# Tagged Questions

Plane curves are continuous (or smooth) functions $\gamma\colon I\to\mathbb R^2$ from a real interval to the plane. Sometimes also the image $\gamma(I)$ is called curve.

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### For all unit vectors $\mathbf u$ and a positive definite $\mathbf C$, what surface do vectors $\mathbf u \mathbf u^\top \mathbf C \mathbf u$ form?

Let $\mathbf C$ be a positive-definite $k\times k$ matrix. For all vectors $\mathbf u\in \mathbb R^k$ of length $\|\mathbf u\|=1$, consider vectors $\mathbf {uu}^\top\mathbf{Cu}$; they form a surface ...
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### Convexity criterion for piecewise regular planar curves

A theorem of classical differential geometry states, that a simple, closed and regular $\mathcal{C}^2$-curve $\gamma:[0;1]\to\mathbb{R}^2$ is convex, iff its signed curvature doesn't change sign. ...
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### Divergence in Definition of Laplace-Beltrami Operator

I am trying to derive an explicit formula for Laplace-Beltrami operator in global Cartesian coordinates for a special case of plane curve. I have found this article, and I would like to match their ...
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### Finite open covers of a complex $C^{(1)}$ curve.

Consider a complex curve $\gamma \subset \mathbb{C}$, parametrized by $\alpha: [a,b]\to \mathbb{C}$, with $\alpha \in C^{(1)}$. Further, consider an finite open cover $\Phi$ of $\gamma=\alpha([a,b])$. ...
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### Rotation of a Line Intersecting the Curve $y = x – \log(x)$ as $x \rightarrow \infty$.

Let a straight line ("line 1") in the $xy$-plane have one end fixed at the origin $(0,0)$, and the other at a variable point $(x, x – \log(x))$ on the curve $y = x – \log(x)$. The domain of $x$ is the ...
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### Help in showing that an evolute is the envelope of the normals to a curve

Let $\alpha:I\to R^2$ be a regular parametrised plane curve (arbitrary parameter), and define $n=n(s)$ and $k=k(t)$ to be the normal and curvature respectively. Assume $k(t)\neq0$, $t\in I$. In this ...
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### Find a vector function represented by the curve of intersection?

I'm struggling with the following problem: Given $\, z = \sqrt{x^2 + y^2}\,$ and $\, z = y+1\,$ find the vector function represented by the curve of intersection of the surfaces using the ...
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### Parametrization of Hyperbola

I "know" that a parametrization of an Hyperbola ($x^2-y^2=1$) is given by: $$\gamma(t)=(\sec(t),\tan(t)),t\in\mathbb{R}$$ I know that $x=\sec(t)$ and $y=\tan(t)$ is a solution of the equation. How ...
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### When working with trochoids what does θ stand for?

These are the formulas with which you can draw trochoids. $x = aθ - b sin(θ)$ $y = a - b cos(θ)$ I'm trying to make trochoids but I got hung up on this symbol $θ$, what is it and how do I use it, I ...
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### How to find a plane that is tangent to 3 spheres?

So there are spheres with radius of 1 centered at (1,2,0), (4,5,0) and (1,3,2). How can one find a plane that is tangent to all 3 spheres? Visually, it looks like as if the spheres are sitting on a ...
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### Derivation of the formula for the vertex of a parabola

I'm taking a course on Basic Conic Sections, and one of the ones we are discussing is of a parabola of the form $$y = a x^2 + b x + c$$ My teacher gave me the formula: $$x = -\frac{b}{2a}$$ as the ...
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### Fitting an ellipse to a point with the first and second derivatives specified

I am trying to fit an ellipse to the end of a curve, $y(x)$, such that first and second derivatives of the curve, $\frac{dy}{dx}$ and $\frac{d^2y}{dx^2}$, are preserved at the contact point, $(x,y)$, ...
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### move curve normal to itself

I have a plane curve given by $y = f(x)$. At every point on this curve, I construct a normal direction to this curve and move the point a fixed distance $s$ along the normal to a new point. What is ...
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### bending an arc to accommodate a constraint

I'm working with piecewise polynomial spirals: curves of the form $z(t) = z_0 + \int_0^t e^{i f(s)} ds$ where $f$ is a quartic polynomial determined by the tangent angles and curvatures at given ...
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### Existence of a Rectifiable Piecewise Smooth Path

Suppose you have $\gamma(t):[0,1]\rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ simple piecewise smooth, $\gamma(0) = 0$ and $\gamma(1)=1$. Does there exist $\eta:[0,1]\rightarrow \mathbb{C}$, another simple piecewise ...
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### Find the maximum volume of the pyramid bounded by the plane and the coordinate planes?

Surface $\sqrt{c}=\sqrt{x}+\sqrt{y}+\sqrt{z}$ , $(c>0)$ I found that at $(x_{0},y_{0},z_{0})$ a tangent plane to the surface is : ...
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### Fractal behavior along the boundary of convergence?

The complex power series $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{z^{n^2}}{n^2}$$ has radius $1$ (Ratio Test) and is absolutely convergent along $|z|=1$. Recalling something that my calculus professor (Ray Mayer, ...
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### Laplace-Beltrami on a Curve

Is there a way to write out Laplace-Beltrami operator explicitly for a sufficiently smooth plane curve given by implicit equation $\,s(x,y)=0\,$? If I knew knew the parametrization of the curve I ...
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### Not all tangents to a plane curve are bitangents

I'm struggling on a question from a previous qualifying exam, and I don't see a clean way to do it. Let $X\subset \mathbb{R}^2$ be a connected, 1-dimensional, real analytic submanifold, not contained ...
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### Intersecting convex figures

Take in the real plane a finitely long horizontal line segment and connect the two endpoints by a convex path, above the segment, with the property that the only extreme points of the convex hull of ...
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### A nonplanar closed curve such that the plane curve with the same curvature as function of the arclength is not closed

Find a non plane, closed curve such that the plane curve with the same curvature as function of the arclength is not closed. Been thinking a lot in this problem and haven't got a clue. Any ...
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### Find the equation $ax + by + cz = d$ of the plane which has equal distance to the points $A(1, 2, 3)$ and $B(4, 5, 6)$

I was just wondering if anyone has any suggestions as to how to compute this equation? Find the equation $ax + by + cz = d$ of the plane for which every point has equal distance to the points ...
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### fixed point projective geometry

I am thinking about the following: Let $\sigma:\mathbb C P^n\rightarrow\mathbb C P^n$ be a projectivity with $\sigma\circ\sigma=id_{\mathbb C P^n}$. I define the set of all fix points by ...
I'm trying to find the curvature of a tractrix expressed in the form $r(t)=(\sin{t},\cos{t}+\ln(\tan{(\frac{t}{2}))}$. From what I've found on the Internet it appears that people arrive at the ...