Plane curves are continuous (or smooth) functions $\gamma\colon I\to\mathbb R^2$ from a real interval to the plane. Sometimes also the image $\gamma(I)$ is called curve.

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Finding the formula of a curve

Is it possible to find the simple formula for curves? For example, you want to plot the letter "A" , is it possible to find a formula to graph letter "A" on the coordinate system? To the best of my ...
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337 views

Find two planes which are parallel to each other, given that each plane contains a line (just a summary of the question)

Let L be the line through (1, 2, 3) and (3, 1, 2) and let L' be the line through (1, −1, 1) and (0, 2, 1). a) find Find the equation of a plane π containing L, and parallel to a plane containing L'. ...
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66 views

Why does the arc-length formula have form $\int_a^b\left|\left|\frac{d\vec{f}(t)}{dt}\right|\right|_2dt$ for C1 curves?

This discussion focuses on $\mathcal{C}^1$ curve on $\mathbb{R}^n$. But feel free to talk about the case where we only have a continuous curve or the scenario with a manifold with a metric in general. ...
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1answer
168 views

Give a closed plane curve C with k (curvature) > 0 that is not convex, Draw closed plane curves with rotation indices 0, 2, -2, and 3

1.) Give a closed plane curve C with k (curvature) > 0 that is not convex. can someone please explain these concepts to me. How can you have a closed plane curve like this? Do you used signed ...
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30 views

Finding family of curve for given asymptotes

I need to find possible curves, with asymptotes given as $x=0 (x \to -\infty)$ and $y=mx \hspace{0.5cm} m>0$. it is easy to find curves for individual lines, $y= \exp(-\lambda_1 x) + mx$ for $y=mx$ ...
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33 views

About the conditions in Jordan's Curve Theorem

In the original formulation of the theorem, it was stated that a Jordan curve separate the plane in two sets that is not path-connected. The formulation in Wikipedia is that the Jordan curve separate ...
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1answer
48 views

What is the Hilbert curve's equation?!

The Hilbert curve has always bugged me because it had no closed equation or function that I could find. What is its equation or function? For example, if I wanted to find the Hilbert's curve point at ...
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2answers
49 views

Is there a thing named a “spiral plane” which is a plane but it's spiral?

Hello, I'm wondering if there is such thing like this. Is there a plane which is not flat but spiral and extending for infinity? I have drawn a representation for what I mean but it's not thorough ...
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2answers
148 views

Nontrivial solutions of $\sum\limits_{-\infty}^\infty\overline{a_n}a_{n+k}=\delta_{k0}$

Let $a=(a_n)$ with $a_n\in\mathbb{C}$ be a vector indexed over all $n\in\mathbb{Z}$, and consider the system of equations $\sum\limits_{-\infty}^\infty\overline{a_n}a_{n+k}=\delta_{k0}$ for all ...
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2answers
458 views

Why does an equiangular spiral become logarithmic (intuitively)?

One of the most famous 2D-curves are logarithmic spirals (or Spira mirabilis). They can be constructed by using a machinery that ensures a constant angle between the tangent and the radial lines all ...
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2answers
349 views

Why do definitions of distinct conic sections produce a single equation?

I understand how to get from the definitions of a hyperbola — as the set of all points on a plane such that the absolute value of the difference between the distances to two foci at $(-c,0)$ and ...
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77 views

How to translate the polar curves up/down and right/left without referring to Cartesian equations?

If I have a polar equation $r(\theta)$, how can I translate it up/down and right/left? We can do this by converting the equations into Cartesian equations and do the translations we want and then ...
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0answers
46 views

Cycles non-homologous but with the same winding number at each point outside?

Problem (Fulton's Algebraic Topology: A First Course, Problem 6.28) Can we find a closed set $X\subseteq\mathbb R^2$, such that there's a cycle $\gamma$ in $X$ not homologous to zero but for each ...
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41 views

Tractable indefinite integral of the exponentiation of some function

Consider the function $z(s)\in\mathbb{C}$ defined as $z(s)=\int_0^s \exp\left[i(q u+\lambda(u))\right]du$ for some $q\in\mathbb{Q}-\mathbb{Z}$ and $\lambda(s)$ a $2\pi$-periodic real differentiable ...
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1answer
65 views

A generalization of Jordan curve theorem to connected open sets in the plane

Problem (Fulton's Algebraic Topology: A First Course, Problem 5.23) Let $U\subseteq\mathbb R^2$ be any connected open set in the plane. If $X\subseteq U$ is homeomorphic to $[0,1]$, then ...
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1answer
40 views

Tractrix exercise

Exercise: Let $$\begin{align*}\gamma:(0,\pi) &\to \mathbb R^2\\ t &\mapsto \gamma(t)=(\sin t,\ \cos t+\log \left(\tan(\frac{t}{2}) \right), \end{align*}$$ be the parametrized curve of the ...
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1answer
40 views

Cycloid arc lenght question

I've parametrized the cycloid with the function $$\gamma(t)=(\cos(\frac{3}{2}\pi-t)+t,\sin(\frac{3}{2}\pi-t)+1) ; \space t \in [0,+\infty)$$ I am asked to find the arc lenght of the curve which ...
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67 views

Problem with calculating winding number in sum of curves

Let $$ \begin{align} \gamma= \gamma_1 +\gamma_2+\gamma_3,\\ \gamma_1(t)=e^{it}, t\in[0,2\pi] \\ \gamma_2(t)=-1+2e^{-2it}, t\in [0,2\pi]\\ \gamma_3(t)=1-i+e^{it},t\in [\frac{\pi}{2},\frac{9\pi}{2}] ...
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1answer
41 views

winding number of $\gamma$ and point exterior to $\gamma$

$$ \begin{align} n(\gamma,z_0)=\frac{1}{2\pi i}\int_\gamma\frac{1}{z-z_0}dz . \end{align} $$ Is it safe to say that $n(\gamma,z)=0,\forall z \in \mathbb{C}\backslash \gamma^*$
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2answers
302 views

Finding the equation for a (inverted) cycloid given two points

If I have two points on a Cartesian plane, and I know that they are connected by a cycloid, then how do I find the equation for that cycloid? For background information, I have been playing around ...
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1answer
28 views

Problem in showing that contours $\gamma_2$ is equivalent to $ \gamma $

Let $\gamma_2(t)= e^{-it^2}, t\in[0,\sqrt{2\pi}]$ and $\gamma(t)=e^{2\pi it}, t\in[0,1]$ Show that $\gamma_2 \sim \gamma $. I think that for the latter to be true $\gamma_2$ should be ...
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43 views

Does $\gamma(t)=e^{it^2} , t \in [0,\sqrt{2\pi}]$ represent the unit circle?

$$ \begin{align} \gamma(t)=e^{it^2} , t \in [0,\sqrt{2\pi}] \end{align} $$ Is my thinking correct that $\gamma$ represents the unit circle correct?
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1answer
48 views

Image of a parametrised curve and its geometrical meaning

$\gamma_1(t)= t^2 + i\, t^4 , t\in [ -1, 1]$ which is the Image of this curve and / or what is the geometrical description of the set of points $ z : z=\gamma_1(t)$ I am helping a friend study ...
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1answer
64 views

There is at least one straight line that can bisect both the perimeter and the area of the curve. [duplicate]

Consider a closed curve of finite length. There is at least one straight line that can bisect both the perimeter and the area of the curve. Why is this statment true?
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1answer
39 views

The motion of the particle satisfies $\textbf{v} = \textbf{c}\times \textbf{r}$

Why is the path is contained in a circle that lies in a plane perpendicular to $\textbf{c}$ with centre on a line through the origin in the direction of $\textbf{c}$
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1answer
51 views

How can we find the arc length of the curve? [closed]

How can I find the length of the curve $$\left(\frac{t^3}{3} - t\right)\mathbf{i}+ t^2 \mathbf{j}, \quad 0≤t≤1?$$
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510 views

Constructing a family of distinct curves with identical area and perimeter

Two recent questions were posed by Arjuba [1] [2] asking for counter-examples regarding whether two different figures could have the same perimeter and area. Responders quickly raised a number of such ...
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Using equations to draw out complex objects

How do people come up with equations of curves to draw out complex objects? Some popular examples would include: batman curve & PSY curve. This stackexchange link explains the rationale for the ...
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1answer
122 views

How is equation art created [duplicate]

A friend of mine sent me a Wofram Alpha link to a parametric curve that creates a detailed drawing of a game character. The parametric equation that draws it is about ~9 screens tall on my ...
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0answers
48 views

How to derive Jordan curve theorem for three arcs from the two arc version?

The Jordan curve theorem can be stated as follows: Let $p,q\in\mathbb R^2$, $p\ne q$ and $a,b$ be arcs between $p$ and $q$ intersecting only in the endpoints. Then $a\cup b$ divides $\mathbb R^2$ ...
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2answers
455 views

What is a French curve, as mentioned by Feynman?

I'm reading "Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!", he says: I often liked to play tricks on people when I was at MIT. One time, in mechanical drawing class, some joker picked up a French curve (a ...
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74 views

A variational strategy for finding a family of curves?

In a recent question, I asked for examples of families of distinct smooth curves with fixed area and perimeter (which for this question I will dub as doubly-isometric). That wording allows $C^1$ ...
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2answers
193 views

Retrieve the initial cubic Bézier curve subdivided in two Bézier curves

I have a cubic Bezier curve subdivided to two cubic Bezier: Assuming that "t_cut" is the t value where this initial Bezier is cut: example of function subdivision(BezierCurve initialCurve, ...
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4answers
5k views

How to find the parametric equation of a cycloid?

"A cycloid is the curve traced by a point on the rim of a circular wheel as the wheel rolls along a straight line." - Wikipedia In many calculus books I have, the cycloid, in parametric form, is ...
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3answers
5k views

Polar to Parametric Equation?

I'm struggling with this problem, I'm still only on part (a). I tried X=rcos(theta) Y=rsin(theta) but I don't think I'm doing it right. Curve C has polar equation ...
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121 views

Maximum area enclosed by a string attached at fixed points

Two fixed points A and B have a string of length L attached between them. Supposing that the string does not intersect the line segment AB, then the string and AB will form a closed figure. What ...
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1answer
76 views

Osculating circles intersecting a given point

Well, the problem is a question in Montiel's book. How to prove that a planar curve $\alpha$ such that all osculating circles intersects a given point is actually a circle (or a part of it)? I've ...
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4answers
157 views

Proving $\dfrac{dN}{ds}=-\kappa T+\tau B$

Currently revising for a differential geometry exam. The question I am working on is one of those types where the next part of the question follows from the last. I've gotten to the point where I have ...
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2answers
85 views

Suppose $(x,y,z)$, $(1,1,0)$, and $(1,2,1)$ lie on a plane through the origin.

What determinant is zero? What equation does this give for the plane? I need some help here, am pretty stuck
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129 views

Intersections of two exponential curves in a plane

I am struggling to show that two exponential curves in $\mathbb{R}^n$ do not overlap except finite distinct points. Could anyone help me? Let $A\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ and ...
3
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240 views

Question on Moment of inertia about center of mass of a smooth plane curve.

This question is in continuation to this and motivated to answer this question. If I have an answer to it, then I can prove a special case of this question. Consider two smooth plane curves $C \equiv ...
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48 views

Lattice Points in x-y plane

What are Lattice Points? Which points in x-y planes are Lattice Points? Is (m,n) a lattice point where m,n are any integers?
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1answer
37 views

Two definitions for a smooth curve equal.

I've encountered these two definitions: 1. $\gamma\colon [a,b]\longrightarrow\mathbb{R^3}$ is smooth if all three derivatives exist and $\gamma^{\prime}(t) \neq 0 \;\; \forall t \in [a,b]$ ...
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15 views

Difference between containing point and pass through point?

I do not understand this, What is the difference between the equation of the plane containing the points and the equation of the plane through the point? Is it the same thing or are they different?
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1answer
62 views

injective curve inside curve

I am struggling to prove the following intuitive result: Take $\phi:[a,b]\rightarrow \mathbb{R}^{n}$ a continuous mapping with $\phi(a)\neq\phi(b)$. Then there is a continuous injective mapping ...
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1answer
73 views

Paths followed by Morley triangle vertices as apex moves parallel to base

Let the vertices of a triangle $T$ be $(A,B,C)$, and $(a,b,c)$ the vertices of its Morley triangle $M$. Designate vertex $C$ as the apex of $T$. Now move apex $C$ parallel to $AB$, all the while ...
3
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1answer
427 views

Understanding the Spiro Spline

My name's Wray. This is my first time here. Firstly, I like curves. I've been keeping a pet project for a long time that would implement a delightful new curve-interpolation algorithm named the Spiro ...
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1answer
109 views

convex curve equivalent definition

I have seen two different version of definition of a closed convex curve in a plane: For a curve $r(t)=(x(t),y(t))$ 1.The whole curve lies on only one side of any tangent of the curve 2.Any ...
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107 views

How to estimate curve length from random points along a (possibly not connected) curve

I'm working with a closed, smooth, planar curve. I don't know the curve exactly, but I do have an effectively-random collection of points along the curve. What's a good way to estimate the curve ...
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45 views

Why is $\sum^{n}_{i=1} \int_{t_{i-1}}^{t_i} = \int_{a}^{b} $?

This is a part of my proof: $$\begin{align} \left| \sum^{n}_{i=1} V(r(\tau_i)) \cdot \int_{t_{i-1}}^{t_i} r'(t) dt - \int_{a}^{b} V(r(t)) \cdot r'(t) dt \right| &\leq \sum^{n}_{i=1} ...