Questions on periodic functions, functions $f(x)$ that satisfy the identity $f(x+c)=f(x)$, for some nonzero $c$.

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1answer
20 views

Fundamental matrix of $y''+\epsilon f(t)y=0$

I converted this ode into a linear matrix form like $y'=Ay$ and tried to solve this, but I couldn't find a fundamental solution which satisfies $\Phi (0)=I$, which is required in one of my assignment ...
3
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2answers
110 views

secret formula for the “sin” wave with variable rising/falling edge

My math is pretty much forgotten. I was wondering if someone can take a look at this and share what's the formula for creating something like this. https://drive.google.com/file/d/...
1
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1answer
38 views

Passage in a proof from Hofer-Zehnder

The proof I'm referring to is to the following theorem. Assume $S$ is a compact regular and strictly convex energy surface for the Hamiltonian field $X_H$ in $\mathbb{R}^{2n}$. Then $S$ carries a ...
1
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1answer
64 views

How to calculate the period of a nonlinear Diff Eq?

I have this Diff Eq: $$2g''+g'^{2}+ag+a-b=0 $$ We can manipulate this into an equivalent relation: $$g'^{2}=ce^{-g}-ag+b $$ ...which makes c a conserved quantity: $$c=\left(g'^{2}+ag-b\right)e^{...
1
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1answer
31 views

Why do the periods of a meromorphic fuction form a discrete module?

I've come across this statement: If $f$ is a nonconstant meromorphic function, the module $M$ containing all its periods cannot have an accumulation point, since otherwise $f$ would be a ...
0
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0answers
28 views

The number of periodic solutions of Abel differential equations

I'm asked to proof the number of T-periodic solutions of ODE $$x'=p_0(t)x^3+p_1(t)x^2+p_2(t)x+p_3(t)$$ is at most three, where $$p_i(t)$$ is continuous functions with period T (i=0,1,2,3) and $$p_0(t)\...
1
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2answers
36 views

Evaluating a definite integral of a Bessel-type function

I have an expression as follows: $\int_{0}^{2\pi} \sin{(x\sin{(\theta}) - n\theta)}\mathrm{d}\theta$ For real $x$ and $\theta$ and positive integer $n$. From plugging it into Mathematica with ...
3
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4answers
171 views

Show that $f(x):=\cos(x^2)$ is not periodic.

How can I proof that the following function $f(x):=\cos(x^2)$ is not periodic? I think that I should find the zero points of the function but I don't know how to calculate it. Thank you very much ...
5
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2answers
65 views

Let $f\colon\Bbb R\to \Bbb R-\{3\}$ be a function such that there exist $T>0$ with $f(x+T)=\frac{f(x)-5}{f(x)-3}$ for every $x\in\Bbb R$.

Let $f\colon \Bbb R\to \Bbb R-\{3\}$ be a function with the property that there exist $T>0$ such that $f(x+T)=\frac{f(x)-5}{f(x)-3}$ for every $x\in \Bbb R$. Prove that $f(x)$ is periodic and find ...
1
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1answer
62 views

What is the fundamental period of $f(x)=\frac{|\sin x|+|\cos x|}{|\sin x -\cos x|}$

What is the fundamental period of $f(x)=\frac{|\sin x|+|\cos x|}{|\sin x -\cos x|}$ I tried it. $f(x)=\frac{|\sin x|+|\cos x|}{|\sin x -\cos x|}=\frac{|\sin x|+|\cos x|}{\sqrt 2|\sin (x-\frac{\pi}{4})...
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2answers
55 views

Solution to harmonic oscillator with periodic forcing

Using matlab symbolic processor, I can get the homogenous and particular solution to a harmonic oscillator with periodic forcing. I'm trying to write the particular solution in a compact form, with ...
2
votes
3answers
45 views

Proof that any integer of the fundamental period, is also a period of the function?

How can it be proved that for a given $f(x)$ with a period $p$, that for any integer $n=1,2,\dots$, the product $np$ is also an period of the function $f(x)$? I know that the definition of a periodic ...
0
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4answers
127 views

Period T of function $y = \cos(nx)$

There are two functions: 1) $f(x) = \cos(nx)$ 2) $f(x) = \cos(x)$ $T=2 \pi$ is the fundamental period of $(2)$ function. $T_1$ is the fundamental period of $(1)$ function. How to prove that $T_1=\...
0
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1answer
33 views

Fourier Sine Series -The region where the function is defined and its period

I am pretty new to calculus, and I am trying to understand some basic rules to solve Fourier Series. I don't know how I deal with the region where a function is defined and its period. For instance: $...
1
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2answers
32 views

Does the arccos itself contain all solutions or just one solution?

For the equation $$\cos(x)=\frac{1}{2}$$ All solutions are: $$x=\pm\frac{\pi}{3}+p2\pi,\quad p\in\mathbb Z\:.$$ To find these solutions, I use the inverse cosine ($\arccos$ or $\cos^{-1}$). Is the ...
1
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0answers
50 views

Does Every Periodic Function Have An Associated Differential Equation?

My question is the opposite to proving the existence of periodic solutions to ODE's. Assume that $\ f(z)$ is a periodic function over the $\mathbb{R}$ , or doubly periodic over some lattice $\Lambda$ ...
0
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0answers
21 views

With 2 as smallest period of the function $f(x)$= $\tan^2[(\frac{\pi x}{n^2-5n+8})]$ + $\cot(n+m)\pi x$ ;the period m can't belong to is?

Here n $ \in N$ , m $\in Q$. Options are: A) $(-\infty, -2) \cup (-1, \infty)$ B) $(-\infty, -3) \cup (-2, \infty)$ C) $(-2,-1) \cup (-3,-2)$ D) $(-3, -5/2) \cup (-5/2, -2)$ I have an answer to ...
5
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1answer
60 views

Determining if a sum of trig function is periodic

$$2 + \sin(2\pi\cdot t) + 3\cos(3\pi\cdot t) - 5\sin(7t-\frac{\pi}{4})$$ Is there any manual, easy, way of knowing such a function is not periodic? I'd love to know if there's any method which doesn'...
0
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0answers
28 views

Single-statement Continuous Periodic function without trigonometry and complex numbers

Superseding the question Periodic function without trigonometry and complex numbers , I am now asking: Can I get a single-statement continuous periodic function without using trigonometric functions ...
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2answers
81 views

Periodic function without trigonometry and complex numbers [closed]

Can I get a periodic function without using trigonometric functions or complex numbers? UPDATE: The question has been superseded by Single-statement Continuous Periodic function without trigonometry ...
3
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1answer
89 views

Double integral definition of periodic Sobolev spaces

Preliminaries: For $s \geq 0$ define the periodic Sobolev spaces $H^s(\mathbb T)$ with norm $$ \| f \|_{H^s(\mathbb T)}^2 = \sum_{k \in \mathbb Z} \big(1 + |k|^2 \big)^s \, \big|\widehat{f}_k \big|^2, ...
-1
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1answer
49 views

How to derive the complex Fourier series of $s(t) = 1-e^{-2t}$? [closed]

I have the periodic function $s(t)=1-e^{-2t}$. I am required to derive the complex Fourier series of $s(t)$. I have some knowledge of Fourier series but not enough to know if I am doing it correctly. ...
2
votes
1answer
260 views

Is there a proven formula for Pisano periods (Fibonacci numbers taken modulo $n$)?

I've seen on wikipedia this formula: $$\pi_k(p^n) = p^{n-1}\pi_k(p) $$ It says that the formula holds unless p is k-Wall-Sun-Sun prime, or k-Fibonacci-Wieferich prime, that is, $p^2$ divides $F_k(p-...
3
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0answers
21 views

How does emergent oscillation appear in this animation of concentric circles?

I made this animation and I barely understand it. http://bl.ocks.org/tophtucker/500d2a010105cfcc87db It's a bunch of concentric circles with exclusion compositing. The radius of the ...
0
votes
1answer
61 views

Evaluating the integral $\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}{e^{2i\mu t}\frac{{\sin^2{\lambda t}}}{\lambda t^2}}dt$

It is stated that (for $\lambda>0$) $$\frac{1}{\pi}\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}{e^{2i\mu t}\frac{{\sin^2{\lambda t}}}{\lambda t^2}}dt = 1-\frac{|\mu|}{\lambda}$$ for $ 0\leq|\mu|\leq\lambda$, and zero ...
3
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1answer
79 views

Integration: The Periodic Function and its Properties

I am aware that if $f(x)$ is a periodic function with period $T$ then: 1.) $\int^{nT}_{0}f(x)\,dx = n\int^{T}_{0}f(x)\,dx$, for $n$ an integer. 2.) $\int^{T+a}_{a}f(x)\,dx = \int^{T}_{0}f(x)\,dx$, ...
0
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0answers
55 views

How to find a stable periodic solution of a nonlinear non-autonomous second-order dynamical system?

The system I am working on is in the following form: $$ \dot{x}=f(t,x,a)=f(t+T,x,a), $$ where $f(t,x,a) \in R^2$ is nonlinear and periodic in $t$, $T$ is a known constant, and $a$ is a vector of ...
0
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1answer
33 views

$f$ is smooth and periodic function,$\exists \lambda$ such that $f^{(4)}=\lambda f$ prove:$\exists \lambda$ such that $\lambda= (\frac{2\pi n}{T})^4$

Given $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{C}$ is smooth and periodic with period $T>0$ and exists $\lambda \in \mathbb{C}$ such that $f^{(4)}(x)=\lambda f(x)$ for any $x \in \mathbb{R}$. prove: ...
0
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2answers
99 views

Show that an irrationally periodic function is also a constant function [duplicate]

Let $f:\mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ be a function such that for any irrational number $r$, and any real number $x$ we have $f(x)=f(x+r)$. Show that $f$ is a constant function.
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0answers
33 views

On Period of Linear Recurring Sequences modulo $P^e$

If a sequence $ X_0,X_1,X_2,\ldots$ is defined in terms of an initial set $ X_0,X_1,X_2,\ldots ,X_{k-1} $ by the recurrence relation $$ X_{n+k}= a_{k-1}X_{n+k-1}+a_{k-2}X_{n+k-2}+\cdots+a_{0}...
2
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0answers
30 views

Examples of periodic functions without sin or cos in their formulations? [duplicate]

I'm trying to find a function f(x) such that NCspline (in Matlab) provides a better interpolation than does the Lagrange polynomial. But this function cannot be a linear combination of the sine and ...
4
votes
1answer
151 views

Finding period of a recursive sequence defined by modular operator?

If $f(x)$ is defined as : $f(x)=i$ ,if $x\equiv i$ (mod n), $0\leq i< n$ How can I prove whether the following recursive sequences are periodic or not? $$x_{i+1}=f(k_0+k_1x_{i}+k_2x_{i-1}+...+...
3
votes
1answer
84 views

Period of Fibonacci mod $b$?

It is not too difficult to show that the Fibonacci numbers mod $b$ form a periodic sequence. I would like to say something interesting about the period. There is a small shortcut to the brute-force ...
1
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1answer
81 views

Need to prove continuous periodic function of $\varphi (x) \equiv \psi(x)$

Question: Let two $\varphi(x) $ and $\psi(x)$ periodic and continous functions such that $$ \lim_{ x\to\infty}(\varphi(x)-\psi(x))=0, \quad x\in \mathbb{R}. $$ Prove that $$ \varphi(x)\...
1
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2answers
159 views

Finding Period From Functional Equation

How to find the period of real valued function satisfying $f(x)+f(x+4)=f(x+2)+f(x+6)$ ? Note:Use of recurrence relations not allowed.Use of elementary algebraic manipulations is better!
5
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2answers
223 views

The sum of two continuous periodic functions is periodic if and only if the ratio of their periods is rational?

There are several questions here on MSE about the periodicity of the sum of two continuous, periodic functions. Here's what I know so far: It's obvious that if the ratio of the periods is rational, ...
6
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5answers
605 views

When a periodic function is squared (or cubed, and so on…) does it always lose its periodicity?

For instance $$\sin^{2}\left(-\frac{\pi}{6}\right) = \sin^{2}\left(\frac{\pi}{6}\right)$$ i.e., $\sin^2 (x)$ is an even function and loses the $2\pi$-periodicity of $\sin x $. Is this true in ...
2
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1answer
76 views

What does $\Bbb R/2\pi$ for a set mean?

I simply cannot figure out what this means. I read this on an article about the scalar product of $2\pi$ periodic functions. it says that < f,g > goes from $\Bbb R/2\pi \to \Bbb C$ (complex) Do ...
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4answers
223 views

Proving a function is continuous and periodic

Suppose we are given a function $$g\left ( x \right )= \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{\sin \left ( nx \right )}{10^{n}\sin \left ( x \right )},x\neq k\pi , k\in\mathbb{Z}$$ and $$g\left ( k\pi \right )=\...
1
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0answers
21 views

Why is $\int\limits_{u}^{u+\omega_j} f'(z)/f(z) dz \in 2 \pi i \mathbb{Z}$?

Because $f(u) = f(u+\omega_j)$ for $j \in \{1,2\}$ it applies $$\int\limits_{u}^{u+\omega_j}\frac{f'(z)}{f(z)}dz \quad \in 2\pi i \mathbb{Z} \quad \text{for} \quad j=1,2, $$ Hello, I write my thesis ...
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2answers
241 views

Integral of Absolute Value of $\sin(x)$

For the Integral: $\int |\sin (ax)|$, it is fairly simple to take the Laplace transform of the absolute value of sine, treating it as a periodic function. $$\mathcal L(|\sin (ax)|) = \frac{\int_0^\...
0
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0answers
57 views

about Poincare map

I saw that the Poincaré map is defined by the flow of the periodic system with the least period $T$. that is, $$P(x):=\phi_T(x)$$ is a Poincaré map with flow $\phi$ of time $T$. but I think if we ...
1
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2answers
79 views

Odd periodic Function

Given an odd function $f$, defined everywhere, periodic with period $2$, and integrable on every interval. Let $g(x) = \displaystyle\int_{0}^{x}f(t)dt$. I know that $\displaystyle\int_{-b}^{b}f(t)dt=0$...
1
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1answer
63 views

Find period of the Function

The given question $$f(x) = \sqrt{\frac{8}{1+x} + \frac{8}{{1-x}}}$$ $$g(x) = \frac{4}{f(\sin x)}+\frac{4}{f(\cos x)}$$ find period of $g(x)$? What I have done putting $\sin(x)$ and $\cos(x)$ in $f(...
1
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1answer
25 views

Help with Proving : Period estimation for for concatenated sequences

Assuming I have two 8-bit random number sequences $s[n]$ and $d[n]$ which each have a period of $X$ and $Y$ respectively. Therefore: $$s[n+X] = s[n]\\ d[n+Y] = d[n]$$ If they were concatenated ...
3
votes
2answers
54 views

Defining periodic functions?

Consider $f: (a,a+p] \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$. What is the "formula" for the p-periodic function $g$ which has the property that $g(x + np) = f(x)$ for all $x$ in $(a, a+p]$? I am well aware of how ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Function with Multiple Periods

Basically I'm trying to fit some data with seasonal effects to a periodic function, and the problem I'm running into is that the local minima usually occur around April, and the local maxima usually ...
2
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0answers
30 views

Solving differential equation with Fourier-series-inhomogenity

Let $\lambda$ be a real number , $(c_k)$ a complex sequence with $\mid c_k \mid \leq C(1+\mid k \mid)^{-2}$ for all k with a constant $C \geq 0 $. Find all periodic, two times differentiable ...
2
votes
2answers
64 views

Proving a real valued function is periodic, and sketching it using obtained information

Consider an arbitrary function, something like $f\left ( x \right )=\arccos \left ( \sin \left ( 4x \right ) \right )$. Its graph looks like this: I was greatly confused by the image below, because ...
2
votes
2answers
97 views

All solutions to functional equation $f(x+1)-f(x)=1$

I was thinking of the possibility of finding all solutions other than $f(x)=x$ for the functional equation: $f(x+1)-f(x)=1$ If there are other solutions, what will be some restrictions for the ...