Questions on polar coordinates, a coordinate system where points are represented by their distance from the origin ($r$) and the angle the line joining the point and the origin makes with the positive horizontal axis ($\theta$).

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Harmonic functions and polar differential forms

Given a harmonic function $u$, its differential and conjugate differential are $$du = \frac{\partial u}{\partial x}dx + \frac{\partial u}{\partial y}dy,\qquad ^{*}du = -\frac{\partial u}{\partial y}dx ...
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2answers
30 views

Find the area of the circle

Find the area of the circle defined by the parametric equations $x = \cos t$ and $y = \sin t$. I know this is circle defined by $x^2 +y^2 =1$ so i used $0 < t < 2\pi$ as my bounds, then ...
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1answer
20 views

Compute double integral on polar coordinates, find $r(\phi)$

I have the function $f(x,y)=y^2-2x^2y+6x^3-3xy+2y-6x$ and the region $\{y\geq 2x^2-2, y\leq 3x\}$. The region is: To compute the integral in cartesian coordinates: ...
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0answers
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How many kinds of simple coordinates are there in a 2D space?

The question comes form an idea to solve a motion-with-potential problem in 1D space by finding a mathematically equivalent uniform-motion problem in 2D space. ...
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2answers
35 views

Converting from set of Cartesian equations to Polar Equation

Is it possible to convert the set of Cartesian equations: $$x(t) = (20-30)*\cos(2t)+45*\cos(2t*(20-30)/20))$$ $$y(t) = (20-30)*\sin(2t)+45*\sin(2t*(20-30)/20))$$ where $$t \in [0,2\pi)$$ Into a ...
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2answers
57 views

Integrating $ \int_0^2 \int_0^ \sqrt{1-(x-1)^2} \frac{x+y}{x^2+y^2} dy\,dx$ in polar coordinates

I'm having a problem integrating $ \displaystyle\int_0^2 \int_0^ \sqrt{1-(x-1)^2} \frac{x+y}{x^2+y^2} \,dy\,dx$. I drew the graph, and it looks like half a circle on top of the $x$ axis. I tried ...
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3answers
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Integrating $\int_1^2 \int_0^ \sqrt{2x-x^2} \frac{1}{((x^2+y^2)^2} dydx $ in polar coordinates

I'm having a problem converting $\int_1^2 \int_0^ \sqrt{2x-x^2} \frac{1}{(x^2+y^2)^2} dy dx $ to polar coordinates. I drew the graph using my calculator, which looked like half a circle on the x ...
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2answers
49 views

Finding the length of a spiral

I need to find the length of a spiral. The spiral start at a certain radius $R_1$ and ends at a smaller radius $R_2$. As the spiral spins inwards, the distance between each arm of the spiral decreases ...
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3answers
35 views

graph the curve and find its length, $r=\cos^2(\frac {\theta}{2}) $

graph the curve and find it's length, $r=\cos^2(\frac {\theta}{2}) $ I graphed it and found that it was a cardioid (or a sideways heart). I am getting stuck on the arc length. this is what I have: ...
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1answer
12 views

Finding self-intersections on a polar curve

I have a polar curve $r = \frac{2}{\theta}$ (which is a hyperbolic spiral) and I need to find out where it self-intersects. When $\theta$ is restricted to positive values it never intersects, but when ...
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1answer
60 views

find the area of the region that lies inside both curves $r=3+2\cos\theta; r=3+2\sin\theta$

find the area of the region that lies inside both curves $r=3+2\cos\theta ; r=3+2\sin\theta$ The points of intersection should be $\frac {\pi}{4} and \frac {5\pi}{4} $ I don't think these graphs are ...
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2answers
27 views

Is equation for ellipse in polar coordinates correct?

Wikipedia gives the following equation for the conic sections in the polar coordinate system: $r = \frac{l}{1+e\cos\varphi}$. According to the article on conic sections, in case of an ellipse $e = ...
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1answer
26 views

Find points near end point of a line

Any equation to find points near to both start and end points of lines with different slopes. See image. Need P and Q. If Endpoints are named A and B, AP and BQ should be 1 cm
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0answers
11 views

Heat equation on a circular plate

I'm in trouble with the following problem: assuming a circular plate of radius $R$, the heat equation on it, is: $$\partial_t ...
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1answer
55 views

graph polar coordinates $ r=4\sin(3\theta) $

Graph polar coordinates $ r=4\sin(3\theta) $ I was told by my teacher to split the graph into $3$ parts per quadrant and try those angles the problem arises when I plug $\dfrac{5\pi}{6}$ into the ...
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1answer
27 views

Tranforming to polar co-ordinates

$$I = \int_0^1\int_0^{\sqrt{1-x^2}} xy \, dy\, dx$$ By transforming to circular polar co-ordinates, evaluate I. How do I do this? Is there a formula/strategy for doing this that works with ...
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1answer
32 views

Convert $r^2\cos(2\theta)=9$ to Cartesian

I need to convert $r^2\cos(2\theta)=9$ to Cartesian coordinates. How should I do it? What I did: $$r^{2}\cos2\theta=r^{2}2\cos^{2}\theta-1=9\Rightarrow r^{2}\cos^{2}\theta=5\Rightarrow x^{2}=5$$ Did ...
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2answers
30 views

Cartesian coordinates of lemniscate

A problem from Spivak's Calculus: Sketch the graph of the lemniscate $$r^2 = 2a^2\cos 2 \theta.$$ Find an equation for its cartesian coordinates. Show that it is the collection of ...
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1answer
32 views

Finite differences to ODE in polar coordinates

I have an equation of finite differences as follows: $$\frac{X_1(r+\epsilon)-X_1(r)}{ \frac{\epsilon~\beta}{2~r+\epsilon} } + \frac{X_1(r-\epsilon)-X_1(r)}{ \frac{\epsilon~\beta}{2~r-\epsilon} } = ...
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1answer
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Center of Mass double Integral using polar Coord.

Find center of mass given Lamina pictured: https://s3.amazonaws.com/wamapdata/qimages/qtrring.gif with inner radius of 3 and an outer radius of 7, and a density function $$\rho(x,y) = ...
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2answers
25 views

Surface: intersection of 2 polar curves

I have these two polar curves: $$ C_1: r = 2 - \cos(\theta)\\ C_2: r = 3 \cos(\theta) $$ Plots: C1 and C2. I need to find the surface of $D = C_1 \cap C_2$. I started by finding the solution to ...
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2answers
38 views

how do we interpret this integral from polar co-ordinates

$$\text{Find } \int_C rdr$$ Where $C$ is any closed loop. I feel that the answer is zero, i have no hard reasoning. Here $r$ is the parameter from the polar coordinates.
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Double integral polar coordinate using substitution

I have to calculate: $$\iint _{R} \frac{x}{\sqrt{x^{2}+y^{2}}}dA$$ and R is this region: $$x^{2}+y^{2}=16; x^{2}+y^{2}=4; y = \sqrt{3}x; y=\frac{x}{\sqrt{3}}$$ so I used substitution: $$x = r\cos ...
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1answer
18 views

Find minimum of Archimedean spiral in revolution

I just recently asked about limacon curves, but now I want to examine the Archimedian curve: $$r=a + b\theta$$ The question is essentially the same, for a given range, how would one find the minimum ...
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4answers
33 views

Find minimum x value from a polar function

I am mainly examining limacon functions. For the equation r= b + a*cos(theta), it is easy to find the minimum radius, but I want to find the most negative value (between a given range). Take function ...
4
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1answer
150 views

Multiple integral over a disc

I would need some help on this integration problem: $$I=\int_0^{2\pi}\int_0^{R}\int_0^{2\pi}\int_0^{R}\exp(-a\ r_{12}) \ r_1 \ r_2 ...
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1answer
18 views

Why is the integral of the arc length in polar form not similar to the length of the arc of a circular sector?

So I learned that the area enclosed by a polar function is computed by $$A = \int \frac{r(\theta)^2}{2}d\theta.$$ Which, I learned, comes somewhat from the formula for the area of a circular sector ...
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1answer
31 views

Ellipse region in polar coordinates

if I want to write the region in $R^2$ bounded by the ellipse $$10x^2 + 17 y^2 = 29$$ In polar coordinates($x=r\cos \theta, y= r \sin \theta$), how can I find the limit of $r$?
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Calculate if a Circle intersects a Arc

Have a Cartesian Plane cartesian plane And a Arc with the measures: point = 200, 200 radius = 50 start angle = 0 end angle = 180 And a Circle with the ...
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1answer
61 views

approximate this fancy looking double integral

$$\int_{0}^{2\pi} \int_{0}^{1}r^5\sin^22\theta\left(1-r^2 \right)^2\sqrt{1+\left(1+ \cos^2\theta \right)36r^2 }\hspace{1mm}drd\theta$$ I tried integrating myself, spent many hours but could not ...
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2answers
28 views

Polar coordinates in the cartesian plane.

${dy}/{dx} = {dy}/{d\theta}$ divided by $dx/d\theta$ where $x$ and $y$ are in the Cartesian plane and $\theta$ is in the polar plane and $x = r\cos( \theta), \ y = r \sin (\theta)$. If $dy/dx = 0$ ...
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2answers
54 views

converting kph and heading to xyz velocity vector

I am writing software (in C++) that is required to send out messages from our simulation system to another simulation system. Problem is we track the simulation object's current speed (kph) and ...
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1answer
26 views

Area in a polar curve question

C1: $\;r= 3 \sin x$ where $0\leq x\leq \pi$ C2: $\;r= 1 + \sin x$ where $-\pi \leq x \leq \pi$ Please help me in this question I have drawn the sketch of the two polar equations. Then the ...
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1answer
32 views

Computing the enclosed area formed by a curve

Given the following curve: ${(\frac{x^2}{a^2}+\frac{y^2}{b^2})}^2=\frac{x^2}{a^2}-\frac{y^2}{b^2}$, $a,b>0$ Find the space enclosed by it. Now, obviously (I think) the idea is to ...
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2answers
76 views

Calculate area of $r^2 = \cos(2 \theta)$ without breaking into individual petals?

In the area integral, I am integrating first $r$ from: $-sqrt\cos(2\theta)$ to $sqrt\cos(2\theta)$ and theta from $-\pi/4$ to $\pi/4$. Integrand is $r*dr*d\theta$. In r integral it comes 0 after ...
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1answer
40 views

how to find slope of this polar curve: $r^2=\sin(2\theta)$.

Given $r^2=\sin(2\theta),\;$ how to find the slope of the tangent line at $x=0$ ? If the question were $r=\sin(2\theta)$, it would be o.k. but since it is $r^2=\sin(2\theta)$, I don't know how to ...
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1answer
76 views

Find k in $\int_2^{\infty} \frac{k}{\sqrt{2\pi}} \exp^{-\frac{1}{2} x^2} \, dx$

I'm trying to solve for k in the pdf: \begin{equation} \int_2^{\infty} \frac{k}{\sqrt{2\pi}} \exp^{-\frac{1}{2} x^2} \, dx \end{equation} My solution (which is wrong): Take the square of the ...
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1answer
33 views

Integral formula for polar coordinates

The polar coordinates of point $x \in \mathbb{R} \setminus \{0\}$ are pairs $(r,\gamma)$, where $0 < r < \infty$ and $\gamma \in S^{d-1} = \{x \in \mathbb{R}^{d}\mid |x| = 1\}$. These are ...
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0answers
28 views

Differential Operators in different coordinates

How does one show this identity? $$\frac{\partial^2}{\partial x^2}+\frac{\partial^2}{\partial y^2}=\frac{\partial^2}{\partial r^2}+{1\over r}\frac{\partial}{\partial r}+{1\over ...
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1answer
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If $f(2\alpha-\theta) = f(\theta)$, then $\theta=\alpha$ is a line of symmetry of $r=f(\theta)$. How do you derive $f(2\alpha-\theta) = f(\theta)$?

For Polar Coordinates I know that for x-axis symmetry $f(-\theta)=f(\theta)$, for y-axis symmetry $f(\theta)=f(\pi-\theta)$, and for symmetry about the origin $f(\theta)=f(\theta+\pi)$. The big ...
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0answers
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polar co ordinates integration

integrate the polar co ordinates $$ \int^{r=\infty}_{r=0} \int^{z=\infty}_{z=-\infty} \delta(r) \delta(z-z_s) dz dr$$ => I want to integrate the above equation. integral of $ \int^ {z=\infty} _ {z= ...
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1answer
41 views

Volume of solid bounded by $z^2 = x^2 + y^2$ and $x^2 + y^2 = 2x$

Calculate the volume of the solid bounded by $z^2 = x^2 + y^2 $ and $x^2 + y^2 = 2x$ My attempt: Using cylindrical coordinates, $$ \mathrm{Vol} = \int_{-\pi/2}^{\pi/2} \int_0^1 \int_{-r}^{r} r ...
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1answer
54 views

Cylindrical cordinates: $\iiint (x^2 + y^2 + z^2) dxdydz$

Show that $$ I= \iiint_S (x^2 + y^2 + z^2) dxdydz = \frac{2^{10} a^5 k}{75} \left(1 + \frac{k^2}{3} \right), a>0, k>0$$ where $S$ is the region bounded by the cilinder $x^2 + y^2 = 2ax$ and ...
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1answer
22 views

Convert the polar equation to Cartesian coordinates : $r^3 = − 7cos\theta$

I have a question to convert $r^3 = − 7cos\theta$ into cartesian coordinates. I'm having a hard time understanding what to do. I'm familiar with converting a polar coordinate to a Cartesian ...
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1answer
35 views

Arc Length polar curve

$$r=a\sin^3\left(\frac{\theta}{3}\right) $$ I tried solving it using the equation for arc length with $dr/d\theta$ and $r^2$. Comes out messy and complicated.
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2answers
29 views

Plotting complicated polar curve without calculator

I'm wondering if anyone can give me tips or guidance on how to plot complicated polar curves without the use of a calculator. Most notably, I am trying to plot: Based on a graphing calculator, I ...
2
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1answer
34 views

Representation of cardiod in the complex plane

I noticed that the complex function $$f(z) = \frac{2}{(z+i)^2}$$ seems to map the real line onto the cardioid given by the polar equation: $$r = 1- \cos(\theta).$$ I was wondering if there is a simple ...
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0answers
21 views

Transformation in polar coordinate system

I have a point $P \in \mathbb{R}^2$. $P$ in a local Cartesian coordinate is given as $(x,y)$ or alternatively the polar representation is given as $(\rho, \theta)$. This local coordinate is located ...
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0answers
18 views

Polar coordinates: Slope of tangent

Would anyone mind telling me how to solve this problem? It seems strange as my answer is $-1$. Do I have to apply this formula, $(r'sinθ +rcosθ)/(r'cosθ -rsinθ)$ ?
2
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1answer
44 views

Converting Cartesian circle to polar form

I am trying to convert circle equation from Cartesian to polar coordinates. I know the solution is all over the Internet but what I am looking for is the exact procedure and explanation, not just the ...