In the ZF set theory ordinals are transitive sets which are well-ordered by $\in$. They are canonical representatives for well-orderings under order-isomorphism. In addition to the intriguing ordinal arithmetics, ordinals give a sturdy backbone to models of ZF and operate as a direct extension of ...

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Exponentiation on order types

How is exponentiation defined on order types? We know that $2^\omega=\omega$. What is $2^{\omega^*}$? Is it $\omega^*$? $\eta$? $\lambda$? I'm guessing $\eta$, but I'm not sure. $\omega$ is the ...
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10 views

Can the direction of failing distributivity on ordinals be turned into an inequality?

Is it true that for all ordinals $\alpha_1, \alpha_2, \beta$: $$(\alpha_1 + \alpha_2)\cdot\beta \leq \alpha_1\cdot\beta+\alpha_2\cdot\beta\;?$$
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16 views

If $x,y$ are ordinals and $x \cong y$ then $x = y$

If $x,y$ are ordinals and $x \cong y$ then $x = y$ The proof goes as follows; Suppose $f$ is an isomorphism between $x$ and $y$ then show $f$ is the identity map. Assume that $f$ is not the ...
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1answer
56 views

Is this the real definition of an ordinal number?

I have to prove that if $\alpha$ is ordinal and $\beta \in \alpha$ then $\beta$ is oridinal. To do this I wanted to prove that for every $x\in\beta$, $x\in\alpha$. This seems like it should be true, ...
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1answer
17 views

Show $\alpha$ is a limit ordinal $\leftrightarrow \alpha \neq 0$ and $\cup \alpha = \alpha$

$\alpha$ is a limit ordinal $\leftrightarrow \alpha \neq 0$ and $\cup \alpha = \alpha$ Sorry if this question has been asked already but I couldn't find it on this site. I assume by definition ...
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1answer
29 views

Prove $\alpha+\beta=\beta$ if $\alpha < \beta$

$\alpha$ and $\beta$ are ordinal numbers and $\beta$ is limit ordinal. I assume the proof is relatively simple because it's been omitted in my textbook. Could someone also provide an intuitive way to ...
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1answer
22 views

Difference between a criteria of well-ordered and transitive in terms of an ordinal?

From what I gather a set $x$ is $transitive$ if whenever $y \in z , z \in x \rightarrow y \in x$ And one of the properties of a well-ordered set is that $x \in y , y \in z \rightarrow x \in z$ Now ...
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237 views

Uses of ordinals

Are there any interesting theorems outside of set theory that use ordinals in their proofs? The only example I know of is Goodstein's theorem, and I haven't been able to find anything else. In other ...
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39 views

Order preserving injection from first uncountable ordinal to the real numbers

Can there be an ordering preserving (1-1) map $f \colon \langle\aleph_1,\in\rangle \rightarrow \langle\mathbb R, \lt\rangle$? I remember that if $f$ is order preserving then consider the following ...
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50 views

if $\alpha\leq\beta$ then there is $\gamma$ such as $\alpha+\gamma=\beta$

I'm trying to prove the statement in the title, a.e existence of ordinal substraction. I think it can be done with transfinite induction, but do any of you have a better/easier way? thanks
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1answer
43 views

Epsilon number cannot be a successor?

Let $\omega$ be the canonical representation of the natural numbers. A epsilon number $\alpha$ is a ordinal number such that $\alpha=\omega^\alpha$ holds. I suspect that a epsilon number cannot be a ...
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1answer
64 views

Prove that $\forall\alpha\geq\omega$, $|L_\alpha|=|\alpha|$ without AC

Without using Axiom of Choice, prove that $$\forall\alpha\geq\omega,~~|L_\alpha|=|\alpha|,$$ in which $\alpha$ is an ordinals, $\omega$ is the set of natural numbers, $L_\alpha$ is the $\alpha$-th ...
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2answers
51 views

Subsets of the rationals order isomorphic to transfinite ordinals

Let $\langle\mathbb Q,\lt\rangle$ be the set of rational numbers with the usual $\lt$ ordering. Find subsets $A$ and $B$ of $\mathbb Q$ which, with the usual ordering, are order isomorphic to the ...
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27 views

For which countable successor ordinals $\alpha$ is the reverse order isomorphic to the ideals of a PID ordered by inclusion?

Let $\alpha$ be a countable successor ordinal and $\alpha^{\mathrm{op}}$ the reverse order. For which $\alpha$ is there a commutative principal ideal ring $R$ such that the ideals of $R$ form a chain ...
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1answer
27 views

Proof of the Principle of Transfinite Induction for On

Principle of Transfinite Induction for On: If $C\neq\varnothing, C\subseteq$ On then $\exists\alpha\in C\forall\beta\in C[\alpha\in\beta\vee\alpha=\beta]$ Proof: (1) As $C\neq\varnothing$, let ...
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1answer
56 views

Take $S$ to be a set of ordinals, show $\cup S=\sup(S)$

Ok so firstly I can see how this makes sense. If you have say: $S=\{0,1,2\}$ with $0 = \emptyset, 1 = \{0\} = \{\emptyset\}, 2 = \{0,1\} = \{\emptyset,\{\emptyset\}\}$. $$\cup S = ...
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1answer
38 views

Can set containing not only all ordinal numbers exist?

I've always seen the same proof of non-existence of set of all ordianal numbers. It was based on a fact that such a set would fit into definition of ordinal number, and the set itself would be an ...
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48 views

What is an undefinable ordinal? How large are the least undefinable ordinal and supremum of all undefinable ordinals?

What does it mean to say that a particular ordinal/cardinal number is "definable"? Where and how do we define this "definability"? If there are undefinable ordinals/cardinals, how large are the least ...
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2answers
31 views

Open neighborhoods in ordinals with the order topology

While learning about ordinals, my teacher made some remarks about any ordinal α being equipped with the order topology, and some facts, one of which was basically that the finite ordinals and ω are ...
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3answers
64 views

Is every countable ordinal homeomorphic to a subspace of $\mathbb R$?

I know that every countable ordinal is isomorphic to some subset of $\mathbb R$ as ordered sets. Is it also the case that every countable ordinal (with the order topology) is homeomorphic to some ...
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81 views

Is the limit of a recursive sequence of recursive ordinals itself a recursive ordinal?

Is the limit of a recursive sequence of recursive ordinals itself a recursive ordinal? If so, is there a nice proof of this?
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1answer
39 views

A Question about cardinal numbers and homeomorphism

I'm studying my set theory lessons and I don't know if the following statement about homeomorphism between ordinal spaces is true or not and why. "If $\kappa$ is an infinite cardinal number then ...
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1answer
59 views

Lindelöf subspaces in the ordinal space [closed]

How can we describe all Lindelöf subspaces of $$X = \omega_1 \times ( \omega_1+1).$$ Where ω1 is the first uncountable ordinal.
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85 views

$H(\kappa)$ a model of all the axioms of ZFC for $\kappa$ not inaccessible

Is this possible? For each cardinal $\kappa$, we can define $H(\kappa) = \{ x \mid |trclx| < \kappa\}$, where trcl is the transitive closure, and $|A|$ is the cardinality of $A$. For every regular ...
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1answer
46 views

Compactness of second-countability of $\omega$X$\omega_1$

Please discuss the following properties of the product space consisting of $\omega$X$\omega_1$: Is it compact? Is it 2nd countable? $\omega$ is the first infinite ordinal and $\omega_1$ is the ...
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2answers
55 views

Showing that a Transitive Set of Transitive Sets is an Ordinal

My definition of an ordinal is a transitive set that's well ordered by $\in$. Let $\alpha$ be a transitive set all of whose elements are transitive sets. Since every element of $\alpha$ is transitive, ...
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3answers
59 views

Confused about transfinite induction

QUESTION: I seem to be confused about how transfinite induction is carried out. I have looked at several examples and they seem to follow a procedure consisting of grounding the induction, proving the ...
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11 views

Is the following the idea behind the antisymetric property of the order on ordanals

I am trying to understand the claim that the anti-symmetry property of the order on ordinals is a consequence of the fact that no well ordered set is order isomorphic to one of its segments. Could ...
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2answers
47 views

unbounded class of ordinals not a set

A class $C$ of ordinals is unbounded just in case ∀α∈ORD (the class of all ordinals), there exists a β ∈ $C$ with α ∈ β. How would I show that no unbounded class of ordinals is a set? Do I need to ...
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1answer
36 views

Countable transitive model of ZFC and $\mathcal{P}(\omega)$

Let $\mathbb{M}$ be a countable transitive model of ZFC. I understand that $\omega^\mathbb{M} = \omega$ but $\mathcal{P}(\omega)^\mathbb{M} \neq \mathcal{P}(\omega)$, for ...
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1answer
43 views

for $x\in V_{\omega}$ is then $\operatorname{rank}(\operatorname{tc}(x))=\operatorname{rank}(x)$?

Let $x\in V_{\omega}$, is $\operatorname{rank}(\operatorname{tc}(x))=\operatorname{rank}(x)$? while $\operatorname{tc}(x)$ is the minimal transitive set ${a}$ such that $x\subseteq a$ i what to show ...
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109 views

Ordinal exponentiation identity with natural sum of exponents

This is related to a previous question on How to think about ordinal exponentiation? One possible definition for the natural product $\alpha\otimes\beta$ of ordinals is based on Cantor Normal Forms ...
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2answers
86 views

Embedding $\omega_1$ in the hyperreals

I've been trying to show that there exists a subset of the hyperreals which has order type $\omega_1$, that is, that there exists a subset $A \subseteq {}^*\mathbb{R}$ for which there is an order ...
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40 views

Least ordinal $\alpha$ that $\omega^\alpha > \beta$ is a successor ordinal

Let $\beta$ be an ordinal. The least ordinal $\alpha$ that $\omega^\alpha > \beta$ is a successor ordinal. This is true, but I'm not sure why. Can someone give me a hint?
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1answer
69 views

How to deal with probability problems in proper class sample spaces?

Here my focus is mainly on $Ord$ and questions such as: An ordinal is chosen by random. What is the probability of the event that it is a cardinal number? A coin is tossed proper class many ...
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130 views

Is $0^\omega=1$?

According to a definition of ordinal exponentiation defined in Kunen's Set Theory: An Introduction to Independence Proofs (pp. 26), we define $$\begin{align} \alpha^0&=1\\ ...
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1answer
31 views

to show that there is no injection from a finite successor of finite ordinal to itself

im trying to prove this proposition let $\alpha \in \omega$ so i want to show that there is no injection (not necessarily keeps order) from $\alpha +1$ to $\alpha$ without using cardinality or the ...
6
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1answer
110 views

Why are all von Neumann ordinals contained in each other?

I'm a high school student and I'm giving a lecture in my high school math class on ordinal numbers, and I would like to prove that the von Neumann ordinals are well-ordered by set membership. The ...
6
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1answer
102 views

Regarding functions on $\omega_1$

I've been trying to prove a property that apparently all functions $g: \omega_1 \rightarrow \omega_1$ have, where $\omega_1$ is the least uncountable ordinal. For $\alpha \in \omega_1$, define ...
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1answer
53 views

Are well-orders of the same recursive length recursively isomorphic?

If the ordinal length of $A$ and $B$ is the same recursive ordinal, does it follow that there is a recursive one-one order-preserving correspondence between $A$ and $B$?
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1answer
33 views

Example of a well-ordered set with a specific order-type

An example of a set with order type $\omega^2$ is $\mathbb{N}\times\mathbb{N}$ with a lexicographic order. An example of a set with order type $\omega^3$ is ...
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1answer
68 views

(If exists) a set of all ordinals that set is an ordinal?

In set theory (ZF) an ordinal is a transitive set of transitive sets. Thus (if exists) a set of all ordinals gives a contradiction therefore there is no set of all ordinals. But what is wrong with ...
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1answer
56 views

Is $\omega_1$ metrizable?

Following Urysohn's metrization theorem, I would like to prove or disprove that $\omega_1$ is metrizable. I know it is hausdorff, but I'm not sure whether or not it is second countable, and I'm at ...
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67 views

Proving that $ω_1$ is locally compact

I'm trying to show that $ω_1$ is locally compact, but when doing so, I need to show something else, which got me a bit stuck on. I'm taking a $\alpha\in ω_1$, so $\{\alpha\}$ is an open set. Since ...
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Subsets of $ \mathbb Q $ of order type $ \omega^{\alpha}$ for each countable ordinal $\alpha $.

My introductory text in Set Theory (Stillwell) includes an exercise (6.3.1) asking for an explicit example of a subset of $ \mathbb Q $ or order type $ \omega^2 $. This seems straight forward enough. ...
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1answer
64 views

If $X$ is a subset of $\omega_{\alpha}$ such that $|X| < \aleph_{\alpha}$, then $|\omega_{\alpha} - X| = \aleph_{\alpha}$

If $\alpha=0$, then $\omega_0=\mathbb{N}$ and $\aleph_0=$ countable. So $|\omega_{\alpha} - X| = \aleph_{\alpha}$ becomes $|\mathbb{N}-X|=|\mathbb{N}|$ which is true (the function $f:\mathbb{N} ...
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45 views

Ordinals as Trees

I'm trying to understand countable ordinals and their tree representation. I understand that $\omega$ is the first "non branching tree" of infinite height. I also understand that the exponent of ...
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33 views

Comprehending ordinals: from $\omega^\omega$ through $\omega^{\omega^2}$ to $\varepsilon_0$

I am currently trying to comprehend ordinal numbers by finding an order on some countable set (like natural numbers or tuples of natural numbers) that is isomorphic to some ordinal. For an instance, ...
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49 views

Chinese remainder theorem for infinite equations & equations of infinities

The Chinese remainder theorem is a very well-known theorem of arithmetic and algebra. Inspired by the following paper in model theory, Li Rong Yu, Li Bo Luo - The Generalization of the Chinese ...
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81 views

A few questions on $\omega_1$

I'm trying to understand several things regarding $\omega_1$ and trying to get a better feeling of it. First question is - is $\omega_1$ a connected space? I think it isn't, but not really sure how ...