Questions on polar coordinates, a coordinate system where points are represented by their distance from the origin ($r$) and the angle the line joining the point and the origin makes with the positive horizontal axis ($\theta$).

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37
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4answers
5k views

Explain $\iint \mathrm dx\,\mathrm dy = \iint r \,\mathrm \,d\alpha\,\mathrm dr$

It is changing the coordinate from one coordinate to another. There is an angle and radius on the right side. What is it? And why? I got: $2\,\mathrm dy\,\mathrm dx = r(\cos^2\alpha-\sin^2\alpha)\,\...
25
votes
6answers
6k views

Limit is found using polar coordinates but it is not supposed to exist.

Consider the following 2-variable function: $$f(x,y) = \frac{x^2y}{x^4+y^2}$$ I would like to find the limit of this function as $(x,y) \rightarrow (0,0)$. I used polar coordinates instead of ...
2
votes
1answer
354 views

Show that $u(x)=\ln\left(\ln\left(1+\frac{1}{|x|}\right)\right)$ is in $W^{1,n}(U)$, where $U=B(0,1)\subset\mathbb{R}^n$.

The entire problem statement is: Let $n>1$ and let $U=B(0,1)\subset\mathbb{R}^n$. Show that $u:U\to\mathbb{R}$ given by $$u(x)=\ln\left(\ln\left(1+\frac{1}{|x|}\right)\right)$$ is in $W^{1,n}(U).$...
0
votes
2answers
209 views

Laplacian in polar coordinates

I am stuck with an exercise that requires me to find the Laplacian $\Delta u=(D_x^2u+D_y^2u)$ of a 2d-function $u$ in polar coordinates (in the standard Euclidean plane). I found the following ...
4
votes
4answers
2k views

Linear combinations of sine and cosine

If you take a linear combination of the cosine and sine function, then the result is again a sinusoid, but with a new amplitude and phase shift. $$a \cos(\theta) + b \sin(\theta) = A \cos(\theta + \...
6
votes
4answers
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How to deduce the area of sphere in polar coordinates?

$A = r \int_{0}^{\pi}\int_{0}^{2\pi} e^{i (\alpha+\theta)} d\alpha d\theta = r \int_{0}^{\pi} [\frac{-i}{\alpha+\theta} e^{i(\alpha + \theta)}]_{0}^{2\pi} d\theta = ... =...
0
votes
1answer
609 views

Orthonormal vectors in Polar coordinates, show $\hat{e}_R=\frac{(x,y,z)}{r}$

Definitions Unit vector has length 1. Orthonormal vectors are orthogonal and unit vectors. RobJohn's suggestions for the basis in polar coordinates, here, satisfy the criteria but how can you ...
2
votes
1answer
421 views

Express partial derivatives of second order (and the Laplacian) in polar coordinates

$z=f(x,y)$ where $x=rcosθ$ and $y=rsinθ$ Find $ \frac{\partial z}{\partial x}$ and $ \frac{\partial^2 z}{\partial x^2}$ I'm having big troubles with using chain rule, in particularly the second ...
1
vote
0answers
58 views

Can I switch to polar coordinates if my function has complex poles?

You can think this of the following as a 3d QFT where we try to calculate the self-energy of two fields. $I$ is a this external self-energy and let us assume it does not depend on the loop momenta ...
0
votes
2answers
178 views

System of equations, limit points

This is a worked out example in my book, but I am having a little trouble understanding it: Consider the system of equations: $$x'=y+x(1-x^2-y^2)$$ $$y'=-x+y(1-x^2-y^2)$$ The orbits and limit sets ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

Integration of radial functions?

Let $f(|x|)$ be a integrable radial function in $\mathbb{R}^n$ ($|\cdot|$ denotes the euclidean norm as in convention). The following identity is used to simplify computations $$\int_{\mathbb{R}^n}f(|...
7
votes
2answers
130 views

Is this a sound demonstration of Euler's identity?

Richard Feynman referred to Euler's Identity, $e^{i\pi} + 1 = 0$ as a "jewel." I'm trying to demonstrate this jewel without recourse to a Taylor series. Given $z = cos\theta + i sin\theta\; |\;|z| = ...
6
votes
2answers
6k views

Dirac delta in polar coordinates

Given $$x=r\,\cos\theta\\y=r\,\sin\theta$$ and $$x'=r'\,\cos\theta'\\y'=r'\,\sin\theta'$$ how can I express $$\delta(x'-x)\delta(y'-y)$$ in terms of the polar coordinates? And the more general ...
7
votes
1answer
38k views

Ellipse in polar coordinates

I think Wikipedia's polar coordinate elliptical equation isn't correct. Here is my explanation: Imagine constants $a$ and $b$ in this format - Where $2a$ is the total height of the ellipse and $2b$ ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

How to show the normal density integrates to 1?

How could you show that the normal density integrates to 1? $$ \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi \sigma^2}} e^{-(x+\mu)^2 / \sigma^2} dx = 1 $$
2
votes
1answer
225 views

Explain Dot product with Partial derivatives in Polar-coordinates

Related to page 819 prob 4 in this book. I am incorrectly calculating the left-hand-side (def. LHS), some newbie error with commutativity probably. Ideas? Errors? I propose $(\hat{e}_r\partial_r)\...
4
votes
3answers
316 views

Transform to polar the following integral $\int_0^6\int_0^y x \, dx \, dy$

I need to transform this integral $\int_0^6\int_0^y x \, dx \, dy$ to polar and then find its value. I'm stuck finding the r-limits of integration.
2
votes
0answers
90 views

Scale factors in cylindrical coordinates - geometrical meaning

I am trying to make sense of the scale factors in cylindrical coordinates and their geometrical meaning. To start with something simpler, begin with Cartesian coordinates: $$h_x=h_y=h_z=1$$ One can ...
27
votes
2answers
8k views

Cannabis Equation

How can an equation for the following curve be derived? $$r=(1+0.9 \cos(8 \theta)) (1+0.1 \cos(24 \theta)) (0.9+0.1 \cos(200 \theta)) (1+\sin(\theta))$$ (From WolframAlpha)
3
votes
3answers
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Writing a Polar Equation for the Graph of an Implicit Cartesian Equation

If $(x^2+y^2)^3=4x^2y^2,$ then $r=\sin 2\theta$ for some $\theta$. Using $r^2=x^2+y^2, x=r\cos\theta,y=r\sin\theta$, it's easy to get $r^2=\sin^22\theta$. But I don't know what to do next, since $r$ ...
2
votes
2answers
12k views

dA in polar coordinates?

I have seen a picture for $dV$ so that $dV = r^{2} \sin(\theta)\,dr\,d\theta\,d\phi$. But how can I deduce things like $dA$ and $dV$? In a simpler coordinate (not sure about the name), $dA = r \,dr\,d\...
6
votes
1answer
332 views

Meaning of Rays in Polar Plot of Prime Numbers

I recently began experimenting with gnuplot and I quickly made an interesting discovery. I plotted all of the prime numbers beneath 1 million in polar coordinates such that for every prime $p$, $(r,\...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

Heat equation in polar co-ordinates

I was studying the heat equation, when i saw a new variant of it. Here's the statement: "the edge $r=a$ of a circular plate is kept at temperature $f(\theta)$. The plate is insulted so that there is ...
5
votes
3answers
241 views

Rigorous proof that $dx dy=r\ dr\ d\theta$

I get the graphic explanation, i.e. that the area $dA$ of the sector's increment can be looked upon as a polar "rectangle" as $dr$ and $d\theta$ are infinitesimal, but how do you prove this rigorously?...
4
votes
2answers
100 views

From Gravity Equation-of-Motion to General Solution in Polar Coordinates

I'm having trouble getting the general solution of this differential equation. The gravitational equation of motion is, for constants $M$ and $G$ and position vector $\vec{r}$, $$\frac{d^2}{d t^2}\...
3
votes
1answer
96 views

Integral formula for polar coordinates

The polar coordinates of point $x \in \mathbb{R} \setminus \{0\}$ are pairs $(r,\gamma)$, where $0 < r < \infty$ and $\gamma \in S^{d-1} = \{x \in \mathbb{R}^{d}\mid |x| = 1\}$. These are ...
3
votes
3answers
4k views

Calculating a limit in two variables by going to polar coordinates.

I have this limit to calculate: $$l=\lim_{(x,y)\to(0,0)}\frac{\sin(x^2y+x^2y^3)}{x^2+y^2}$$ I solve it by going to the polar coordinates. Since $(x,y)\to 0$ means the same as $\sqrt{x^2+y^2}\to 0$, ...
2
votes
1answer
527 views

Partial derivatives and orthogonality with polar-coordinates

We are stuck with this question here because I cannot understand the following results. I find it hard to visualize this, let alone deduce from that. How to do it? Objective to Attack The closely ...
2
votes
1answer
152 views

Really Stuck on Partial derivatives question

Ok so im really stuck on a question. It goes: Consider $$u(x,y) = xy \frac {x^2-y^2}{x^2+y^2} $$ for $(x,y)$ $ \neq $ $(0,0)$ and $u(0,0) = 0$. calculate $\frac{\partial u} {\partial x} (x,y)$ and $\...
7
votes
3answers
125 views

Area and Polar Coordinates

Would anyone be able to help me with this problem? I think I know the area formula in polar coordinates that should be used: the antiderivative of ((1/2)r^2 dtheta) from alpha to beta but I'm not ...
5
votes
2answers
17k views

Why is $dy dx = r dr d \theta$ [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Explain $\iint \mathrm dx\mathrm dy = \iint r \mathrm d\alpha\mathrm dr$ I'm reading the proof of Gaussian integration. When we change to polar coordinates, why do we get ...
4
votes
4answers
954 views

How can the trefoil knot be expressed in polar coordinates?

From Wikipedia, the parametric equations for a trefoil knot are \begin{align*} x(t) &= \sin t + 2\sin 2t \\ y(t) &= \cos t - 2\cos 2t \\ z(t) &= -\sin 3t. \end{align*} I am only ...
3
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1answer
1k views

Computing gradient in cylindrical polar coordinates using metric?

I am trying to understand coordinate transformations properly (having studied some general relativity in the past). Let us consider the transformation from cartesian to cylindrical coordinates, $x=\...
2
votes
1answer
203 views

Keeping the arc length constant between points in a spiral

I'm making a visualization of points in a logarithmic spiral and want to keep the arc length between points (image particles) constant. I read that in an Archemedian spiral arc length is ...
2
votes
2answers
731 views

Find Cartesian equation of $r=\theta$

I solved this problem, but I'm not sure my answer is correct as it seems very complex (compared to the polar equation). Did I make some mistake along the way or is it the right solution? $$r=\theta$$ ...
2
votes
2answers
1k views

Converting polar equation to cartesian coordinate polar equation and back again?

OK, so I have the following polar equation: $r = Θ/20$ And I would like to translate this a little to the right, and down from the polar origin. Now, I figure since I know cartesian coordinate ...
2
votes
2answers
108 views

Does the inverse function theorem fail for $\frac {\partial r}{\partial x}$

This is a follow-up to a question that I answered (though, not well enough). Why is it that $\frac {\partial r}{\partial x} = \cos(\theta) = \frac {\partial x}{\partial r} = \frac {\partial}{\partial ...
2
votes
1answer
75 views

About polar coordinates in high dimensions

I'm trying to understand a proof in Michel Willem, Functional Analysis -- Fundamentals and Applications, Birkhäuser. The book defines: $$\int_{\Bbb S^{N-1}}f(\sigma)\,d\sigma=N\int_{B_N}f\left(\...
2
votes
1answer
99 views

Pullback metric, coordinate vector fields..

I'm doing this computation on $\mathbb{R}^3$ with cylindrical coordinates $(r, \theta, z)$, (which aren't defined on the whole of $\mathbb{R}^3$, but I don't care about that) and I seem to get a ...
1
vote
2answers
44 views

Explain finding the area of a region?

How is the area of the region inside the lemniscate $r^2 = 6\cos(2\theta)$ and outside the circle $r = \sqrt3$ equal to $(3(\sqrt3) - \pi)$? Thank you for anyone that helps.
1
vote
2answers
996 views

How know which direction a particle is moving on a polar curve

I have being doing problems from the released AP BC Calcululs Free-Response questions, and I have come to realize that I don't have a very good idea of explain or a deep understanding of how to tell ...
1
vote
2answers
182 views

Show that the parameterized curve is a periodic solution to the system of nonlinear equations

First I tried to convert the system to polar coordinates. This only made things worse (unless I made some idiotic mistake). Can I plug in the given ellipse (rectangular coordinates) into the ...
7
votes
2answers
2k views

Finding a point on Archimedean Spiral by its path length

I've been curious about Archimedean Spirals and their relations to Sacks Spirals and prime numbers. I would like to draw some visualizations of the points with a given distance from the center, ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

Area Bounded by Polar Curves

I am answering sample exams for my Calculus class and my attention was caught by the following item. Set-up the definite integral or sum of definite integrals equal to the area of the region above ...
5
votes
5answers
212 views

Points on $(x^2 + y^2)^2 = 2x^2 - 2y^2$ with slope of $1$

Let the curve in the plane defined by the equation: $(x^2 + y^2)^2 = 2x^2 - 2y^2$ How can i graph the curve in the plane and determine the points of the curve where $\frac{dy}{dx} = 1$. My work: ...
5
votes
0answers
37 views

Does a plane curve with polar equation $r=\lambda_1\cos^2\theta+\lambda_2\sin^2\theta$ have a name?

Does a plane curve with polar equation $$r=\lambda_1\cos^2\theta+\lambda_2\sin^2\theta$$ where both $\lambda_i>0$ have a name? It's very similar to hippopede, also known as lemniscate of Booth, ...
4
votes
2answers
69 views

Given integral $\iint_D (e^{x^2 + y^2}) \,dx \,dy$ in the domain $D = \{(x, y) : x^2 + y^2 \le 2, 0 \le y \le x\}.$ Move to polar coordinates.

Given integral $\iint_D (e^{x^2 + y^2}) \,dx \,dy$ in the domain $D = \{(x, y) : x^2 + y^2 \le 2, 0 \le y \le x\}.$ Move to polar coordinates. First of all I tried to find the domain of $x$ and $y$: ...
3
votes
6answers
2k views

Simple partial differentiation $x = r\cos\theta$ and $y = r\sin\theta$

If \begin{align} x &= r\cos\theta,\\ y &= r\sin\theta, \end{align} find $$\dfrac{\partial^2\theta}{\partial{x}\partial{y}}.$$ How can I find this partial derivative? I need to prove ...
2
votes
3answers
2k views

In polar coordinates, can r be negative?

I'm getting different answers for this. Many websites say that when you get a negative value of r, you flip the coordinate 180 degrees across the pole. However my teacher says that you cannot have a ...
2
votes
2answers
3k views

Del operator in 2D polar coordinates

I need to show that the del operator in 2D polar coordinates is $\nabla=e_r\partial_r+\frac{1}{r}e_r+\frac{1}{r}e_{\phi}\partial_{\phi}$. I try the following approach: $\nabla=\partial_xe_x+\...