Operads are structures encoding the properties of algebras (in a very general sense), for example associativity, commutativity, unitality, and the relations between them. Their main uses lie in (abstract-algebra), (category-theory) or (algebraic-topology).

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iterated loop spaces and configuration spaces

In the lecture notes by J.P. May, The geometry of iterated loop spaces, Chapter 5, formula (1), (2) and (10), a map $$ \phi: Hom_T(X,\Omega Y)\to Hom_T(SX,Y) $$ is defined. And a map $$ ...
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Associativity of the tensor product of dendroidal sets

For any smal category $A$, I shall write $\widehat A$ for the category $[A^{\text op}, \mathbf{Set}]$ of presheaves on $A$, and $y_A\colon A \to \widehat A$ for the Yoneda embedding relative to $A$. ...
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Why do configuration spaces not form an operad?

I have seen in multiple sources that the collection of configuration spaces $\{Conf(n,m)\}_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ where $$Conf(n,m)=\{(x_1, \ldots ,x_n) \in (\mathbb{R}^m)^n | x_i \neq x_j \text{ if } i ...
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$E_{\infty}$ spaces are $A_{\infty}$ spaces

While studying the well-known "Geometry of Iterated Loop Spaces", I found this corollary which is not completely clear to me. (By $\mathcal{M}$ is meant the operad given by $\mathcal{M}(j):=\Sigma_j$, ...
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Colored operads as finitely essentially algebraic theory.

I call a planar operad what is also called planar (multi-)coloured operad or multicategory and symmetric operad a symmetric multicategory or symmetric (multi-)colored operad. I have two questions ...
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What is the meaning of “Homotopy of Little disc Operads”

I want to understand what means the homotopy of the little discs operad. I'm starting to research in this area and I have some questions. 1) I don't understand why little discs operad is a ...
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S-modules and Schur functors

I am reading the book "Algebraic Operads" by Loday and Vallette. (I will refer to their version 0.999 here : http://math.unice.fr/~brunov/Operads.pdf) In Chapter 5, they define an $\mathbb{S}$-module ...
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Spaces homotopy equivalent to $A_{\infty}$-spaces

I ask this question after reading Peter May's "Geometry of Iterated Loop Spaces", where the problem is definitely hinted at but I couldn't find a definite answer. Recall a symmetric operad ...
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Why are the algebras of the associative operad unital?

According to the n-lab page: The associative operad Assoc is an operad which is generated by a binary operation $\Theta$ satisfying $$\Theta\circ(\Theta,1)=\Theta\circ(1,\Theta)$$ It then ...
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There is no “operad of fields”

I've read the following proof-less claim: there is no operad such that the algebras over it are fields. We can make that precise by asking whether there's an operad $\mathcal{P}$ in abelian groups ...
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Why is an $E_\infty$-operad a kind of ''strictification'' for a non-commutative operation?

A topological space $X$ which is an algebra over an $E_\infty$-operad $E$ consists of a sequence of maps $$ \mu_n':E(n)\times X^n\to X $$ with compatibility conditions. The spaces $E(n)$ are ...
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Γ-spaces and operads

I'm looking for a comprehensible reference that explains how $\Gamma$-spaces are related to $E_{\infty}$-operads. I've found some old publications but was hoping there are better references out there. ...
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Why is the recognition principle important?

The recognition principle basically states that (under some conditions) a topological space $X$ has the weak homotopy type of some $\Omega^k Y$ iff it is an $E_k$-algebra (ie. an algebra over the ...
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Are groups algebras over an operad?

I'm trying to understand a little bit about operads. I think I understand that monoids are algebras over the associative operad in sets, but can groups be realised as algebras over some operad? In ...