Questions on more advanced topics of number theory. Consider first if (elementary-number-theory) might be a more appropriate tag before adding this tag.

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1k views

Is this similarity to the Fourier transform of the von Mangoldt function real?

Mathematica knows that the logarithm of $n$ is: $$\log(n) = \lim\limits_{s \rightarrow 1} \zeta(s)\left(1 - \frac{1}{n^{(s - 1)}}\right)$$ The von Mangoldt function should then be: ...
29
votes
0answers
530 views

Gross-Zagier formulae outside of number theory

(Edit: I have asked this question on MO.) The Gross-Zagier formula and various variations of it form the starting point in most of the existing results towards the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer ...
23
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0answers
150 views

How many non-rational complex numbers $x$ have the property that $x^n$ and $(x+1)^n$ are rational?

In this answer, I proved the following statement: For each positive integer $n$, there are finitely many non-rational complex numbers $x$ such that $x^n$ and $(x+1)^n$ are rational. These complex ...
21
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157 views
+50

Is There An Injective Cubic Polynomial $\mathbb Z^2 \rightarrow \mathbb Z$?

Earlier, I was curious about whether a polynomial mapping $\mathbb Z^2\rightarrow\mathbb Z$ could be injective, and if so, what the minimum degree of such a polynomial could be. I've managed to ...
21
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0answers
461 views

On Shanks' quartic approximation $\pi \approx \frac{6}{\sqrt{3502}}\ln(2u)$

In Mathworld's "Pi Approximations", (line 58), Weisstein mentions one by the mathematician Daniel Shanks that differs by a mere $10^{-82}$, $$\pi \approx ...
20
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241 views

Homogeneous forms of degree $n$ in $n$ indeterminates over $\mathbb{Z}$: which ones come from the norm of a number field?

Is there a characterization of the homogeneous forms of degree $n$ in $n$ indeterminates over $\mathbb{Z}$ which occur as the norm of some algebraic number ring with a suitable $\mathbb{Z}$-basis? ...
19
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415 views

Dedekind Sum Congruences

For $a,b,c \in \mathbb{N}$, let $a^{\prime} = \gcd(b,c)$, $b^{\prime} = \gcd(a,c)$, $c^{\prime} = \gcd(a,b)$ and $d = a^{\prime} b^{\prime} c^{\prime}$. Define $\mathfrak{S}(a,b,c) = a^{\prime} ...
18
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506 views

Definitive source about Dirichlet finally proving the Unit Theorem in the Sistine Chapel

There is a remark one can find in various books or survey articles (e.g., page 49 of Helmut Koch's "Number Theory: Algebraic Numbers and Algebraic Functions") saying Dirichlet figured out a proof of ...
17
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133 views

Irreducibility of cyclotomic polynomials via schemes

A few months ago, someone told me there existed a scheme theoretic proof of the irreducibility of cyclotomic polynomials. I've tried coming up with a proof, and when that didn't really yield anything ...
17
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346 views

If $\beta=0.{a_1}^{k}{a_2}^{k}{a_3}^{k}\cdots\in\mathbb Q$, then $\alpha=0.a_1a_2a_3\cdots\in\mathbb Q$?

Question : For every even $k\ge 4$, is the following $(\star)$ true? $$\begin{align}\text{If $\beta=0.{a_1}^{k}{a_2}^{k}{a_3}^{k}\cdots\in\mathbb Q$, then $\alpha=0.a_1a_2a_3\cdots\in\mathbb ...
16
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306 views
+50

On the problem of polynomial bijection from $\mathbb Q\times\mathbb Q$ to $\mathbb Q$

The question titled "Polynomial bijection from $\mathbb Q\times\mathbb Q$ to $\mathbb Q$" which was posed on MathOverflow attracted quite a lot of attention (and may be the question with most wrong ...
16
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272 views

Combinatorial Interpretation of a Certain Product of Factorials

Let $\mu$ denote the Moebius function. What is a combinatorial interpretation of the following integer, \begin{align} \prod_{d \mid n} d!^{\,\mu(n/d)}, \end{align} where the product is taken over ...
14
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289 views

Irrationality of $\displaystyle\sum_{p\in\mathbb{P}} \frac{1}{2^{p}}$

Let $\mathbb{P}$ be the set of prime numbers, and consider $m=\displaystyle\sum_{p\in\mathbb{P}} \frac{1}{2^{p}}$. Is $m$ irrational? In the following paper, the author recalls several sufficient ...
14
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2k views

What are some strong algebraic number theory PhD programs?

I am currently applying for PhD programs in the US. My main interests are number theory and algebra. More specifically, I am interested in algebraic number theory (number fields, Galois groups, ...
14
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214 views

What is Spec of the Adeles?

Let $K$ be a global field and $A_K$ the ring of adeles. What are the prime ideals of $A_K$? I have been told that a full proof of this is quite subtle, but have been unable to find a reference ...
14
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529 views

$f(x)=\sum_{t}{x \choose t}{n-x \choose k-t}$ - even or odd?

The following function popped in my research: $$f(x)=\sum_{\array{0\le t\le k \\ t\equiv_p a}}{x \choose t}{n-x \choose k-t}$$ Where: n,k are natural numbers and $k\le n$. t is taken over all ...
13
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292 views

Using the Brun Sieve to show very weak approximation to twin prime conjecture

I recently stumbled across MIT OCW for analytic number theory. As a budding number theorist, my ears perked up and I looked through some of the material haphazardly. I don't really know much about ...
13
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331 views

Help with $x^4+y^4+z^4 = 1$?

There are exactly 20 known primitive solutions to, $$a^4+b^4+c^4 = d^4\tag{1}$$ with $d<10^{10}$. Noam Elkies (who kindly answered Question 1 below) showed that the form, $$(x+y)^4+(x-y)^4+z^4 = ...
12
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0answers
289 views

Which harmonic numbers have prime numerators?

Let $$1+\frac12+\frac13+\cdots+\frac1n=\frac{q}{p}$$ with $(p,q)=1$ and $q$ is a prime number. (I) Prove or disprove that the quantity of $n$ is limited (II) Find all of the $n$ I use the matlab ...
12
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597 views

Are there unique solutions for $n=\sum_{j=1}^{g(k)} a_j^k$?

Edward Waring, asks whether for every natural number $n$ there exists an associated positive integer s such that every natural number is the sum of at most $s$ $k$th powers of natural numbers ...
12
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503 views

The radical solution of a solvable 17th degree equation

(The question is at the bottom of the post.) Here's a "natural" solvable 17-th deg eqn with small coefficients: $$\begin{align*} x^{17}-6 x^{16}&-24 x^{15}-42 x^{14}-31 x^{13}-23 x^{12}-7 ...
12
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1k views

Proof of Legendre's theorem on the ternary quadratic form

Theorem (Legendre): Let $a,b,c$ coprime positive integers, then $ax^2 + by^2 = cz^2$ has a nontrivial solution in rationals $x,y,z$ iff ...
11
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0answers
114 views

Algorithm to find primes up to $n$ in $O\left(\frac{n}{\log n}\right)$?

Consider the problem of given an integer $n$, generating a list of the primes not greater than $n$. An optimized version of the Sieve of Eratosthenes can do such task in $O(n)$, while the more modern ...
11
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320 views

Two questions about weakly convergent series related to $\sin(n^2)$ and Weyl's inequality

By using partial summation and Weyl's inequality, it is not hard to show that the series $\sum_{n\geq 1}\frac{\sin(n^2)}{n}$ is convergent. Is is true that ...
10
votes
0answers
85 views

How find all postive integer number such $(n+k)\nmid \binom{2n}{n}$

Question: Find the all integer $k$,such there are exist infinitely many $n$ such $$(n+k)\nmid \binom{2n}{n}$$ This is china 2014 (CMO problem 4),it's have been end exam three hours ago. I ...
10
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0answers
97 views

A sequence that avoids both arithmetic and geometric progressions

Sequences that avoid arithmetic progressions have been studied, e.g., "Sequences Containing No 3-Term Arithmetic Progressions," Janusz Dybizbański, 2012, journal link. I started to explore sequences ...
10
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290 views

Cramér's Model - “The Prime Numbers and Their Distribution” - Part 1

I was reading "The Prime Numbers and Their Distribution" by Gérald Tenenbaum and Michel Mendès France, the section about Cramér's Model, and I couldn't prove a couple of results. I would like to start ...
10
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156 views

CFT via Brauer groups vs via ideles

I am interested in the relationship between the following two versions of CFT: Version 1: (Brauer Group Version) Let $K$ be a number field. One constructs, for every finite place $v$ of $K$, a map ...
10
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0answers
195 views

Curves and Sums-of-Powers Representations

Jacobi first noticed the connection between the functions that bear his name and counting the representations of sums-of-squares, \begin{eqnarray} \theta_{3}^{n}(q) = \left( \sum_{k \in \mathbb{Z}} ...
9
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162 views

Continued fraction with prime reciprocal entries

We know that the reciprocals of the primes form a divergent series. We also know that a necessary and sufficient condition for a continued fraction to converge is that its entries diverge as a series. ...
9
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0answers
421 views

Why does this identity equal the number of primes?

Can someone explain why this identity gives the number of primes? I don't understand it. $D_{0,a}(n) = 1$ $D_{k,a}(n) = \displaystyle\sum_{j=1}^{k} \binom{k}{j}\sum_{m=a+1}^{\lfloor ...
9
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0answers
223 views

On Grunwald-Wang theorem

Consider (roughtly speaking) the following statements (the Grunwald-Wang theorem) Theorem 1 (see here for details Wiki): Let $K$ be a number field and $x \in K$. Then under some conditions : $x$ is ...
9
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0answers
219 views

Equidistribution of roots of prime cyclotomic polynomials to prime moduli

Here is a relevant - and longstanding, I'm told - conjecture. Let $f \in \mathbb{Z}[x]$ be irreducible and of degree > 1. Set $E_p = \{x/p \: | \: 0 \leq x < p, f(x) \equiv 0 \: (p) \}$ = { ...
8
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61 views

If $p\equiv 1,9 \pmod{20}$ is a prime number, then there exist $a,b\in\mathbb{Z}$ such that $p=a^{2}+5b^{2}$.

I have to prove that if $p\equiv 1,9 \pmod{20}$ is a prime number then there exist $a,b\in\mathbb{Z}$ such that $p=a^{2}+5b^{2}$. I consider the quadratic field $\mathbb{Q}(\sqrt{-5})$, with ring of ...
8
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274 views

Identities for Sieve of Eratosthenes collisions.

Edited to define the last two tables Three Questions: 1) Is all notation correct? 2) Is there a symbol for flatten? 3) How would we prove the identities: the sum of the divisors in the symmetric ...
8
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0answers
138 views

Relationship between intersection and compositum of fields

This issue came up in a number theory lecture today. Let $K$ be a number field and let $L/K$ be an abelian (finite Galois) extension. Then there exists a primitive $m$th root of unity $\zeta_m$ so ...
8
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98 views

Biggest powers NOT containing all digits.

Let $m>1$ be a natural number with $m \not\equiv 0 \pmod{10}$ Consider the powers $m^n$ , for which there is at least one digit not occurring in the decimal representation. Is there a largest $n$ ...
8
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0answers
95 views

Asymptotics of the lower approximation of a pair of natural numbers by a coprime pair

When we are working, for instance, in combinatorics or graph theory, sometimes we can have the following situation. For each number $m$ from an infinite set $\mathbb M\subset\mathbb N$ we can ...
8
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0answers
182 views

What numbers are integrally represented by $4 x^2 + 2 x y + 7 y^2 - z^3$

EDIT: a selection of material relevant to this problem is available at INHOMOGENEOUS In December 2010 my question appeared in the M.A.A. Monthly, show that $4 x^2 + 2 x y + 7 y^2 - z^3 \neq \pm 2 ...
8
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0answers
274 views

Asymptotic FLT $\implies$FLT using ABC Conjecture

Edit: I'm beginning to suspect I either misread the sources or perhaps something wasn't stated, but it's my guess now that there is no nontrivial way of showing the ABC conjecture implies Fermat's ...
8
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0answers
169 views

Is there some exact form of $n$ for the number of $(i,j,k)$ satisfying $ijk = (n-i)(n-j)(n-k)$

For any positive integer $n$, $i,j,k$ are also positive integers, and $0 <i,j,k < n$. How many solutions of the form $(i,j,k)$ are there for the equation $ijk = (n-i)(n-j)(n-k)$?
8
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210 views

Weak version of Fortune's conjecture

Let $p\#=2\cdot3\cdot5\cdots p$ denote the primorial and $N(x)$ the smallest prime greater than or equal to $x$. Then Fortune's conjecture is that $N(p\#+2)-p\#$ is prime for all $p$. (Heuristic: to ...
7
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0answers
138 views

Is it true that $\gamma_{\lfloor\log\Gamma(x)\rfloor}\sim 2\pi x$?

I realise that Gram points can approximate the imaginary part on the $x$th zeta zero $(\gamma_x)$ accurately, and indeed, Guilherme França, André LeClair give another formula, namely ...
7
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0answers
142 views

Has category theory solved major math problems?

All: I am new to category theory. Just wonder if category theory has solved any major math problems for other mathematics fields? or what are the major applications of the category theory ? ...
7
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136 views

What transcendental numbers are produced by $\sin{\alpha}$ when $\alpha$ is algebraic/constructible/rational (in radians)?

I know that by Lindemann–Weierstrass theorem(LW) sine and cosine of non-zero algebraic numbers (in radians) produce results that are transcendental. My question is what are the transcendentals ...
7
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78 views

Motivation for Weil pairing

The Weil pairing $$e_\phi:E[\phi]\times E'[\hat{\phi}]\to \mu_n$$ for an elliptic curve is defined as follows. Let $\phi:E\to E'$ be an isogeny of degree $n$ and $\hat\phi:E'\to E$ be the dual ...
7
votes
0answers
134 views

Solution of $\large\binom{x}{n}+\binom{y}{n}=\binom{z}{n}$ with $n\geq 3$

I found this question in an old problem set. There's no hint or solution mentioned. For $n \geq 3$, prove or disprove the existence of $(x,y,z) \in \mathbb N^3, ...
7
votes
0answers
172 views

Adelic/Idelic method for number fields

I'm searching for a place where is developed all the machinery of adeles and ideles of a number field; the functional equation for the zeta functions is gained by idelic integration, and it's seen the ...
7
votes
0answers
111 views

Proving that $\sigma_7(n) = \sigma_3(n) + 120 \sum_{m=1}^{n-1} \sigma_3(m)\sigma_3(n-m)$ without using modular forms?

This problem appears as a (starred!) exercise in D. Zagier's notes on modular forms. I have to admit that I have no idea how to do it. Here, $\sigma_k(n) =\sum_{d\mid n} d^k$, as usual. This ...
7
votes
0answers
161 views

If $p$, $q$ are naturals, solve $p^3-q^5=(p+q)^2$.

In If $p,q$ are prime, solve $p^3-q^5=(p+q)^2$., the author asks to solve the equation $x^3-y^5=(x+y)^2$ for primes $p$ and $q$. A proof is given that $p=7, q=3$ is the only solution. In this ...