Plane curves are continuous (or smooth) functions $\gamma\colon I\to\mathbb R^2$ from a real interval to the plane. Sometimes also the image $\gamma(I)$ is called curve.

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Equation for a Vinyl curve

This video seems to show an explicit map from the torus to $\mathbb{R}^2$. Does it factorize through the projection $\mathbb{R}^3 \to \mathbb{R}^2$? What is the equation of the curve?
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9 views

Rotations at point of concurrency

$ L_1 = 0, L_2 = 0, L_1 + \lambda \cdot L_2 = 0 $ are equations of concurrent curves where $\lambda $ is an arbitrary constant. What is the geometric significance of $\lambda$? Does a curve ...
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38 views

derivative of closed parametric curve

Suppose, a parametric function $\beta:[0,1]\mapsto\mathbb{R}^2$ is a closed curve, that is $\beta(0)=\beta(1)$. For example $\beta(t)=(\sin 2\pi t,\cos 2\pi t)'$. Then my question: Is the derivative ...
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74 views

Prove using an example that there is no plane on $\mathbb{R}^3$ that contains every group of 4 points

Well, this is a homewrok question (which I know I should not be asking, but I cannot find an answer to this anywhere): The exercise is as follows: i) Find the equation of the plane of $\mathbb{R}^3$ ...
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3answers
322 views

determine unit outward normal vector on a curve

It is necessary for me to find unit outward normal vector for the curve: $$\gamma=(x(t),y(t))$$ where $$x(t)=(0.6)\cos(t)-(0.3)\cos(3t)$$ and $$y(t)=(0.7)\sin(t)+(0.07)\sin(7t)+(0.1)\sin(3t)$$ I ...
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1answer
75 views

Roulette (curve) parameterization

I was wondering about the parameterization of a roulette on Wikipedia. A roulette is a curve formed by a point associated to one curve as it rolls upon another fixed curve. Wikipedia says, if $f$ is ...
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307 views

Need help with Curves and parameterizations

I'm having some trouble solving a couple of problems: I know this one must be pretty easy but can't find the way to solve it. I need to find the arc length of a curve described by $ r=1- ...
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1answer
67 views

Intersection numbers of plane curves - constructing a counterexample.

There is the theorem that if $P$ is a simple point on a plane curve $F$, then for any plane curves $G,H$ we have $I(P,F\cap(G+H))\geq\min(I(P,F\cap G),I(P,F\cap H))$. I need to find a counter-example ...
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1answer
33 views

Gradient as Normal Vector Problem

Here's my problem: Use the normal gradient vector to determine the equation of the line/plane tangent to the given curve/surface at point P. $x^4 + xy + y^2 = 19$, P(2,-3) I know how to use the ...
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0answers
25 views

Gradient Vectors as Normal Vectors: How to Find D in Form Ax + By + Cz = D?

I've got a question that looks like this: Use the normal gradient vector to determine the equation of the line/plane tangent to the given curve/surface at point P. $x^4 + xy + y^2 = 19$, P(2,-3) I ...
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1answer
42 views

Finding the uniformising parameter of a DVR [duplicate]

I am looking to find the intersection number of the affine plane curves $F=Y^2-X^3+X$ and $G=(X^2+Y^2)^3-4X^2Y^2$, and I need to do it with the order function of the local ring of $F$ at the origin. ...
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364 views

It is physically intuitive that the catenary is unique?

The catenary minimizes the potential energy of a cable and has equation $y - y_0 = A \cosh (\frac{x-x_0}{A})$. It is physically intuitive that the catenary is unique, but is there a mathematical ...
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20 views

Parameterized Curvature Problem

Massively deviating from the given answer on this one, have no idea what's going on. Find the curvature of the following function: x = 5cos(t) ; y = 4sin(t) ; t = $pi$/4 Formula for curvature is k ...
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25 views

Determine nodes inside a curve

Let $$x=0.5\cos(t)-0.3\cos(3t)$$ $$y=1.2+0.6\sin(t)-0.07\sin(3t)+0.2\sin(7t)$$ How could I know an arbitrary point is inside or outside of this curve? Also, another ...
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3answers
32 views

Functions that go up two and then down two

I'm trying to make a function that goes up two and then down two (kind of like sin(x) but without the curves). I keep drawing a blank on what I can do to even create this functions as I haven't done ...
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17 views

Curve fitting using a graph extracted from an article, is it possible?

I want to curve fit a graph from an article which I can only extract from the pdf file as a screenshot. Therefore, I do not have the coordinates of the data points explicitly, yet I know that the ...
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61 views

How to find the tangent vector to a curve at a special point

The two points $A=(x_{0},y_{0},z_{0})$ and $B=(x_{1},y_{1},z_{1})$ are given. The line segments $AC$ and $BC$ make equal angle $\alpha$ with the horizontal plane through $C$. The angle ...
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1answer
60 views

$dx$-notation in analysis

In the context of integrals and differential equations, often the symbol $df$ or $dy$ appears, where in some previous steps $f$ and $y$ were functions. What do these symbols mean $df$ and $dy$? ...
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51 views

Showing that a specific curve is regular.

Define the curve by $c(t):=(sin(pt)+r)(cos(qt),sin(qt))$ for $p,q \in \mathbb{Q}$ and $r\in \mathbb{R}$. Determine for which $p,q$ is the curve regular, i.e. $c'(t) \neq (0,0)$ for any $t\in ...
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96 views

Total curvature of a piecewise smooth planar curve

I am trying to show that the total curvature of a piecewise smooth planar curve $\alpha$ has the property that $\displaystyle \int_{C}\kappa $ $\text{d}s + \displaystyle \sum_{j=1}^{l} \epsilon_{j} ...
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28 views

Relative motion between line/circle

By rolling a (line,circle) on a fixed (circle, line) in $\mathbb{R}^2$, the locus of a point on the former is an (involute, cycloid). By what procedure can we inter-convert their parametric ...
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32 views

Is there a unique solution?

Let $\mathbf{v}:(a,b)\to\mathbb{R}^2$ be a given continuous function and $t_0\in (a,b)$ a fixed point. Is it true that the following problem has a unique continuous solution ...
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1answer
125 views

Rolfsen exercise, chord theorem

Here's a problem from Rolfsen's Knots and Links that has me scratching my head: Show that there is always a counterexample to the "chord theorem" if $n$ is not an integer. [Hint: In attempting to ...
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35 views

Another type of primitive

Let $\mathbf{v}:(a,b)\to\mathbb{R}^2$ be a continuous function, such that $\Vert\mathbf{v}(t)\Vert=1,\ \forall t\in (a,b)$. Find all continuous functions $\mathbf{r}\colon (a,b)\to\mathbb{R}^2$ so ...
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31 views

Another type of derivative, another type of differential equation

Let $\mathbf{v}:(a,b)\to\mathbb{R}^2$ be a continuous function, such that $||\mathbf{v}(t)||=1,\ \forall t\in (a,b)$. Is it possible to find a continuous function $\mathbf{r}:(a,b)\to\mathbb{R}^2$ so ...
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22 views

A curve is contained in a circle [duplicate]

I need to prove that if $\alpha: I\rightarrow \mathbb{R}^{2}$ is regular with curvature $\kappa$, then $\alpha$ is on a circle with radius $r>0$ if and only if $|\kappa(t)|=\dfrac{1}{r}$.
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73 views

Tangent vector for a curve defined by a discrete set of points

I have a curve defined by a discrete set of points (x,y). How can I approximate the tangent vector at a point for such a curve?
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3answers
72 views

Chess Board Coloring of a Paper using an Arbitrary Curve

Pick a piece of paper and a pen. Put the pen on a starting point and begin to draw an arbitrary curve and don't withdraw your hand until you reached the starting point. You can meet your curve during ...
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1answer
100 views

Differential geometry: Conformal map

Let $f:\mathbb{R}_{>0} \times (0,2\pi) \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^3$ $$f(t,\xi) := (r(t) \cos( \xi) , r(t) \sin(\xi),z(t))$$ be a surface of revolution, where we assume that $r>0$ and ...
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40 views

How can I get a smooth distortion on a circle with a function g(x,y)

Let's say, $$f(x,y)=x^2+y^2=1$$ gives the unit circle. Now I would like to get a smooth distortion on the circle with a function $g(x,y)$. my guess is to consider the perimeter as one dimension, so ...
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91 views

Cusp singularity

What is the most general way of defining cusps singularities for a continuous curve $\mathbf{r}:(a,b)\to\mathbb{R}^2$ and how can we define them? What are the minimum requirements for the curve ...
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1answer
31 views

Image of a locus via stereographic projections

Yesterday evening I was playing around in my head with stereographic projections and I've come up with this idea. Let $\gamma(t)=(x(t),y(t))$ be a certain curve on a plane. Define a new curve ...
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1answer
41 views

Maximum of the length of a curve and its curvature

I'm trying to solve this problem but I can't find any way to do it. Some hints or helps will be very useful and I'll be very thankful. The problem says: Let $\alpha : (a,b) \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^2$ ...
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1answer
22 views

troublesome area problem

Calculate the area of the region of the graph bounded by: $$\begin{eqnarray} y &=& x \\ y &=& x^2 + 1 \\ y &=& 2 \\ x &=& 0 \end{eqnarray}$$ My final result is ...
357
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10answers
372k views

Is this Batman equation for real?

HardOCP has an image with an equation which apparently draws the Batman logo. Is this for real?
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24 views

Show that if $v_1$ and $v_2$ are any two vectors in this plane, then for any two scalars, $c_1v_1 + c_2v_2$ is also a vector in the plane

Let $a,\,b$ and $c$ be constants (not all zero) and consider the equation $ax + by + cz = 0$, which has a graph that is a plane that passes through the origin in $\mathbb{R}^3$. Show that if $v_1$ and ...
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1answer
51 views

Distance between two skew lines

I have 2 skew lines $L_A$ and $L_B$ and 2 parallel planes $H_A$ and $H_B$. The line $L_A$ lies in $H_A$ and $L_B$ in $H_B$. If the equations of $H_A$ and $H_B$ are given like this: $x+y+z = 0$ (for ...
2
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1answer
64 views

Torsion vs Curvature of a curve

I was wondering if there is a simple explanation of the torsion and curvature in $\mathbb{R}^3$ of a curve. The curvature measure somehow the acceleration perpendicular to the tangent vector, but ...
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1answer
54 views

Does every plane curve contain a rational point?

Does every plane curve contain a rational point? I think the answer is yes, but I can not prove this. Please help. However, if it is possible to build a pathological curve - without rational points, ...
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1answer
23 views

Question on a function defined on some plane curve.

Let $C$ be the plane curve defined by $y^d =f(x)$, where $f(x) \in \mathbb{C}[x]$ is a polynomial. Let $g(x,y)$ and $h(x,y)$ are polynomials relatively prime with each other. We consider $r(x,y) ...
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1answer
48 views

Prove that $z = tx + (1 − t)y$ if $d(x, y)= d(x, z) + d(z, y)$

Let $x,y,z$ be elements of $\mathbb{R}^2$ Prove that $z = tx + (1 − t)y$ if $d(x, y)= d(x, z) + d(z, y)$ d is usual euclidean metric.
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507 views

Reconstructing a curve from its curvature

I'm with a problem in an exercise form Do Carmo's Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces; it is number 9 section 1.6. I have a differentiable real function $k(s)$, $s\in I$, and I need to show ...
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67 views

What is this kind of geometry called?

I want to get Cartesian coordinates of the points of a curve (e.g. a bezier curve) based on the distance (e.g length of the arc) from the start point on the curve. To make this more clear, suppose I ...
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3answers
716 views

finding the closest distance between a point a curve

consider the curve $y=x^2$ what are the points on the curve that are the closest to the point $(1,0)$ using calculus I got the two points but what is the connection between normals and the closest ...
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1answer
53 views

What kind of a curve can represent a physical trajectory

It is very well known that conics, spirals, etc. can represent a realistic trajectories of point particles. However, a physical trajectory can also intersect itself, have a cusp, and other kinds of ...
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33 views

How to find a spirograph that approximates another curve?

A spirograph is a curve of the form $$\vec r(t)= \sum_n (a_n \cos b_n t\ i + a_n \sin b_n t\ j)$$. This class of curves includes things like epi/hypocycloids and trochoids, but also a number of other ...
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2answers
135 views

Trains describing a parabola

From the train station – the point S – originante two tracks, i.e. rays, which do not lie on a common straight line. Along these move two trains, which are line segments. On the first track a train is ...
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1k views

Why not use two vectors to define a plane instead of a point and a normal vector?

In Multivariable calculus, it seems planes are defined by a point and a vector normal to the plane. That makes sense, but whereas a single vector clearly isn't enough to define a plane, aren't two ...
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115 views

Newton's Investigation of Cubics: Generalization?

I recently read about Newton's investigation of cubic curves, and how, like for quadratic curves we can classify them into parabolas, ellipses and hyperbolas, Newton was able to classify cubic curves ...
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28 views

Finding the formula of a curve

Is it possible to find the simple formula for curves? For example, you want to plot the letter "A" , is it possible to find a formula to graph letter "A" on the coordinate system? To the best of my ...