Plane curves are continuous (or smooth) functions $\gamma\colon I\to\mathbb R^2$ from a real interval to the plane. Sometimes also the image $\gamma(I)$ is called curve.

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For all unit vectors $\mathbf u$ and a positive definite $\mathbf C$, what surface do vectors $\mathbf u \mathbf u^\top \mathbf C \mathbf u$ form?

Let $\mathbf C$ be a positive-definite $k\times k$ matrix. For all vectors $\mathbf u\in \mathbb R^k$ of length $\|\mathbf u\|=1$, consider vectors $\mathbf {uu}^\top\mathbf{Cu}$; they form a surface ...
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1answer
48 views

Convexity criterion for piecewise regular planar curves

A theorem of classical differential geometry states, that a simple, closed and regular $\mathcal{C}^2$-curve $\gamma:[0;1]\to\mathbb{R}^2$ is convex, iff its signed curvature doesn't change sign. ...
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1answer
87 views

Divergence in Definition of Laplace-Beltrami Operator

I am trying to derive an explicit formula for Laplace-Beltrami operator in global Cartesian coordinates for a special case of plane curve. I have found this article, and I would like to match their ...
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3answers
26 views

Finite open covers of a complex $C^{(1)}$ curve.

Consider a complex curve $\gamma \subset \mathbb{C}$, parametrized by $\alpha: [a,b]\to \mathbb{C}$, with $\alpha \in C^{(1)}$. Further, consider an finite open cover $\Phi$ of $\gamma=\alpha([a,b])$. ...
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1answer
14 views

Rotation of a Line Intersecting the Curve $y = x – \log(x)$ as $x \rightarrow \infty$.

Let a straight line ("line 1") in the $xy$-plane have one end fixed at the origin $(0,0)$, and the other at a variable point $(x, x – \log(x))$ on the curve $y = x – \log(x)$. The domain of $x$ is the ...
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458 views

arithmetic and geometric genus for a reducible plane curve

If $C$ is an irreducible plane curve we have the well known formula relating the airthmetic (obtained via the degree-genus formula) and the geometric genus $$\frac{(d-1)(d-2)}{2} - \sum ...
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1answer
53 views

A point of infinite curvature on a curve

Let $\gamma(t)$ be a $C^r$ smooth curve in the plane. Suppose $r\ge 2$, so that one can define the curvature $\kappa(t)$ at $\gamma(t)$. For example, $\kappa(t)=0$ means that the curve is kind of flat ...
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42 views

Are there computational short cuts to calculating the distance from a large number of points to 3 different planes?

I have three planes, and i want to calculate distance of my point to each of them. However, there are 68000 points in the space, so it does not make sense( computationally) to calculate the distance ...
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1answer
30 views

The meaning of $\frac{dy}{dx}$ for an implicit curve $F(x, y) = c$ at a point which is not at the curve

What is the meaning of $\frac{dy}{dx}$ for $$xy^2 + x^2 - \frac{y}{x} = 2$$ at the point $(1,1)$ which is not at the curve? I know if the point is on the curve the derivative is the slope of the ...
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6 views

Demand Curve Spreading/Expanding

I have a data set of sales by by month for a given season which is 6 months long. I can easily calculate the % of sales by month to the total to establish a demand curve or sale contribution by month. ...
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1answer
43 views

How can I plot curves relative to other curves?

Suppose I have a curve – say a sine curve y=sin(x) Now I want to draw a second curve, y = ½sin(x), but relative to the first – so it has the first one as a “baseline”. I don’t mean just adding the ...
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1answer
53 views

If three points on a quadric surface then the line going through them is contained in the quadric

I am having trouble understanding a step in my Professor's Lecture notes She shows that Lemma 2.2.4 Let $P_1,\ldots,P_5$ be distinct points in $\mathbb{P}_k^2$. There exists a conic in ...
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54 views

Logarithmic spiral characterized by signed curvature and arc length parameter.

This is a homework problem I am having trouble with: Show that if a planar unit speed curve $q(s)$ satisfies $$\kappa_s = \frac{1}{es+f}$$ for constants $e, f >0$, then the curve is a logarithmic ...
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31 views

Looking for rounded corner plane curve with certain properties (SIDESTEPPED)

For a project involving simulating traffic lights, I am currently looking for a formula to get a rounded 90-degree corner (to describe the path of a turning car) with certain properties: Defined in ...
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30 views

Involute of a Curve

A string of length ℓ is attached to the point γ(0) of a unit-speed plane curve γ(s). Show that when the string is wound onto the curve while being kept taught, its endpoint traces out the curve ι(s) = ...
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18 views

Describe a curve by other than a fomula, fitting or interpolation

I have a curve defined by a set of $(x,y)$ given points. After ploting these points I get : My aim is to study the sensitivity of the operation that results these points. In order to do that, the ...
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1answer
26 views

Finding curves whose tangents intersect with the x-axis at $(\frac{x}{2},0)$

I have to find the family of curves in $\mathbb{R}^2$ with this property: The tangent in an arbitrary point on the curve does intersect with the x-axis in $(\frac{x}{2}, 0)$. I think I have to make ...
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2answers
113 views

Curvature of plane parametric curves

What is the neatest way to derive the following formula for the curvature of a parametric curve? $$\kappa =\frac{\|y'x''-y''x'\|}{(x'^2+y'^2)^{\frac{3}{2}}} $$
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69 views

How to find tangent line given several variables

I have a question that I'm having difficulty on. I can solve these normally, but I'm having a bit of a challenge dealing with these extra terms: "Find the equation of the tangent line to the ellipse ...
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24 views

advice for curve fitting

I have numerically obtained some curves, corresponding with it I have also obtained some roots. I strongly believed these curves can be fitted with some (elliptic) functions taken the roots as ...
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1answer
41 views

What is my line integral answer incorrect?

EDIT: Is my computation not correct, possibly because the parametrization that I used requires x,y to be on the xy-plane? If so, can I adjust from here, and not start over? I.e., is there some ...
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1answer
58 views

Prove it is not a closed Curve

I wanna prove that $(cos(t^3+t),sin(t^3+t))=γ(t)$ which is a reparametrization of a circle .Is not a closed curve like the circle. WHat i did is take this problem to the Complex plane so ...
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1answer
32 views

How to relate between tangents of two parallel curves?

I am solving a problem about the relationship between the curvatures of two parallel curves. Along the way, I encountered a problem which seems intuitively correct but failed to show it rigorously. ...
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21 views

Proving that an oblique cycloid cannot be tautochrone

Someone asked me if the tautochronicity property of a cycloid would still hold if the cycloid were rotated, so that its lowest point (the equilibrium point) be no more the vertex. If $V$ is the ...
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11 views

Showing that a particular area is small

Suppose that $F(x,y) \in \mathbb{Z}[x,y]$ is an irreducible binary form of degree $d \geq 3$. Let $B$ be a positive parameter, considered to be large (i.e. one can consider it to be sufficiently large ...
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1answer
76 views

Parametric equation of line?

I have an assignment I'm doing where I am supposed to determine a parametric equation of a line orthogonal to a segment , let's say OP, and passes through the midpoint of this segment. What I have ...
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2answers
76 views

Point normal equation of plane

Im doing an homeassignment in linear algebra! This is the question I'm having problems with! The plane M contains two lines; l1 : (x, y, z) = t(2, −1, 0), t ∈ R, l2 : (x, y, z) = t(0, 1, ...
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82 views

how to prove plane $ax+by+cz = d$ has normal vector $(a,b,c)$

Given a plane function $ax+by+cz=d$, how can one prove that unit normal vector is $$n = \pm \dfrac{a\boldsymbol{i}+b\boldsymbol{j}+c\boldsymbol{k}}{\sqrt{a^2+b^2+c^2}}$$
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47 views

Show that $|\alpha'(t)|^2-1=0$ for any arbitrary parameter $t$

There is this supposed to be not so hard question but concept of re-parametrisation by arc length bothers me a bit. Let $\alpha:I\to R^2$ be a regular paramatrised plane curve (arbitrary parameter) ...
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1answer
16 views

For a regular parametrised plane curve $\alpha$, show that $\langle \alpha''(t),n(t)\rangle =- \langle \alpha'(t),n'(t)\rangle$

When I was proving some properties of regular parametrised plane curve $\alpha:I\to R^2$ which has a normal vector $n(t)$, I encountered the need to prove the following: $$\langle ...
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2answers
118 views

Help in showing that an evolute is the envelope of the normals to a curve

Let $\alpha:I\to R^2$ be a regular parametrised plane curve (arbitrary parameter), and define $n=n(s)$ and $k=k(t)$ to be the normal and curvature respectively. Assume $k(t)\neq0$, $t\in I$. In this ...
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1answer
58 views

Find a vector function represented by the curve of intersection?

I'm struggling with the following problem: Given $\, z = \sqrt{x^2 + y^2}\,$ and $\, z = y+1\,$ find the vector function represented by the curve of intersection of the surfaces using the ...
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3answers
61 views

Parametrization of Hyperbola

I "know" that a parametrization of an Hyperbola ($x^2-y^2=1$) is given by: $$\gamma(t)=(\sec(t),\tan(t)),t\in\mathbb{R}$$ I know that $x=\sec(t)$ and $y=\tan(t)$ is a solution of the equation. How ...
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1answer
25 views

When working with trochoids what does θ stand for?

These are the formulas with which you can draw trochoids. $x = aθ - b sin(θ)$ $y = a - b cos(θ)$ I'm trying to make trochoids but I got hung up on this symbol $θ$, what is it and how do I use it, I ...
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2answers
103 views

How to find a plane that is tangent to 3 spheres?

So there are spheres with radius of 1 centered at (1,2,0), (4,5,0) and (1,3,2). How can one find a plane that is tangent to all 3 spheres? Visually, it looks like as if the spheres are sitting on a ...
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Derivation of the formula for the vertex of a parabola

I'm taking a course on Basic Conic Sections, and one of the ones we are discussing is of a parabola of the form $$y = a x^2 + b x + c$$ My teacher gave me the formula: $$x = -\frac{b}{2a}$$ as the ...
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1answer
37 views

Fitting an ellipse to a point with the first and second derivatives specified

I am trying to fit an ellipse to the end of a curve, $y(x)$, such that first and second derivatives of the curve, $\frac{dy}{dx}$ and $\frac{d^2y}{dx^2}$, are preserved at the contact point, $(x,y)$, ...
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0answers
16 views

move curve normal to itself

I have a plane curve given by $y = f(x)$. At every point on this curve, I construct a normal direction to this curve and move the point a fixed distance $s$ along the normal to a new point. What is ...
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1answer
27 views

bending an arc to accommodate a constraint

I'm working with piecewise polynomial spirals: curves of the form $z(t) = z_0 + \int_0^t e^{i f(s)} ds$ where $f$ is a quartic polynomial determined by the tangent angles and curvatures at given ...
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0answers
86 views

Existence of a Rectifiable Piecewise Smooth Path

Suppose you have $\gamma(t):[0,1]\rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ simple piecewise smooth, $\gamma(0) = 0$ and $\gamma(1)=1$. Does there exist $\eta:[0,1]\rightarrow \mathbb{C}$, another simple piecewise ...
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63 views

Find the maximum volume of the pyramid bounded by the plane and the coordinate planes?

Surface $\sqrt{c}=\sqrt{x}+\sqrt{y}+\sqrt{z}$ , $(c>0)$ I found that at $(x_{0},y_{0},z_{0})$ a tangent plane to the surface is : ...
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2answers
5k views

Fractal behavior along the boundary of convergence?

The complex power series $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{z^{n^2}}{n^2}$$ has radius $1$ (Ratio Test) and is absolutely convergent along $|z|=1$. Recalling something that my calculus professor (Ray Mayer, ...
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1answer
154 views

Laplace-Beltrami on a Curve

Is there a way to write out Laplace-Beltrami operator explicitly for a sufficiently smooth plane curve given by implicit equation $\,s(x,y)=0\,$? If I knew knew the parametrization of the curve I ...
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1answer
81 views

Not all tangents to a plane curve are bitangents

I'm struggling on a question from a previous qualifying exam, and I don't see a clean way to do it. Let $X\subset \mathbb{R}^2$ be a connected, 1-dimensional, real analytic submanifold, not contained ...
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0answers
68 views

Intersecting convex figures

Take in the real plane a finitely long horizontal line segment and connect the two endpoints by a convex path, above the segment, with the property that the only extreme points of the convex hull of ...
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0answers
65 views

A nonplanar closed curve such that the plane curve with the same curvature as function of the arclength is not closed

Find a non plane, closed curve such that the plane curve with the same curvature as function of the arclength is not closed. Been thinking a lot in this problem and haven't got a clue. Any ...
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4answers
71 views

Find the equation $ax + by + cz = d$ of the plane which has equal distance to the points $A(1, 2, 3)$ and $B(4, 5, 6)$

I was just wondering if anyone has any suggestions as to how to compute this equation? Find the equation $ax + by + cz = d$ of the plane for which every point has equal distance to the points ...
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1answer
420 views

fixed point projective geometry

I am thinking about the following: Let $\sigma:\mathbb C P^n\rightarrow\mathbb C P^n$ be a projectivity with $\sigma\circ\sigma=id_{\mathbb C P^n}$. I define the set of all fix points by ...
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2answers
72 views

Calculating the curvature of a tractrix

I'm trying to find the curvature of a tractrix expressed in the form $r(t)=(\sin{t},\cos{t}+\ln(\tan{(\frac{t}{2}))} $. From what I've found on the Internet it appears that people arrive at the ...
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1answer
602 views

s-shaped reverse logistic curve

Is there any curve that grows very slow at the beginning then growth picks up exponentially before hitting the wall. I need sort of reverse behavior of the logistic curve ...