Polynomials are expressions like $15x^3 - 14x^2 + 8$. Questions tagged with this concern common operations on polynomials, like adding, multiplying, polynomial long division, factoring and solving for roots.

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15 views

Show that a set of polynomials are linearly independent in the complex space

I have been trying the solve the following question without any success: Let $\lambda_1, \lambda_2, \lambda_3$ be three distinct complex numbers and define the polynomials $m(\lambda), m_1(\lambda), ...
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1answer
7 views

Walking through the reduction of a cumulative probability function to a polynomial

Setup Define $P(p)$ as follows: $$ P(p) = \sum_{N_1-\phi \cdot N_2 \geq \theta} {n_1 \choose N_1} {n_2 \choose N_2} p^{N_1 + N_2}q^{n_1 + n_2 - N_1 - N_2}. $$ Here, $$ q = 1 - p. $$ The sum is ...
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1answer
47 views

Is there a nice expression for $f(x) = (1+x)(1+x^2)(1+x^3)\cdots$

While I was solving a problem, I stumbled upon this function $$f(x) = (1+x)(1+x^2)(1+x^3)\cdots$$ I tried to write out the first few products but I couldn't recognize any meaningful pattern. Is there ...
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A question on matrix norm

Definitions: ${A_j},{\Delta _j} \in {C^{n \times n}},(j = 0,1,2....m)$ ${\rm{P(}}\lambda {\rm{) = }}{{\rm{A}}_m}{\lambda ^m} + .....{A_1}\lambda + {A_0}$ is a matrix polynomial, and $\lambda $ is ...
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4answers
64 views

Why does the a*c cheat work when factoring trinomials?

When factoring a trinomial, in the form $ax^2 + bx + c$, I am told that one can multiply $a$ and $c$ which gives a product whose factors add to $b$. So if I have $2x^2 + 5x -3$ that gives me $-6$. ...
2
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1answer
20 views

How to create a ring in MAGMA with relations?

I'm using MAGMA221 and would like to create a ring over $GF(2)$ with respect to a list of relations. Here's what I have so far: $\mathtt{Z:=GF(2);} \\\mathtt{P<x,y,z>:=PolynomialRing(Z,3);}$ ...
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What's set of two variables over field? [on hold]

What's The set of polynomial ring $F_{4}[x,y]$ ? and What's primitive variables of $GF(4)$?($F_4$ is a finite field)
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12 views

Using Magma to solve a multivariate polynomial system with parameters

I want to solve a system of multivariate polynomials with parameters. Mathematically, the ground field is F = Q(a, b, c, …), the field of rational functions. The polynomials are in F[x,y,z,…]. I ...
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3answers
27 views

Finding remainder

Okay I saw this one on a test so here it goes: A polynomial of (degree > 3) when divided by $ (x-1)^2$ and $x-3$ leaves the remainder $2x+1$ and $15$ respectively. The remainder when it is divided by ...
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1answer
13 views

How to resolve polynomials with just two terms where one of them is a constant

1) I have the information that to resolve: $$ x^n = 3*x^{n-4} $$ 2) I would need to solve $$ x^4 = 3 $$ 3) Whose positive value would be: $$ x = 3^{1/4}. $$ 4) Which is then: $$ x = \sqrt[3]{4}. $$ ...
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1answer
130 views

Does $f(x) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ irreducible, imply $f(2x)$ also irreducible?

It is well known that $f(x+a) \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ is irreducible when $f(x)$ is irreducible. I was wondering whether $f(2x)$ and in general whether $f(nx)$ is irreducible as well. Though it is ...
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36 views

Left remainder when dividing by $x-b$

Give a polynomial $p(x) = a_0 + a_1 x + ... a_n x^n \in \mathcal R[x]$ ($\mathcal R $ is any ring with unity), the book says when dividing $p(x)$ by $x-b \quad (b\in \mathcal R)$, the left remainder ...
2
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1answer
29 views

Linear algebra: generalize from characteristic $0$ a problem about polynomial coefficients.

Let $K$ be a field, and let $F$ be a subfield of $K$. Assume that $F$ is infinite. Let $p(x)$ be a polynomial in one variable with coefficients in $K$, and suppose that $p(a) \in F$ whenever $a \in ...
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Find a polynomial equation satisfied by $\phi$

I'm solving the following exercise from my class notes: Let $A=k[x^2,y^2]$ and let $M=k[x^2,xy,y^2]$ ($k$ a field). Show that $M$ is an $A$-module. Define $ \phi :M \to M$ by $\phi(m)=xym$. Find ...
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4answers
45 views

Prove that $R$ is an integral domain $\Leftrightarrow$ $R[x]$ is an integral domain

Here is an exercise(p.129, ex.1.15) from Algebra: Chapter 0 by P.Aluffi. Prove that $R[x]$ is an integral domain if and only if $R$ is an integral domain. The implication part makes no problems, ...
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2answers
32 views

Determine polynomial whose roots are a linear combination of roots of another polynomial

Let $\alpha_1, \alpha_2, \alpha_3$ be the roots of the polynomial $p(x)=x^3+5x^2+7x+11$. Find a polynomial whose roots are $\frac{\alpha_1+\alpha_2}{2}, \frac{\alpha_2+\alpha_3}{2}, ...
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0answers
14 views

Efficient ways to find a single root of a multivariate polynomial system to arbitrary precision

I am looking for a practical and efficient way to compute, to arbitrary precision, a single root of a multivariate polynomial system (over $\mathbb{Q}$). It seems like the fancy methods compute all ...
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22 views

Showing polynomials as products of roots

How do I show rigorously that any polynomial $a_nx^n+a_{n-1}x^{n-1}+...a_1x+a_0$ can be written as $a_n(x-b_1)(x-b_2)...(x-b_n)$ for real $a_i$ and real or complex $b_i$
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1answer
116 views

Polynomial tending to infinity

Take any polynomial $(x-a_1)(x-a_2)\ldots(x-a_n)$ with roots $a_1, a_2,\ldots,a_n$ where we order them so that $a_{i+1}>a_i$ is increasing so $a_n$ is the biggest root. It doesn't matter whether ...
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0answers
73 views

Polynomial Interpolation When part of $y_i$'s are Shuffled

Hypothesis: Let $\vec{x}=[x_1,...,x_n]$ be elements of field $\mathbb{Z}_p$, where $p$ is a large prime. $x_i \neq x_j$, $x_i \in \mathbb{Z}_p$. Note $x_i$ values are NOT picked uniformly random and ...
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0answers
16 views

Maximum degree of a polynomial [duplicate]

What is the maximum degree of a polynomial of the form $\sum_{i=0}^n a_i x^{n-i}$ with $a_i = \pm 1$ for $0 \leq i \leq n, 1 \leq n$, such that all the zeros are real? I have no idea where to start.
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106 views

Find a Polynomial in $x-\frac1x$

Given that $x^n - (1/x^n)$ is expressible as a polynomial in $x - (1/x)$ with real coefficients only if $n$ is an odd positive integer, find $P(z)$ so that $P(x-(1/x)) = x^5 - (1/x)^5.$ To start, I ...
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0answers
14 views

Under what condition given $(x_1, y_1\cdot r_1),…,(x_n, y_n\cdot r_n)$ we can interpolate polynomial $T$ that has specific random root?

We know given $(x_1, y_1),...,(x_n, y_n)$ we can interpolate a polynomial $P$ of of degree at most $n-1$. Let us define polynomial $P=(x-\beta)\cdot g(x)$, where degree of $P$ is at most $n-1$, ...
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25 views

Taylor expansion for the roots of real polynomials

Consider a (real) polynomial $\mathcal{P}$ in the variable $x$ whose coefficients are themselves polynomials in the parameter $\lambda$. I am searching a taylor expansion in $\lambda$ for the roots ...
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15 views

Connected components of pseudospectra

In this Article, page 5 Theorem 2.3 ,what is connected components of pseudospectra of matrix polynomial?
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What is connected components of pseudospectra of matrix polynomial? . [on hold]

What is connected components of pseudospectra of matrix polynomial? Please see this link
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50 views

How many distinct roots $ax^5+bx^3+cx+d$ has

$a,b,c>0$ How many distinct roots $ax^5+bx^3+cx+d=0$ has? question doesnt clarify which kind of root it has. and I dont understand why the question didnt say 'may has' . because by ...
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3answers
141 views

Is there a name for this type of expression?

Forgive me if this seems like a silly question. I know that the following expression is an example of a polynomial: $a_{4}x^{4}+a_{3}x^{3}+a_{2}x^{2}+a_{1}x+a_{0}$ but I am wondering if there is a ...
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2answers
29 views

Dickson's Lemma (proof of Prop. 2.23 in Hasset's Intro to Alg Geom)

I'm studying Hasset's book by myself but I had no previous formal algebra training. To prove Dickson's lemma (prop. 2.23, p. 19) he defines the auxiliary monomial ideals $$J_m=\left<x^\alpha \in ...
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1answer
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Why do polynomial regressions have larger variance at the end?

In reading the book "An Introduction to Statistical Learning with Applications in R", I came across this graph: It shows that the point-wise variance is larger at the ends of the regression curve. ...
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56 views

Specific Root of Interpolating Polynomial

We define polynomial $P=(x-\beta)\cdot g(x)$, where degree of $P$ is fixed $n-1$, $\beta$ is chosen uniformly at random from the field of $p$ elements. We evaluate $P$ at some $x_i$ values. So we get ...
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2answers
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Can Two Different Polynomials Agree on an open interval? [duplicate]

Question: For a high degree polynomial $P_1$ , can we have another polynomial $P_2$ that is a part of $P_1$ (or they agree on open interval)? TBN: This question is partially answered in ...
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1answer
60 views

Overlapping Polynomials

This question is related to this:Interpolating Polynomial & It's Root We have $P_3=P_2\cdot P_1$,for three non-zero polynomials. The degree of each polynomial is at least 1. Question: Does ...
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Irreducibility of $p(x)$ implies that of $p(x+c)$ only when taken over a field?

$R$ is a ring and $R[x]$ is the polynomial ring over $R$ . $c$ is any fixed element of $R$ . Then the map $f(x)\mapsto f(x+c)$ is an isomorphism from $R[x]$ to itself. Now ...
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1answer
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Random Permutation Polynomial With Fixed Inputs

Assume we pick uniformly random a permutation polynomial, $T$, of degree one. we define all polynomials over $\mathbb{Z}_P$. We have fixed inputs $x_i$ (e.g. $x_i \in [1,100]$) My Question: Is ...
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Why doesn't Horner's method work with the following cubic equation?

I'm trying to factor $$2x^3 - 4x^2 + 2x$$ I use the Horner's method │ 2 4 2 │ 0 --------------- │ 0 0 │ 0 --------------- 0│ 2 4 2 │ 0 and I obtain ...
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1answer
38 views

Irreducibility of a polynomial

Given that $\mathbb F$ is a field and $\mathbb F[x]$ is the polynomial ring over $\mathbb F$. $\ \ $If the polynomial $a_{0}+a_{1}x+a_{2}x^{2}+......a_{n}x^{n}$ is irreducible over ...
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Probability That a Polynomial has Specific Root when we use Permutation Polynomial

To some extent similar question was asked here: Polynomial Interpolation and Security Imagine we have $\vec{x}=(x_1,...x_n)$ and two polynomials $P_1$ and $P_2$. Degree of $P_1$ is fixed $n-2$, ...
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0answers
55 views

What methods are known to visualize patterns in the set of real roots of quadratic equations?

I came across a previous awesome question about the visualization of the distribution of polynomial roots and tried to do a simpler version applied to the set of real roots of quadratic equations ...
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4answers
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Prove by definition that $(x,2)\subset\mathbb Z[x]$ is a maximal ideal

When the polynomial ring $\mathbb{Z}[x]$ is quotiented by the ideal $(2,x)$ we get a field as $\mathbb{Z}[x]/(x,2)\cong\mathbb{Z}/(2)\cong\mathbb{Z}_{2}$ which is a field. But I ...
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35 views

Properties of Coefficients of Order Polynomials

I am working on a problem involving determining the order polynomial $\Omega_P(k)$ of a partial order $P$, which counts the number of order-preserving transformations/maps from $P$ to the $k$-chain ...
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19 views

Probability that a Polynomial Has Specific Root When $y_i$'s are Not Random.

Imagine we have $\vec{x}=(x_1,...x_n)$ and two polynomials $P_1$ and $P_2$. Degree of $P_1$ is fixed $n-1$, but degree of $P_2$ can be at most $n-1$. $P_1$ has root $\beta$, where $\beta \leftarrow ...
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2answers
28 views

Show that $D$ is surjective, but not injective.

Question: Let $P$ denote the set of polynomials $p(x) = \sum_{i=0}^n a_{i}x^i$ for $n=0, 1, 2, ....$ and real numbers $a_{i}$. Let $D:P \to P$ be the differential operator defined by $(Dp)(x) = ...
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FFT multiplication

I'm currently implementing a specific polynomial multiplication algorithm for a project. The current goal is to implement chapter 2 of Daniel Bernstein's paper ...
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How to obtain a specified set of coefficients of a multivariate polynomial

Let $x_i \in \mathbb{C}$ and $b_{ij} \in \mathbb{R}$ for all $i,j$ between $1$ and $n$. I have the following polynomial and the corresponding expansion (correct me if I am wrong): $\prod_{i=1}^n (1+ ...
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2answers
49 views

Find $\prod\limits=(\alpha_1+1)(\alpha_2+1)…(\alpha_n+1)$ where $\alpha_i$ are complex roots of a complex polynomial

The complex roots of a complex polynomial $P_n(z)=z^n+a_{n-1}z^{n-1}+\cdots+a_1z+a_0$ are $\alpha_i$, $i=1,2,...,n$. Calculate the product $(\alpha_1+1)(\alpha_2+1)\cdots(\alpha_n+1)$ By the ...
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1answer
26 views

Given that $f(x,y,x)$ is a factor of $g(x,y,z)$:

Suppose $f(x,y,z)=(x-z)^2+(x-y)^2+(z-y)^2$ and $g(x,y,z)=(x-z)^n+(x-y)^n+(z-y)^n$ Then prove that if $f(x,y,z)$ is a factor of $g(x,y,z)$, that $n$ is not divisible by 3. Please no solutions. I'm ...
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1answer
39 views

gcd of $x$ and $2$ in $Z[x]$

In $Z[x]$, $x$ and $2$ has gcd $1$. But they cannot be expressed as the linear combination of two polynomials. Then assuming that $1=2.f(x)+x.g(x)$ we are supposed to arrive at a ...
2
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3answers
46 views

Fastest way to perform this multiplication expansion?

Consider a product chain: $$(a_1 + x)(a_2 + x)(a_3 + x)\cdots(a_n + x)$$ Where $x$ is an unknown variable and all $a_i$ terms are known positive integers. Is there an efficient way to expand this?
3
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2answers
49 views

Polynomial with real roots

Consider the polynomial: $$f=X^4+4X^3+6X^2+aX+b$$ We know that $f$ has four real roots. Let $x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4$ be the roots of this polynomial. How can one compute ...