In mathematics the p-adic number system for any prime number p extends the ordinary arithmetic of the rational numbers in a way different from the extension of the rational number system to the real and complex number systems.

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Discrete valuation on $p$-adic numbers

For the ring of $p$-adic integers $\mathbb Z_p$ let $\mu_n: \mathbb Z_p \to \mathbb Z / p^n \mathbb Z$ be the projection mapping. Consider $\mathbb Z / p^n \mathbb Z$ with the discrete topology. Is ...
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Binary representation of 2-adic integers

I would like some examples of the binary representation of 2-adic integers that are not standard integers. What is the 2-adic expansion of $1/3$? Of $-1/3$? What number does $...010101$ represent?
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62 views

Structure of $(\mathbb{Z}/p^k\mathbb{Z})^\times$ other than via $p$-adics?

I think I heard somewhere long ago that $\mathbb{Z}/p^k\mathbb{Z}$'s unit group is cyclic if $p$ is odd and $C_2\times C_{2^{k-2}}$ if $p=2$. I remember trying to prove it and finding it surprisingly ...
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Ring of $p$-adic integers $\mathbb Z_p$

There are a few ways to define the $p$-adic numbers. If one defines the ring of $p$-adic integers $\mathbb Z_p$ as the inverse limit of the sequence $(A_n, \phi_n)$ with $A_n:=\mathbb Z/p^n \mathbb ...
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A valuation-like function $w: \mathbb{N}^{+} \rightarrow \mathbb{N}$ is a $p$-adic valuation?

This question is a variant of problem 4, pg. 21, from Birkhoff and Maclane, A Survey of Modern Algebra. Given a function $w: \mathbb{N}^+ \rightarrow \mathbb{N}$ that behaves like a valuation ...
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106 views

Modular 2-adic Integers Question

I would like to know if the following statement is true in the 2-adic integers. $\forall n( n=0 \lor Ex( (x \neq 0 \land x+x=0 \bmod n) \lor (x+x=1 \bmod n) ))$ I will define a modulo predicate as: ...
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Definiton of p-adic integers

Definiton A $p$-adic integer is a (formal) series $$\alpha=a_0+a_1p+a_2p^2+\ldots$$ with $0\leq a_i<p$. The set of $p$-adic integers is denoted by $\mathbb{Z}_p$. If we cut an element ...
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Why is there “no analogue of $2i\pi$ in $\mathbf C_p$”?

In his paper Fonctions L p-adiques, Pierre Colmez says: Tate a montré qu'il n'existait pas dans $\mathbf C_p$ d'analogue $p$-adique de $2i \pi$ et donc par conséquent que les périodes $p$-adiques ...
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Basic question about $p$-adic expansions

I was recently introduced to the $p$-adic numbers, and have been asked to show that for $n > 0$, the $p$-adic expansion of $\frac{1}{1 - p^n}$ is $\sum_{i=0}^\infty p^{in}$. Could someone tell me ...
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110 views

Generators of Zp* and p-adic cyclotomic character

Let $p$ be an odd prime number. It is known that $\mathbb{Z}_p^{\times}$ is topologically cyclic. Now let $\chi_{\mathrm{cyclo}} : Gal(\bar{\mathbb{Q}}_p / \mathbb{Q}_p) \to \mathbb{Z}_p^{\times}$ be ...
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Why $\operatorname{Gal}(\mathbb{Q}_q(\zeta_p)/\mathbb{Q}_q)$ is isomorphic to $\mathbb{Z}/f\mathbb{Z}$

I would like to ask a question on this answer. I don't understand why $\operatorname{Gal}(\mathbb{Q}_q(\zeta_p)/\mathbb{Q}_q)$ is isomorphic to $\mathbb{Z}/f\mathbb{Z}$, where $f$ is the degree of the ...
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Galois group over $p$-adic numbers

Can one describe explicitly the Galois group $G=\operatorname{Gal}(\overline{\mathbb Q_p}/\mathbb Q_p)$? I only know the most basic stuff: unramified extensions of $\mathbb Q_p$ are equivalent to ...
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Borel lemma on rationality

I am looking for an enlightening proof of the following fact: Let $F(t)\in \mathbb{Z}[[t]]$ and suppose $S$ is a finite set of places on $\mathbb Q$ containing $\infty$. If for every $v\in S$ $F(t)$ ...
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94 views

On the numerators of Bernoulli numbers

Von Staudt-Clausen theorem implies that $pB_{2n} \in \mathbb{Z}_{p}$ for all primes $p$ and for all $n \in \mathbb{N}$. It means that the highest power of any prime that can occur in the denominator ...
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249 views

Characterization of integers which has a $2$-adic square root

Does anyone know an "elementary" proof of the following theorem? Let $k \neq 0$ be a rational integer. Then $k$ admits a square root in $\mathbb{Z}_2$ if $k = 4^a (8b+1)$ for some $a \in \mathbb{N}$, ...
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Are $\mathbb{Q}_p$ and $\mathbb{Q}_q$ homeomorphic?

If $p$ and $q$ are distinct prime number, are $\mathbb{Q}_p$ and $\mathbb{Q}_q$ homeomorphic as topological space?
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A non-Archimedean norm definition can be strengthened.

See Andrew Baker's p-adic notes: For a non-Archimedean norm $N$ it is true that "$N(x + y) \leq \max\{N(x), N(y)\}$, with equality if $N(x) \neq N(y)$." Having trouble proving this. Please ...
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How can every $p$-adic integer be the limit of a sequence of non-negative integers?

See Andrew Baker's P-adic Notes. Every element of $\mathbb{Z}_p = \{a \in \mathbb{Q}_p : |a|_p \leq 1 \}$ is a limit of a sequence of non-negative integers, with respect to the $|\cdot|_p$ norm. How ...
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p-adic expansion of a rational number

Studying $p$-adic numbers I encountered the following theorem: Given a eventually periodic sequence $(a_n)_{n=k}^{\infty}$ such that $0 \le a_n <p$, the sum \begin{equation*} ...
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Inverse limit of $\mathbb{Z}/(n!)\mathbb{Z}$

I am interested to know if there is a standard name for the inverse limit, $\hat{\mathbb{Z}}_!$, say, of the inverse system of rings $$\ldots \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}/((n+1)!)\mathbb{Z} \rightarrow ...
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Finitely generated submodule of $p$-adic module is direct summand? [closed]

Are finitely generated submodules of a $p$-adic module direct summands?
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arithmetic of p-adics

I need only a fast check if the following expressions are correct. Let $\frac{a}{b} \in \mathbb{Q}\def\ord{\operatorname{ord}}$ then the following fact olds $|x|_p = \left|\dfrac{a}{b}\right|_p = ...
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Is $(\mathbb Z/p^{n+1}\mathbb Z)^\times\cong (\mathbb Z/p\mathbb Z)^\times\times(\mathbb Z/p^n\mathbb Z)$?

Let $p$ be an odd prime number and $n$ any positive integer. Is $(\mathbb Z/p^{n+1}\mathbb Z)^\times\cong (\mathbb Z/p\mathbb Z)^\times\times(\mathbb Z/p^n\mathbb Z)$ as groups? This seems very ...
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Is $p^n\mathbb Z_p\cong \mathbb Z_p$ as additive groups?

Is it true that $p^n\mathbb{Z}_p\cong \mathbb Z_p$ as additive groups? Here $\mathbb Z_p$ is the ring of $p$-adic integers for $p$ prime and $n$ is any positive integer. Thanks
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If $\,p\,$ is prime, is $\,p^n\mathbb{Z}_p=\mathbb{Z}_p\,$ for any positive integer $n$?

Is $\,p^n\mathbb{Z}_p=\mathbb{Z}_p\,$ for any positive integer $n\,?$ $\mathbb{Z}_p =$ ring of $p$-adic integers, $\,p$ prime. Thanks.
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On a $p$-adic unit and the existence of its $n$-th root

Let $\mathbb{Q}_p$ be the field of $p$-adic numbers. Let $\alpha$ be a $p$-adic unit, i.e. an invertible element of the multiplicative monoid $\mathbb{Z}_p$. Consider the set $S = \{n \in \mathbb{Z}, ...
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A characterization of the module function on a locally compact division ring

References: Weil's Basic Number Theory(written as BNT). Bourbaki's Commutative Algebra(written as BCA). Let $K$ be a topological ring with an identity. Suppose every non-zero element of $K$ is ...
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An automorphism of the field of $p$-adic numbers

Is an automorphism of the field $\mathbb{Q}_p$ of $p$-adic numbers the identity map? If yes, how can we prove it? Note:We don't assume an automorphism of $\mathbb{Q}_p$ is continuous.
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Relations between irreducibility on $\mathbb{Q}[x]$, and on $\mathbb{Q}_p[x]$ ($p$-adic numbers)

I'm reading "$p-$adic numbers: An introduction" by Fernando Q.Gouvêa, and I'm currently on page 79 of the book. Problem 121. Show that the equation $(X^2 - 2)(X^2 - 17)(X^2 - 34) = 0$ has a root ...
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Solving a system of multivariate (possibly homogeneous) polynomials over $\mathbb{Q}_p$ efficiently

after an unsuccessful search for appropriate literature, I thought to post my question here: Suppose a system $F$ of $n$ polynomials in $n+1$ variables having coefficients in $\mathbb{Q}_p$: ...
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Raising a rational integer to a $p$-adic power

Let $p$ be a prime number and $d$ a positive integer. If $n\in \mathbb{Z}_p$ (the ring of $p$-adic integers) how would one define $d^n$? Under what conditions would this be an element of ...
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1answer
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p-adic Eisenstein series

I'm trying to understand the basic properties of the p-adic Eisenstein series. Let $p$ be a prime number. Define the group $X = \begin{cases} \mathbb{Z}_p\times \mathbb{Z}/(p-1)\mathbb{Z} & ...
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Proving if $|a|_p=1$ then $a$ is invertible in $\mathbb{Z}_p$

I decided to take a look $p$-adic integers. I am trying to show that $$a \in \mathbb{Z}_p \text{ is invertible if and only if } |a|_p=1$$ where $$|x|_p= \left\{ \begin{array}{ll} p^{-n} & ...
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$p$ prime, $P = \left\{ \frac{m}{p^e} \middle| m, e\in \mathbb{Z} \right\}$. Prove that $\mbox{Ext}(P; \mathbb{Z}) \cong \mathbb{Z}^{(p)}/\mathbb{Z}$

I don't know why the book Homology by Saunders Mac Lane is wwaaayyy tttoooo hard to digest. :((( This is like the third time I read this book, but still not clear is everything, and to tell the ...
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presentation of the inertia group of $p$-adic fields

It is known (see here) that the absolute Galois group of a $p$-adic number field $K$ (ie a finite extension of $\mathbb Q_p$) is topologically finitely presented for any odd prime $p$. Is it also ...
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On changing from '<' to '$\le$' when taking limits (with norm $|\bullet|_p$)

I'm reading Gouvêa's book on $p-$adic, and there's one problem that I don't think I really get it. Here's a proposition, and the problem attached to it. It's on page 57, 58 of the book. ...
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Lower Bound on Number of Wildly Ramified Extensions of $\mathbb{Q}_p$

Suppose $p$ is prime and $p$ divides $e$ divides $n$. Typically up to isomorphism there are a lot of wildly ramified extensions of $\mathbb{Q}_p$ which have degree $n$ and ramification index $e$. ...
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Convergence in $\mathbb{Z}_p$

Here is my question: Let $\alpha_0, \dots, \alpha_{p-1} \in \mathbb{Z}_p$ be such that $\alpha_i \equiv i \pmod{p}$ for all $i = 0,\dots, p-1$. Show that, for any $x\in \mathbb{Z}_{p}$, you can find ...
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An application of the Weak Approximation theorem - Artin-Whaples Approximation Theorem

Let us recall the weak approximation theorem from Valuation theory in Algebraic Number Theory. Let K be a field, and let $|\cdot|_{1},\cdots, |\cdot|_n$ be pairwise non-equivalent nontrivial ...
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Is the endomorphism of $\mathbb{Z}_{p}$ induced by multiplication by $p^{n}$ surjective?

Let $p$ be a prime number. Is it true that $p^{n}\mathbb{Z}_{p}\cong\mathbb{Z}_{p}$ as additive groups for any natural number $n$ and if so, why? Here, $\mathbb{Z}_{p}$ denotes the ring of $p$-adic ...
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computation of an $H^2$

Let $p$ be a prime number and $\mathbb{Q}_p$ the field of $p$-adic numbers. Let $G_p$ be the absolute Galois group of $\mathbb{Q}_p$ and fix an absolutely irreducible representation $$ \rho : G_p \to ...
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1answer
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Discriminant of Finite-Dimensional Extension of $\mathbb{Q}_p$

For an $n$-dimensional extension $K$ of $\mathbb{Q}_p$, we have $K$'s "ring of integers" $\mathcal O_K$ and its uniformizer $\varpi$. We also have the ring of $p$-adic integers $\mathbb{Z}_p$, with ...
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Ramification group fixing an unramified extension

For a Galois extension of local fields $L/K$ with Galois group $G$, define the ramification groups $G_i$ by $$G_i = \{ \sigma \in G : \nu_{L}(\sigma(x) - x) \geq i+1 \text{ } \forall x \in ...
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Ring of the residual classes $(\Bbb Z/p\Bbb Z)^\times$? $p$-adic integer?

In a recent question we raised the theorem: for a given prime $p$ and a given power $m$ the representation of any positive integer $n\in \Bbb N$ in the form: $$ n=(a_u p - b_u) \; p^m$$ is unique ...
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connect p-adic expansion and fundamental theorem of arithmetic?

On the way to explain a $p$-adic expansion, we consider, when dealing with natural numbers, if we take $p$ to be a fixed prime number, then any positive integer expansion in the form can be written as ...
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How to understand the infraconnected set

I begin to study some p-adic analysis. I find it is hard to understand the infraconnected set. Who can give me some examples to show it? Is it relate with the connected set in the topology? I also ...
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Structure of p-adic units

I am trying to understand the structure of the $p$-adic units. I know that we can write $$\mathbb{Z}_p^\times \cong \mu_{p-1} \times 1 + p\mathbb{Z}_p,$$ where $\mu_n$ are the $n$th roots of unity in ...
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124 views

Where do $p$-adic numbers and $p$-Sylow theory both appear?

Both $p$-adic numbers and $p$-Sylow theory are by design "arithmetic" ways of "localizing," so it stands to reason they might be in cahoots in certain contexts. Are they?
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p-adic Lie groups vs. algebraic groups over $\mathbb{Q}_p$

I am somewhat confused about the following two concepts and the relations between them- One concept is a Lie group $G$ over the $p$-adic field. This is defined in a similar fashion to a (real) Lie ...
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Tensor product of a number field $K$ and the $p$-adic integers

In a paper by J. Jones and D. Roberts (http://math.la.asu.edu/~jj/localfields/database.pdf) we are introduced to an isomorphism $K \otimes \mathbb{Q}_p \cong \prod\limits_{i=1}^g K_{p,i}$, where $K$ ...