Polynomials are expressions like $15x^3 - 14x^2 + 8$. Questions tagged with this concern common operations on polynomials, like adding, multiplying, polynomial long division, factoring and solving for roots.

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polynomial equations of degree 4

I got this polynomial equations of degree 4 $$x^{4}-6x^{3}-36x^2+216x-324=0$$ from Crossed Ladders Problem and i'm tired to solve it without using WF or any software calculator I even read solution ...
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Factorisation of polynomials in C [on hold]

How can I factorize this term in $\mathbb{C}$? Any further explanation will be appreciated! $$z^2-3z+4$$
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Proving that a polynomial has a positive root

So I want to prove that a polynomial $ P(x)=a_nx^n+a_{n−1}x^{n−1}+.....+a_1x+a_0 $ has a positive root. I'm given that $ a_n $ is positive and $ a_0 $ is negative. I want to know how to apply the ...
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2answers
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There does not exist a polynomial $p(x)$ with integer coefficients which gives a prime number $\forall x\in \mathbb{Z}$ [duplicate]

There does not exist a polynomial $p(x)$ with integer coefficients which gives a prime number $\forall x\in \mathbb{Z}$ My attempt: I defined a polynomial as ...
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24 views

Characteristic Polynomial Calculation

I have a problem in my homework in which I have to find the characteristic polynomial of the following matrix: I know the final solution is: However, my answer keeps getting wrong whenever I ...
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4answers
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Integral with polynomial

I have a problem with this this integral. $\int \frac x{x^2+2x+2} \,dx$ I know that result is connected with logarithm, because the numerator is derivative of denominator, but i can't figure how to ...
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1answer
13 views

Polynomial with integer values

I'm looking for a polynomial $P \in \mathbb Q[x]$ with $P(\mathbb Z) \subset \mathbb Z$, with $P \notin \mathbb Z[x]$ I found that $f_n := \frac{1}{n}x(x-1)(x-2)\dots(x-(n-1))$ is such an element. ...
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2answers
45 views

Showing that $\alpha \beta$ is the root of a polynomial

Assuming that $\alpha, \beta$ are distinct roots of $P(x) = x^4+bx^3-1 = 0$, where $b \in \mathbb R$, show that $\alpha \beta$ is the root of $Q(x) = x^6+x^4+b^2x^3 -x^2 -1$. I have already noticed ...
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Partition of unity of Lagrange polynomials

Given a sequence of increasing real numbers $T = \{t_1 < t_2 < ... < t_{d+1}\}$, the $d+1$ Lagrange polynomials $L_i(t)$ of degree $d$ are defined as $$L_i(t) = \prod_{1\leqslant j \leqslant ...
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Need help determining coefficients of a cubic equation. [on hold]

I posted this in a LinkedIn group and now I put it here as per the suggestion of a group member. I have a colleague trying to finish his thesis so he can graduate. He's stuck at solving the ...
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2answers
156 views

Let $f(x)=x^2+12x+30$. Solve $f(f(f(f(f(x)))))=0$

Here is my solve, is it correct? I figured out that we can restate $f(f(x))$ as $((x+r)(x+s)+r)((x+r)(x+s)+s)$ thus $f(f(f(f(f(x)))))=0$ is $(x+r)^2(x+s)^2(4s+3r)(4r+3s)$ from vieta's ...
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$A \times B^{-1}$ has irreducible characteristic polynomial when $A,B$ are random integer matrices — simple proof?

Let $A,B$ be $d\times d$ integer matrices with each entry drawn uniformly from $[0,2^n)$, and define the rational matrix $C = A \times B^{-1}$. Is there a simple way to prove that $C$'s characteristic ...
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2answers
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Given some of the roots of the function $f(x) = x^3+bx^2+cx+d$, how do I find the coefficients of that function?

Two of the roots of $f(x) = x^3+bx^2+cx+d$ are $3$ and $2+i$. How do I find b+c+d? The answer choices are -7, -5, 6, 9, and 25.
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1answer
29 views

Number of polynomials [on hold]

I have the polynomial ring $\mathbb{Z}_3[x]$. How many polynomials $p(x)\in\mathbb{Z}_3[x]$ have degree $2$?
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1answer
47 views

Equivalent quadratic forms

Two quadratic forms $$Q(x_1, x_2, \dots , x_n) \\ \text{ and } Q'(x_1, x_2, \dots , x_n)$$ are called equivalent $$\Leftrightarrow Q'(x)=Q(Tx), \text{ where } T \in M_n(K), \text{ invertible }$$ ...
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30 views

Possible integer roots of polynomial with real coefficents

If $p\in\mathbb{Q}[X]$, then the rational root theorem gives us possible integer roots of $p$. If $p\in\mathbb{R}[X]$, the theorem cannot be applied. Nevertheless, triangular inequality gives us lower ...
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1answer
42 views

How to solve quartic polynomial equation

Can someone tell me how to solve $x^4 + 6x^2 + 5 = 0$? I know what to do when each term has an exponent one less than the previous term (e.g., $x^4 + 3x^3 + 6x^2 + 5 = 0$), but not when exponents are ...
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1answer
30 views

A quadratic form over $K-$vector space $V$

Let $K$ a field, $\operatorname{char} K \ne 2$. Definition: A quadratic form over $K$ is a homogeneous polynomial $Q(x_1, x_2, \dots , x_n) \in K[x_1, x_2, \dots , x_n]$ of degree $2$. If ...
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4answers
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Field Isomorphisms and Square Free Integers

I need to prove the following: Let $D$ be a square free integer. Show that $ \lbrace\begin{pmatrix} a & bD \\ b & a \end{pmatrix} \mid a,b\in\mathbb{Q}\rbrace $ is a field ...
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The Roots of Jacobi Polynomials

How can i obtain the roots of Jacobi polynomials of order n>50 ? ( α<0, β<0 and $\alpha+\beta=-1$ )
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1answer
19 views

Question on a fairly rigorous looking proof concerning the roots of a polynomial (resultants, symmetric polynomials, Viete)

Sorry for the big reading here. I tried to get as much on here so that it would make sense later on. Even though I put quite a bit on here, I actually just have one question about what is said ...
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Bound all $k$-th derivatives by directional derivatives of order $k$

Assume $f\in C^k(\mathbb{R}^n)$, $x\in\mathbb{R}^n$, and $|(\partial_\xi)^kf(x)|\leq 1$ for all $\|\xi\|=1$. Which bounds do we have for $|\partial^\alpha f(x)|$ when $|\alpha|=k$? For example, if ...
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Rational representation of conics

Currently I'm beginning my study of rational curves (Rational Bezier and NURBS) all books that I've read tell me that is "well known" that conics can't be represented by Bezier or even a B-Spline. ...
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Coefficients of the polynomials generated by $f_0=x,\ f_{i+1}=f_i\pm\dfrac1{f_i}$.

Let $f_0=x,\ f_{i+1}=f_i\pm\dfrac1{f_i}$ for $i\geq0$, i.e., $f_i=\dfrac{\sqrt{f_{i+1}^2\mp4}+f_{i+1}}2$ I have observed that $f_1=\dfrac{x^2\pm1}x$ $f_2=\dfrac{x^4\pm3x^2+1}{x(x^2\pm1)}$ ...
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1answer
23 views

Is $Y=aX^b\cdot\exp(X)$ a rational or exponential function?

Is $Y=aX^b\cdot\exp(X)$ a rational or exponential function? $Y$ and $X$ are real variables, $a$ and $b$ are parameters. Someone said this is a product of polynomial and exponential function. Do we ...
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2answers
31 views

If I have a polynomial $x^2(1-m^2) - x2m^2 - (m^2 + 1)$ with a solution at $x = -1$, how do I get the other root

If I have a polynomial $x^2(1-m^2) - x2m^2 - (m^2 + 1)$ with a solution at $x = -1$, then I know I can just take $x^2(1-m^2) - x2m^2 - (m^2 + 1)$ and divide it by $x+1$ to get the other root. In a ...
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Algebraic relations between trigonometric numbers

Given $n\in2\Bbb N$, what is precise algebraic relation between $cos\frac{\pi}{n-1}$,$cos\frac{\pi}{n+1}$? Both numbers are algebraic, which implies there should be an algebraic relation between ...
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Can we find the GCD of two polynomials in $\mathbb Q[x]$ by representing the coefficients as vectors?

Can we find the GCD of two polynomials in $\mathbb Q[x]$ by representing the coefficients as vectors? For example: $f=x^5+3x^4+x^3+4x^2+1$, and $g=x^5+3x^4+4x^3+3x+1$ Can we represent these ...
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Cleaning Up Messy Product Notation

Suppose I have the following: Let $N_1<...<N_m$. Let $T_{N_k}(x)=\sum_{i=0}^{N_k}{\frac{x^i}{i!}},$ $ t(i,j,x)=(T_{N_i}-T_{N_j})(x)$ I'm trying to define a polynomial $p_{k,m}(x)$ like ...
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Expression for Taylor's formula with a remainder

Assume $f$ has a continuous second derivative $f~''$ in some neighborhood of $a$.Then, for every $x$ in this neighborhood, we have $f(x) = f(a) + f~'(a)(x-a) + E_1(x)$ , where $E_1(x) = \int_a^x ...
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1answer
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What's the difference between these two definitions of polynomial function?

Definition 1: Given $a_n,...,a_1,a_0 \in \mathbb{R}$, a polynomial function is a function $p:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow\mathbb{R} $ such that $p(x)=a_nx^n+...+a_1x+a_0$ Definition 2: The function ...
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polynomial and rational functions equation, find the values of a and b that will make the statement true

Find the value of $a$ and $b$ to make the given condition true: $ax^3-bx^2+45x+54$ has $3$ as a zero and yields a remainder $12$ when divided by $x+1$
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Sum of $p$th powers using polynomial interpolation

It is well known that the sum of the first $n$ $p$th-powers is polynomial in $n$ and is given by: $$ \sum_{k=1}^n k^p = \frac{1}{p+1} \sum_{j=0}^p (-1)^j {p+1 \choose j} B_j n^{p+1-j} $$ where $B_i$ ...
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1answer
27 views

I have a question about Viete's formulas

If I have a polynomial $a_n x^n + a_{n-1}x^{n-1}+ \cdots + a_1 x + a_0$, and the roots of the polynomial is $r_1,r_2,\ldots,r_n$, then I can rewrite the polynomial as, $a_n x^n + a_{n-1}x^{n-1} ...
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3answers
34 views

$x^2+3$ has two zeros over ${\Bbb F}_p$ provided that $x^2+x+1\in{\Bbb F}_p[x]$ has two?

The following is an exercise in abstract algebra: If $p=1\pmod{3}$, then $x^2+x+1\in\Bbb{F}_p[x]$ has two zeros. Prove in this case that $-3$ is a quadratic residue mod $p$. Showing that ...
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Kneser Inequality in multivariables

Based on the Kneser Inequality ("Polynomials and Polynomial Inequalities", p. 260) one has $\Vert q \Vert_{[-1, 1]} \Vert r \Vert_{[-1, 1]} \leq C(n, m) \Vert q r \Vert_{[-1, 1]}$ where all norms ...
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1answer
53 views

Polynomials, prove exercise question about question

There is a polynomial P with integer coefficients and with pairwise different integers $a,b,c$ . Prove that it is not possible for $P(a) = b$, $P(b)=c$, $P(c) = a$ First off I don't understand ...
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Factoring polynomial $x^3−2x^2−4x−8$ that fails Bezout's identity test

I usually factor 3rd degree polynomial in two steps. First, I find all the divisors of the last, coefficient-free part of the polynomial (in this case that's 8) and try (applying Bezout's identity) to ...
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1answer
51 views

Polynomial with n real roots

Let $P(x) = x^n + a_{n-1}x^{n-1} + \cdots + a_{1}x + 1$ where $a_i$ are nonnegative and real. Assume $P$ has $n$ real roots. Prove $P(2) \geq 3^n$. I thought I had a good idea about ...
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1answer
17 views

Taylor theorem for f(x+h)

I am following a proof that applies Taylor's theorem on this document (http://www.gautampendse.com/software/lasso/webpage/pendseLassoShooting.pdf) I am not understanding one of the terms explained on ...
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1answer
25 views

Find $a$ and $b$ such that $g$ divides $f$ evenly

$f=2X^4-3X^2+aX+b,\ g=X^2-2X+3, \ f,g \in \mathbb{Q}[X]$ I have tried to divide $f$ by $g$ but I get $ (a+10)X +b +3$ as the remainder which looks like a bad result. I have, also, tried to factor ...
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Definition of monomial

I thought the definition of a monomial is an algebraic term that has no subtraction or addition. I saw on my online college homework that 2/x is not a monomial. Why?
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37 views

Can every polynomial be factored into constant and linear complex factors?

That is, can any polynomial, $a_nx^n + a_{n-1}x^{n-1} + \ldots + a_1x^1+a_0$, be expressed $b_0\left(x + b_1\right)\left(x + b_2\right)\ldots \left(x + b_n\right)$ where $b_i \in \mathbb{C}$?
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Efficient Computation of Swinnerton Dyer Polynomials

the Swinnerton-Dyer polynomials are defined as $$SD_n(x) = \prod(x \pm \sqrt{2} \pm \sqrt{3} \pm ... \pm \sqrt{p_n})$$ where the product is taken over all possible permutations of $+$ or $-$ signs. ...
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23 views

Polynomial “factorization” on a set of polynomials

Considering a set of multivariates polynomials $\{P_1(x,y,...),...,P_n(x,y,...)\}$, I wish to know if a given $P(x,y,...)$ could be expressed as a sum of products of $P_i$, such as ...
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55 views

Can I find solutions to $a^4 + a^2 + a = b^2 + b$, $a,b \in \mathbb{Z}$ and $ 1 < a < b$?

I was wondering if anyone could point me in the correct direction for either finding a solution to my problem or proving that it does not exist. $$a^4 + a^2 + a = b^2 + b \;\text{ for }\; a,b \in ...
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1answer
29 views

How can I prove this about the tangent line formula??

The equation of a tangent line to $f(x)$ at $x = t$ is $y = f'(t)(x - t) + f(t)$. Recently, I heard that it is also determined by the remainder of polynomial division of $f(x)$ by $(x-t)^2$. For ...
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1answer
25 views

CHKMO 2015 and cubic equations

Let $a,b,c$ be distinct real numbers. If the equations $E_1: ax^3+bx+c=0, E_2: bx^3+cx+a=0$ and $E_3: cx^3+ax+b=0$ have a common root, prove that at least one of these equations has three real ...
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1answer
24 views

Polynomials with purely imaginary coefficients?

Finished a homework problem concerning polynomials with all real coefficients and why complex roots of p(z)=0 come in pairs. Curious is there is a similar situation for polynomials with all purely ...
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1answer
48 views

Does Euclidean division not work for general polynomials?

If $K$ is a field. Then in $K[X]$ there is an Euclidean algorithm and if $K$ is replaced by any arbitrary commutative ring $R$, then almost we have an Euclidean algorithm, by the following result: ...