $n=6k+2$, in which case it seems to have only two factors, one of which is always $x^2-x+1$. The ...
13
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1answer
161 views

Existence of rational sequence such that a polynomial is split over $\Bbb{Q}$

Does there exist a sequence $(a_n)_{n\in \Bbb{N}}$ of rationals such that for all $n\in \Bbb{N}$, $a_n\neq 0$ and the polynomial $a_0+a_1X+\cdots+a_nX^n$ is split over $\Bbb{Q}$? I was asked this ...
12
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5answers
1k views

$x^2 +y^2 + z^2$ is irreducible in $\mathbb C [x,y,z]$

Is $x^2 +y^2 + z^2$ irreducible in $\mathbb C [x,y,z]$? As $(x^2+y^2+z^2)= (x+y+z)^2- 2(xy+yz+zx)$, $$(x^2+y^2+z^2)=\left(x+y+z+\sqrt{2(xy+yz+zx)}\right)\left(x+y+z-\sqrt{2(xy+yz+zx)}\right).$$ ...
12
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2answers
679 views

System of non-linear equations.

I have to find all triplets $(x,y,z)$ that satisfy: $$x^{2012} + y^{2012} + z^{2012} = 3\\x^{2013} + y^{2013} + z^{2013} = 3\\x^{2014} + y^{2014} + z^{2014} = 3$$ I've found the trivial solution ...
12
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3answers
1k views

Why is there no polynomial parametrization for the circle?

How does one show that the unit circle admits no polynomial parametrization? What is needed for this, are there general criteria? Thanks
12
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5answers
3k views

Is there a simple explanation why degree 5 polynomials (and up) are unsolvable?

We can solve (get some kind of answer) equations like: $$ ax^2 + bx + c=0$$ $$ax^3 + bx^2 + cx + d=0$$ $$ax^4 + bx^3 + cx^2 + dx + e=0$$ But why is there no formula for an equation like $$ax^5 + ...
12
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3answers
1k views

Quickest way to determine a polynomial with positive integer coefficients

Suppose that you are given a polynomial $p(x)$ as a black box (i.e. some oracle, to which you feed $x$ and it returns $p(x)$). It is known that the coefficients of $p(x)$ are all positive integers. ...
12
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2answers
560 views

Characteristic polynomials exhaust all monic polynomials?

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ matrix, then $\mathrm{char}_A(x):=\det(xI-A)$ is a monic polynomial of degree $n$. It is called the characteristic polynomial of $A$. My question is the converse: Let ...
12
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2answers
176 views

Solve $x^7-5x^4-x^3+4x+1=0$ for $x$

Solve for $x$ $$x^7-5x^4-x^3+4x+1=0$$ This equation has been bugging me since the past few days. I have found, using the Rational Root Theorem that $x=1$ is a root of this equation. However, ...
12
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2answers
264 views

Proving that $\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \frac{3408 k^2+1974 k-720}{128 k^6+480 k^5+680 k^4+450 k^3+137 k^2+15 k} = \pi$

I am trying to prove that $$\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \frac{3408 k^2+1974 k-720}{128 k^6+480 k^5+680 k^4+450 k^3+137 k^2+15 k} = \pi$$ This is what I've tried to simplify the sum: $$\frac{3408 k^2+1974 ...
12
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4answers
831 views

How to solve a cyclic quintic in radicals?

Galois theory tells us that $\frac{z^{11}-1}{z-1} = z^{10} + z^9 + z^8 + z^7 + z^6 + z^5 + z^4 + z^3 + z^2 + z + 1$ can be solved in radicals because its group is solvable. Actually performing the ...
12
votes
2answers
457 views

Number of real positive roots of a polynomial?

Consider the polynomial $$f(x)=x((1+x^n)^n+a^n)-a(1+x^n)^n,$$ where $n\geq 2$ is a positive integer and $a$ is a positive real number. I'm interesting in deducing the number of positive real roots ...
12
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2answers
891 views

Sum of derivatives of a polynomial

Let $p(x)$ be a polynomial of degree $n$ satisfying $p(x)\geq 0$ for all $x$. That is, for all $x$, $p(x) = a_n x^n + a_{n-1} x^{n-1} + \cdots + a_1 x + a_0 \geq 0$, $a_n\neq 0$. Show that ...
12
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1answer
222 views

Will this sequence of polynomials converge to a Hermite polynomial pointwise?

While trying to solve this question my testing lead to an observation that I found interesting in its own right. Consider the linear transformation $L:P\to P$ from the space of polynomial functions ...
12
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2answers
245 views

When is this sum of perfect powers bounded

For any positive integers $n,d$, let $$ A_d(n)=\frac{\sum_{k=1}^n k^{2d}}{n(n+1)(2n+1)} $$ It is easy to see (and well-known) that for fixed $d$, $A_d(.)$ is a polynomial of degree $2d-2$. Writing ...
12
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1answer
116 views

$P(z)=0$ iff $Q(z)=0$, $P(z)=1$ iff $Q(z)=1$. Prove that $P(x)=Q(x)$ for all $x$

Assume $P(x)$ and $Q(x)$ are polynomials with complex coefficients with degree greater than or equal to $1$ such that $P(z)=0$ if and only if $Q(z)=0$, $P(z)=1$ if and only if $Q(z)=1$. Prove that ...
12
votes
2answers
128 views

Fully factored integer polynomials with constant differences

Given a degree $d$, it is possible to construct a pair $(F,\delta),$ where $F$ is a polynomial in $\mathbb{Z}[X]$ and $\delta$ a non-zero integer, such that $F(X)$ and $F(X)+\delta$ both split into ...
12
votes
1answer
219 views

Galois group of the quintic polynomial $X^5+X+1$

I'm trying to find the Galois group of the polynomial $p(X)= X^5+X+1$ over $\mathbb Q$. First, one notes that, if $\omega$ is a primitive cubic root of unity, then it is a root of $p(X)$. So, ...
12
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2answers
222 views

Zero of a complex polynomial satisfying one of three assertions.

Let $n$ be a positive integer greater than $1$. Prove that if $x$ is a zero of $ X^n+1+(-1)^n(X+1)^n$ then $|x|=1$ or $|x+1|=1$ or $|x+1|=|x|$. My initial thought was to study the cases $n=2,3,4$ ...
12
votes
1answer
540 views

Use of FFT in the multiplication of multinomials

I'm aware that one can use a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to take the cost of multiplication of two polynomials of degree N from O$(N^2)$ to O$(N \ln N)$ (which is an amazing reduction when dealing ...
12
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1answer
233 views

Semialgebraic conditions that convey properties of Galois group

Let $f \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ be a polynomial of degree $n$ with integer coefficients and let $G_f$ be the Galois group of $f$ over $\mathbb{Q}$. I am trying to collect results that convey some ...
12
votes
1answer
577 views

Simply formulated but very hard problem about certain polynomial

Let $L:=[k_1,\dots,k_n]$ be a list of natural numbers (i.e. $\{1,2,\dots \} $) , repetitions are allowed. How to prove that the sum of the moduli of the coefficients of the polynomial $$ ...
12
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0answers
538 views

The radical solution of a solvable 17th degree equation

(The question is at the bottom of the post.) Here's a "natural" solvable 17-th deg eqn with small coefficients: $$\begin{align*} x^{17}-6 x^{16}&-24 x^{15}-42 x^{14}-31 x^{13}-23 x^{12}-7 ...