Polynomials are expressions like $15x^3 - 14x^2 + 8$. Questions tagged with this concern common operations on polynomials, like adding, multiplying, polynomial long division, factoring and solving for roots.

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What sequence of polynomials is equal to $2^n$ for integers $1$ to $k$?

I am trying to prove to someone that no matter how many terms you have of a sequence you can never be 100% sure of the underlying formula. Consider this sequence: $$2^n=1,2,4,8,16,...$$ But just given ...
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For a field $K$ is $K\subset{K[X_{1},…X_{n}]}$

Let $K$ be any field and $K[X_1,...X_n]$ the ring of polynomials in $X_1,...X_n$ with coefficients in $K$. I am wondering if $K$ is a subset of $K[X_1,...X_n]$. I believe $K\subset{K[X_1]}$ since ...
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Bounds of Zeros of a Higher Degree Polynomial Equation

The Equation is follows: $$\lambda^{k+1}+\frac{A}{A+B} \lambda^{k-l}+\frac{B}{A+B}=0$$ Where $l$ and $k$ are positive integers such that $l<k$. Also A and B are complex numbers. I would like to ...
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Interval of Polynomial Root Finding

Let's say we have a polynomial of a given degree. You don't have any tools to figure out the amount of roots in this polynomial. All you know is the function and you cannot graph it. How would you ...
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Interval in which roots lie.

For a quadratic equation, we have several conditions from which we can determine the interval in which the roots lie. eg: If exactly one of the roots of a general quadratic equation lies in the ...
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$x^4 + 1$ reducible over $\mathbb{R}$… is this possible?

I am seeing this on a homework and am wondering if this is a typo. I am aware that $x^4 + 1$ is irreducible over $\mathbb{Q}$. I know the following: A polynomial being irreducible over some ring ...
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1answer
40 views

Solving the following quartic equation : $x^4- {31\over 4}x^3 + {21\over 4}x + {9\over 2} = 0$

So, I don't know if it's normal but this quartic seems long to solve... When I use the ferrari method, I get the following reduced quartic : $y^4 - {2883\over 128}y^2-{27103\over ...
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2answers
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Basis for the vector space P2

I am trying to wrap my head around vector spaces of polynomials in P2. If I represent the polynomial $ ax^2 + bx + c $ with the matrix $ A = \begin{bmatrix} 1,0,0 \\ 0,1,0 \\ 0,0,1 \\ \end{bmatrix} ...
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Prove or disprove this relation between one root of the quadratic and the cubic equation of a certain form, and linear recurrences.

It is well known that the n-anacci (higher degree Fibonacci, that is Tribonacci and so on) numbers can be computed in closed form from roots of polynomials in the way Eric Weisstein at Mathworld ...
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Polynomial: Is there a theorem that can save my proof when $K$ doesn't include $\mathbb C$

Suppose $f(x),g(x)\in K[x]$ ($K$ a number field), let $f(x)=x^{3m}+x^{3n+1}+x^{3p+2}$, where $m,n,p\in\mathbb N$, and let $g(x)=x^2+x+1$, prove: $$g(x)\mid f(x)$$ I think this problem is not ...
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scaling up data series based on polynomial equation

I have yearly time series data starting from 1990 to 2100 AD (x-axis). The value for 1990 is 0 and 2100 is 700, and it's increasing in each year (but not linearly). Based on this series, I come up ...
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Given $n \in \Bbb Z$, determine $\gcd(3n^2 + 7n + 4, n + 2)$.

I factored $3n^2+7n+4$ to $(3n+4)(n+1)$ and because there isn't a common factor of those and $n+2$ I said that the gcd is $1$, but is there any othere way to go about it that would come up with a gcd ...
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Proofs involving endomorphisms on the space of polynomials

Define endomorphisms $D$ and $E$ on the space of polynomials with rational co-efficients $ \mathbb{Q}[x] $ such that $ D(x^n)= nx^{n-1}, E(x^n) = \frac{1}{n+1}x^{n+1} $ We must show that $ DE = I $ ...
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How do we determine the decomposition of $p\mathcal{O}_K$ in $K = \mathbb{Q}(\sqrt[3]{5})$?

Let $K = \mathbb{Q}(\sqrt[3]{5})$, and $\mathcal{O}_K$ be its ring of integers. In general, how do we decide the decomposition of $p\mathcal{O}_K$, for an odd prime $p$? I know that by Kummer's ...
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173 views

A proof about polynomial division

Suppose $g(x)=ax+b$,$a,b\in K$,$K$ is a field, and $f(x)\in K[x]$, prove: $$g(x)|f^2(x)\Leftrightarrow g(x)|f(x)$$ The $\Leftarrow$ part is so trivial. But for the $\Rightarrow$ part I get ...
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1answer
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Unbounded polynomials

Let $p(x)$ be a polynomial of degree $d$ on $R^n$, and let $\tilde{p}(x)$ be the homogeneous components with degree $d$, then how do we prove that: if $\tilde{p}(x)$ is unbounded below, then $p(x)$ ...
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2answers
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For what real values does $\phi(x):=1+x+ \dots + x^{2m-1}$ take the value $0$? What can you say about the sign as $x$ varies?

For what real values does $\phi(x):=1+x+ \dots + x^{2m-1}$ take the value $0$? What can you say about the sign as $x$ varies? I need help adding rigor to my observation to create a formal proof. ...
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Is $f(x)$ reducible if $f(a)=0$

I am confused about this seemingly trivial question: If $f(a) = 0$ for some $a\in D$, then when is $f(x)$ reducible in $D[x]$? ($D$ is an integral domain). My answer: Always. Let $f(a)=0$. ...
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2answers
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Function (Cubic)

Show that $x^3-3xbc+b^3+c^3$ can be written in the form of $(x + b + c)Q(x)$, where $Q(x)$ is a quadratic equation. Show that $Q(x)$ is the sum of three perfect squares and $Q(x)$ can never be ...
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Find the minimum polynomial of a sum of roots of unity.

Let $ \omega $ be an 11-th primitive root of 1 over $ \Bbb Q $ Let $ \beta = \omega + \omega^9 $ Find $ [ \Bbb Q ( \beta) : \Bbb Q ) ] $ and Find the minimum polynomail of $\beta$. I asked a ...
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Solve a high order polynomial equation in $x$ in the limit $n\rightarrow\infty$

A bit of background. I did a high order WKB theory to calculate the eigenvalues of a potential. The eigenvalues, $E$, are, of course, real since they correspond to a physical problem. My final answer ...
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What does a polynomial look like under projection of underlying space?

Consider a multivariate polynomial in $F:\Bbb R^3\rightarrow\Bbb R$, $F\in\Bbb R[x,y,z]$ with prescribed values over a sphere in $\Bbb R^3$. Consider standard Riemann projection from $\Bbb ...
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1answer
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Write a polynomial with the following zeros: -2 multiplicity of 1 and 0 with a multiplicity of 2. [on hold]

I am unsure about how to complete this problem. Will the solution be factors? ex: (x+1)(x+2)
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2answers
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Proof of a real eigenvalue

Let $A$ be a $2\times2$ matrix $A=\begin{pmatrix}a&b \\ c&d\end{pmatrix}$. I found the characteristic polynomial which is $T^2-(a+b)T+ad-bc$. It can be written as ...
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Generalization of Euler theorem for homogeneous polynomials

Euler's theorem for homogeneous polynomials is well known. If $F:\mathbb{R}^{n}\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is a homogeneous polynomial, then we have: $x_{1}\frac{\partial F }{\partial x_{1}} + ... + ...
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Factoring a 5 term polynomial

I am struggling to factor $n^4 + 4n^3 + 8n^2 + 8n +4$. I have tried grouping the terms a couple of times, but got nowhere. What am I missing?
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If for a polynomial $P(k) = 2^k$ for $k = 0, 1, . . . , n$, what is $P(n+1)$?

For a polynomial $P(x)$ of degree $n$, $P(k) = 2^k$ for $k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n$. Find $P(n+1)$. If $n=1$, $P(x)=x+1$ and $P(2)=3$. If $n=2$, $P(x)=0.5x^2+0.5x+1$ and $P(3)=7$. How to approach ...
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Bourbaki - Algebra Chapter IV - Section 6, Exercise 9(b)

Let $S_i(X_1,\dots,X_n)$ be the elementary symmetric functions in the variables $X_1,\dots,X_n$. Let $r_1,r_2,\dots,r_n$ be $n$ rational functions in the $X_1,\dots,X_n$. Let $T$ be a variable ...
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1answer
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Algebraic and transcendental functions over $\mathbb Z_n$ — is this a known result?

I have proved a result that seems (to me) interesting, and I am wondering whether it is a known result, and if not whether it seems interesting to others. The result is as follows: Let $R=\mathbb Z ...
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1answer
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Determinant with one parameter, how to deal with this?

Let $t\in \mathbb R$ be a parameter, and $$|A(t)|= \begin{vmatrix} a_{11}+t &a_{12}+t &\cdots &a_{1n}+t\\ a_{21}+t &a_{22}+t &\cdots &a_{2n}+t\\ \vdots &\vdots ...
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Prove there are infinitely many polynomials $P$ such that $P<CH(P)$.

Prove there exists a constant $C(n) > 0$ such that for any $ξ ∈ [0, 1]$ there exists infinitely many polynomials $P(x) = a_nx^n + · · · + a_0 ∈ \mathbb{Z}[x]$ such that $|P(ξ)| < ...
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1answer
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Is the derivative of a exponential function a^x always greater than the derivative of a polynomial x^n as x approaches infinity

with n and a being any constants > than 1. I have tried taking the $\lim\limits_{x \to \infty} a^x / x^n$, and l'hopitals is telling me than $x^n$ can always be reduced to 1 with multiple iterations, ...
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Polynomial approximation on affine varieties

Let $V,W \subseteq \mathbb{A}^n$ be two affine varieties over an algebraically closed field $k$ of characteristic zero and let $a,b\in k$. Q: Can we find a polynomial $f \in k[X_1,...,X_n]$ such ...
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Chebyshev representation of polynomial

In Carl de Boor's A Practical Guide to Splines (1978) problem II.3.a demands a proof that a polynomial $P_ng$ of order $n$ which agrees with a function $g:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ at $\tau_1, ...
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$x^{p^{k}-1}-1$ divides $x^{p^{n}-1}-1$ in $\mathbb{F}_{p}$ iff $k$ divides $n$

Let's consider two polynomials in $\mathbb{F}_{p}[x]$: $f(x)=x^{p^{n}-1}-1$ and $g(x)=x^{p^{k}-1}-1$. How to prove that $g(x) \mid f(x)$ iff $k \mid n$? For instance, it's worth trying this: ...
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Prove equation $(ad-bc)(a-c)^2 = (b-d)^3$, if polynomials has common root

$$\begin{split} W(x) &= x^3 + ax + b \wedge a,b \in \mathbb{R} &\wedge \mathbb{D}_W &= \mathbb{R}\\ G(x) &= x^3 + cx + d \wedge c,d \in \mathbb{R} &\wedge \mathbb{D}_G ...
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Factorising a cubic equation

Factorise $9x-x^3$ completely. It's simple but I'm never seem to get it right; I've got $(x-1)(-x+9)x$.
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expansion of polynomials of higher degrees

How to expand $(x-x_n)(x-x_{n-1})...(x-x_0)$ into $a_nx^n+...+a_0$? Surely, $a_n=1$ is equal to one in my case, but how to find out the rest of coefficients? Do we a numerical algorithm of calculating ...
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1answer
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Effect on existing roots of polynomial when adding small higher-order term

How do existing roots of a polynomial change when adding higher-order term with a small coefficient? Given a sufficiently small coefficient of the new higher-order term, the existing roots shouldn't ...
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Example such that $ f_1(x)$ is reducible but $f(x)$ is irreducible.

(The (mod p) Irreducibility Test) Let $p$ be a prime an suppose that $f(x) \in \mathbb Z[x]$ with $\deg f(x) \geq 1$. Let $f_1(x)$ be the polynomial in $\mathbb Z_p[x]$ obtained from $f(x)$ by ...
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Prove that for any real number the inequality is true: $x^4-x^3+5x^2 > 3x - 6$

Prove that for any real number the inequality is true: $x^4-x^3+5x^2 > 3x - 6$ The only way I could do this is to transform this inequality to: $x^4-x^3+5x^2-3x+6> 0$ and then sketch the ...
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How do I solve massive system of equations (with lots of variables) quickly?

Just wondering how to solve system of equations involving 3+ unknowns quickly. In my math class, we're given questions like these which involve solving huge system of equations on a time limit, ...
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Integral Inequality $\leq n^{3/2}\pi$

$ p(x)\in\mathbb{R[X]} $ is a polynomial of degree $n$ with no real roots. Show that: $ \int\limits_{-\infty}^{+\infty}\dfrac{(p'(x))^2}{(p'(x))^2+(p(x))^2}\,dx \leq n^{3/2}\pi.$ It's easy to see ...
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1answer
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Newton's sum help

How would one solve the following system with Newton's sums and Vieta's relations?: $$x+y+z=14$$ $$x^2+y^2+z^2=14$$ $$x^3+y^3+z^3=34$$ I have taken an algebra lesson in the awesome math academy, but ...
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Only 12 polynomials exist with given properties

Prove that there are only 12 polynomials that have all real roots and whose coefficients are $-1$ or $1$. Zero coefficients are not allowed, and constant polynomials do not count. Two of them ...
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Proving a version of maximum modulus principle elementarly.

There is this version of maximum modulus principle: If $P$ is a non-constant polynomial, then $|P|$ doesn't have a local maximum. I know that if $P$ is non-constant, then $|P(z)| ...
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3answers
102 views

Find the coefficient of $x^{30}$.

Find the coefficient of $x^{30}$ in the given polynomial $$ \left(1+x+x^2+x^3+x^4+x^5+x^6+x^7+x^8+x^9+x^{10}+x^{11}+x^{12}\right)^5 $$ I don't know how to solve problems with such high degree.
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What is that function? Polynomial?

Is it a polynomial or rational polynomial or else? $y = \dfrac{a}{x^4} + \dfrac {b}{x^2} + c$ I need to fit a curve to a discrete data of that form, so I need to know what fitting to use.
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27 views

coefficients of polynomial and binomial expressions

Let us say we are given a polynomial p(x)=$\sum_k a_k x^k$. In order to find $\sum_k a_k$ we simply need to evaluate p(1), and similarly there are many other tricks. Is there any trick to evaluate ...
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1answer
46 views

An approach to proving that $\Bbb{Q}[x,y]/(x^3-y^2)$ is isomorphic to $\Bbb{Q}[t^2,t^3]$

I have to prove that $\Bbb{Q}[x,y]/(x^3-y^2)$ is isomorphic to $\Bbb{Q}[t^2,t^3]$. My approach: Let us consider $t^2$ and $t^3$ as separate variables $x$ and $y$. The relations that hold for them ...